107 relations: Actinobacteria, Actinoplanes, Adhesive, Alkaloid, Anaphylaxis, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Anti-predator adaptation, Antigen, Antinutrient, Aqueous solution, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepias, Asclepias humistrata, Asteraceae, Balloon, Cannabaceae, Castilla elastica, Catheter, Cell (biology), Cell wall, Chewing gum, Chicle, Cichorieae, Clade, Clothing, Coagulation, Coalescence (chemistry), Coating, Codeine, Colloid, Condom, Convergent evolution, Cortex (botany), Cryptostegia grandiflora, Dicotyledon, Dispersion polymerization, Dyera costulata, Embryo, Emulsion, Emulsion polymerization, Euphorbiaceae, Family, Flowering plant, Fluid, Fruit, Glove, Gutta-percha, Heliantheae, Herbivore, Hevea, ..., Hevea brasiliensis, Immunoassay, Insect, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Lactarius, Lactarius deliciosus, Latex allergy, Latex beads, Latex clothing, Laticifer, Leaf, Manilkara bidentata, Mattress, Meristem, Micromonospora, Microorganism, Microparticle, Monarch butterfly, Monocotyledon, Monomer, Moraceae, Morphine, Natural gum, Natural rubber, New York Botanical Garden, Nocardia, Opium, Papaver somniferum, Papaveraceae, Papaverine, Parthenium argentatum, Pinophyta, Plant stem, Polymer, Polymerization, Protein, Pteridophyte, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Resin, Root, Rubber glove, Sap, Scratchcard, Slug, Spina bifida, Starch, Streptomyces, Styrene, Sugar, Surfactant, Swim cap, Tannin, Taraxacum kok-saghyz, The American Naturalist, Vegetable oil, Vulcanization, Vytex Natural Rubber Latex. Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria.
Actinoplanes is a genus in the family Micromonosporaceae.
An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics is an annual scientific journal published by Annual Reviews.
Anti-predator adaptations are mechanisms developed through evolution that assist prey organisms in their constant struggle against predators.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antinutrients are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
According to APG II, the Asclepiadaceae, commonly known as milkweed family, is a former plant family now treated as a subfamily (subfamily Asclepiadoideae) in the Apocynaceae (Bruyns 2000).
Asclepias L. (1753), the milkweeds, is an American genus of herbaceous perennial, dicotyledonous plants that contains over 140 known species.
Asclepias humistrata, the sandhill milkweed, is a species of milkweed plant.
Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite,Great Basin Wildflowers, Laird R. Blackwell, 2006, p. 275 or sunflower family) is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae).
A balloon is a flexible bag that can be inflated with a gas, such as helium, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, oxygen, air or water.
Cannabaceae is a small family of flowering plants.
Castilla elastica, the Panama rubber tree, is a tree native to the tropical areas of Mexico, Central America, and northern South America.
In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
Chewing gum is a soft, cohesive substance designed to be chewed without being swallowed.
Chicle is a natural gum traditionally used in making chewing gum and other products.
The Cichorieae (also called Lactuceae) are a tribe in the plant family Asteraceae that includes 93 genera and more than 1600 sexually reproductive species and more than 7000 apomictic species.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
In chemistry, coalescence is a process in which two phase domains of the same composition come together and form a larger phase domain.
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device, used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
A cortex is the outermost layer of a stem or root in a plant, or the surface layer or "skin" of the nonfruiting part of the body of some lichens.
Cryptostegia grandiflora, commonly known as rubber vine, is a woody-perennial vine that is native to south-west Madagascar.
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
In polymer science, dispersion polymerization is a heterogeneous polymerization process carried out in the presence of a polymeric stabilizer in the reaction medium.
Dyera costulata (syn. D. laxiflora), the jelutong, is a species of tree in the oleander subfamily.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
Emulsion polymerization is a type of radical polymerization that usually starts with an emulsion incorporating water, monomer, and surfactant.
The Euphorbiaceae, the spurge family, is a large family of flowering plants.
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
A glove (Middle English from Old English glof) is a garment covering the whole hand.
Gutta-percha refers to trees of the genus Palaquium in the family Sapotaceae and the rigid natural latex produced from the sap of these trees, particularly from Palaquium gutta.
The Heliantheae are the third-largest tribe in the sunflower family (Asteraceae).
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
Hevea is a genus of flowering plants in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae, with about ten members.
Hevea brasiliensis, the Pará rubber tree, sharinga tree, seringueira, or, most commonly, the rubber tree or rubber plant, is a tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae.
An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule or a small molecule in a solution through the use of an antibody (usually) or an antigen (sometimes).
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Lactarius is a genus of mushroom-producing, ectomycorrhizal fungi, containing several edible species.
Lactarius deliciosus, commonly known as the saffron milk cap and red pine mushroom, is one of the best known members of the large milk-cap genus Lactarius in the order Russulales.
Latex allergy is a medical term encompassing a range of allergic reactions to the proteins present in natural rubber latex.
Latex beads are the polymeric particles suspended in a latex.
Latex rubber is used in many types of clothing.
A laticifer is a type of elongated secretory cell found in the leaves and/or stems of plants that produce latex and rubber as secondary metabolites.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Manilkara bidentata is a species of Manilkara native to a large area of northern South America, Central America and the Caribbean.
A mattress is a large, rectangular pad for supporting the reclining body, designed to be used as a bed or on a bed frame, as part of a bed.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.
Micromonospora is a genus of bacteria of the family Micromonosporaceae.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Microparticles are particles between 0.1 and 100 \mum in size.
The monarch butterfly or simply monarch (Danaus plexippus) is a milkweed butterfly (subfamily Danainae) in the family Nymphalidae.
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
The Moraceae — often called the mulberry family or fig family — are a family of flowering plants comprising about 38 genera and over 1100 species.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Natural gums are polysaccharides of natural origin, capable of causing a large increase in a solution’s viscosity, even at small concentrations.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
The New York Botanical Garden (NYBG) is a botanical garden and National Historic Landmark located in the Bronx, New York City.
Nocardia is a genus of weakly staining Gram-positive, catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.
The Papaveraceae are an economically important family of about 42 genera and approximately 775 known species of flowering plants in the order Ranunculales, informally known as the poppy family.
Papaverine (Latin papaver, "poppy") is an opium alkaloid antispasmodic drug, used primarily in the treatment of visceral spasm and vasospasm (especially those involving the intestines, heart, or brain), and occasionally in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
Parthenium argentatum, commonly known as the guayule (or, as in Spanish), is a flowering shrub in the aster family, Asteraceae, that is native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A pteridophyte is a vascular plant (with xylem and phloem) that disperses spores (and lacks seeds).
Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
A rubber glove is a glove made out of rubber.
Sap is a fluid transported in xylem cells (vessel elements or tracheids) or phloem sieve tube elements of a plant.
A scratchcard (also called a scratch off, scratch ticket, scratcher, scratchie, scratch-it, scratch game, scratch-and-win, instant game or instant lottery in different places) is a small card, often made of thin paper-based card for competitions and plastic to conceal PINs, where one or more areas contain concealed information which can be revealed by scratching off an opaque covering.
Slug, or land slug, is a common name for any apparently shell-less terrestrial gastropod mollusc.
Spina bifida is a birth defect where there is incomplete closing of the backbone and membranes around the spinal cord.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Streptomyces is the largest genus of Actinobacteria and the type genus of the family Streptomycetaceae.
Styrene, also known as ethenylbenzene, vinylbenzene, and phenylethene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
A swimming cap, swim cap or bathing cap, is a tightly fitted, skin-tight garment, commonly made from silicone, latex or lycra, worn on the head by recreational and competitive swimmers.
Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenolic biomolecules that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.
Taraxacum kok-saghyz, often abbreviated as TKS and commonly referred to as the Kazakh dandelion, rubber root, or Russian dandelion, is a species of dandelion native to Kazakhstan that is notable for its production of high quality rubber.
The American Naturalist is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1867.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Vulcanization or vulcanisation is a chemical process for converting natural rubber or related polymers into more durable materials by heating them with sulfur or other equivalent curatives or accelerators.
Vytex Natural Rubber Latex (NRL) is a brand of natural rubber latex produced and marketed by Vystar Corporation.