61 relations: Abrene County, Archbishopric of Riga, Balts, Battle on the Ice, Belarus, Catholic Church, Cultural regions of Latvia, Daugava, Daugavpils, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Duchy of Livonia, Eastern Orthodox Church, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Inflanty Voivodeship, Irreligion, Ivan III of Russia, Ivan the Terrible, Krāslava, Latgalian language, Latgalians, Latgalians (modern), Latvia, LETA, Lithuania, Livonian Brothers of the Sword, Livonian Order, Livonian War, Ludza, Lutheranism, Novgorod Republic, Old Believers, Pale of Settlement, Poland, Poles in Latvia, Polish language, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polotsk, Principality of Jersika, Principality of Polotsk, Pskov Governorate, Pskov Oblast, Rāzna National Park, Rēzekne, Russia, Russian Empire, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russians in the Baltic states, Russification, Semigallia, ..., Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940, Standard language, Swedish Empire, The Holocaust, Traidenis, Truce of Yam-Zapolsky, Vidzeme, Visvaldis, Vitebsk, Vitebsk Governorate, Vitebsk Region. Expand index (11 more) » « Shrink index
The Abrene County (Abrenes apriņķis) was an administrative district in the Republic of Latvia with an area of 4292 square kilometers, formed in 1925 from the northern part of the Ludza district and the western part of the Ostrov region as the Jaunlatgale (New Latgale) district, but this was renamed Abrene in 1938.
The Archbishopric of Riga (Archiepiscopatus Rigensis, Erzbisdom Riga) was an archbishopric in Medieval Livonia, a subject to the Holy See.
The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in the area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and in the Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.
The Battle on the Ice (Ледовое побоище, Ledovoye poboish'ye); Schlacht auf dem Eise; Jäälahing; Schlacht auf dem Peipussee) was fought between the Republic of Novgorod led by prince Alexander Nevsky and the crusader army led by the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights on April 5, 1242, at Lake Peipus. The battle is notable for having been fought largely on the frozen lake, and this gave the battle its name. The battle was a significant defeat sustained by the crusaders during the Northern Crusades, which were directed against pagans and Eastern Orthodox Christians rather than Muslims in the Holy Land. The Crusaders' defeat in the battle marked the end of their campaigns against the Orthodox Novgorod Republic and other Slavic territories for the next century. The event was glorified in Sergei Eisenstein's historical drama film Alexander Nevsky, released in 1938, which created a popular image of the battle often mistaken for the real events. Sergei Prokofiev turned his score for the film into a concert cantata of the same title, with "The Battle on the Ice" being its longest movement.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cultural regions of Latvia are several areas within Latvia formally recognised as distinct from the rest of the country.
The Daugava (Daugova) or Western Dvina is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, Russia, flowing through Russia, Belarus, and Latvia and into the Gulf of Riga.
Daugavpils (Daugpiļs; Даугавпилс; see other names) is a city in southeastern Latvia, located on the banks of the Daugava River, from which the city gets its name.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
The Duchy of Livonia (Księstwo Inflanckie; Livonijos kunigaikštystė; Ducatus Ultradunensis; Üleväina-Liivimaa hertsogkond; Pārdaugavas hercogiste; also referred to as Polish Livonia or Inflanty) was a territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania—and later the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—that existed from 1561 to 1621.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Inflanty Voivodeship (Województwo inflanckie), or Livonian Voivodeship (Livonijos vaivadija), also known as Polish Livonia, was an administrative division and local government in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, since it was formed in the 1620s out of the Wenden Voivodeship and lasted until the First Partition of Poland in 1772.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Ivan III Vasilyevich (Иван III Васильевич; 22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Rus'.
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.
Krāslava (Kruoslova, Kreslau, Краслаўка, Krasław, Краслава) is a town and the administrative centre of Krāslava Municipality, in the Latgale region of Latvia.
Latgalian is spoken in Latgale, the eastern part of Latvia.
Latgalians, sometimes also Ancient Latvians (Letti, Lethi, modern; variant translations also include Latgallians, Lettigalls or Lettigallians), were an ancient Baltic tribe.
The Latgalians (latgalieši, latgalīši) are the ethnic Latvians of Latgale, who speak a distinct dialect of Latvian and share a common culture that sets them apart from other Latvians.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
LETA is the main Latvian news agency.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.
The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237.
The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia), when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.
Ludza (Lucyn, Люцин, Lyucin) is a town in the Latgalia region of eastern Latvia.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.
The Pale of Settlement (Черта́ осе́длости,, דער תּחום-המושבֿ,, תְּחוּם הַמּוֹשָב) was a western region of Imperial Russia with varying borders that existed from 1791 to 1917, in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish permanent or temporary residency was mostly forbidden.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish minority in Latvia numbers about 51,548 and (according to the Latvian data from 2011) forms 2.3% of the population of Latvia.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Polack (official transliteration), Polotsk or Polatsk (translit, translit, Połock, Polockas, Polotsk) is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River.
The principality of Jersika (Gerzika, terra Lettia, Gerzika, Zargrad, Ерсика, Герцике; also known as Лотыголa) was an early medieval Latgalian principality in eastern modern-day Latvia and one of the largest early states in Latvia before the German conquests.
The Principality of Polotsk (По́лацкае кня́ства; По́лоцкое кня́жество), also known as the Kingdom of Polotsk or the Duchy of Polotsk, was a medieval principality of the Early East Slavs.
Pskov Governorate (Псковская губерния, Pskovskaya guberniya) was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Russian Empire, which existed from 1772 until 1777 and from 1796 until 1927.
Pskov Oblast (Пско́вская о́бласть) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in the west of the country.
Rāzna National Park (Rāznas nacionālais parks) is a national park in the Latgale region of Latvia.
Rēzekne (Latgalian Rēzekne or Rēzne, Rēzekne; see other names) is a city in the Rēzekne River valley in Latgale region of eastern Latvia.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russians in the Baltic states describes self-identifying ethnic Russians and other primary Russian-speaking communities in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, commonly referred to collectively as the Baltic states.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
Semigallia, also spelled Semigalia, (Zemgale; Semgallen; Žiemgala; Semigalia; Zemgāl) is a historical region of Latvia, sometimes also including a part of Lithuania.
The Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940 refers, according to the European Court of Human Rights,European Court of Human Rights cases on Occupation of Baltic States the Government of Latvia, at Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia the United States Department of State, at state.gov and the European Union, by EU to the military occupation of the Republic of Latvia by the Soviet Union ostensibly under the provisions of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
Traidenis (Trojden, Трайдзень) (died 1282) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1270 (or 1269) till 1282.
The Truce or Treaty of Yam-Zapolsky (Ям-Запольский) or Jam Zapolski, signed on 15 January 1582 between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Tsardom of Russia, was one of the treaties that ended the Livonian War.
Vidzeme (Vidžemė, Vidūmō) is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia.
Visvaldis (Latin: Vissewalde rex de Gerzika, Russian: Всеволод) was a Latgalian nobleman, Duke of the Principality of Jersika in the 12th-13th centuries.
Vitebsk, or Vitsebsk (Ві́цебск, Łacinka: Viciebsk,; Витебск,, Vitebskas), is a city in Belarus.
Vitebsk Governorate (Витебская губерния) was an administrative unit (guberniya) of the Russian Empire, with the seat of governorship in Vitebsk.
Vitebsk Region, Vitsebsk Voblast, or Vitebsk Oblast (Ві́цебская во́бласць, Viciebskaja Vobłasć,; ˈvʲitʲɪpskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ) is a region (voblast) of Belarus with its administrative center being Vitebsk (Vitsebsk).