697 relations: Aberdeen Act, Academy Awards, Acapulco, Acoustic music, Acre (state), Africa, Afro-Latin Americans, Agroecology in Latin America, Agustín Barrios, Agustín de Iturbide, ALBA, Alejandro González Iñárritu, Alejandro Otero, Alejandro Toledo, Alejo Carpentier, Alfonso Cuarón, Alliance for Progress, Amazonas (Brazilian state), American (word), American entry into World War I, Americas, Americas (terminology), Amores perros, Andean Community, Andean states, Andes, Anglo-America, Antônio Carlos Jobim, Anti-imperialism, Antigua and Barbuda, Antonio Berni, Antonio Lauro, Antonio López de Santa Anna, Arabic, Arawakan languages, Argentina, Argentine Confederation, Argentine tango, Armando Reverón, Arte Povera, Arthur Zimmermann, Aruba, Asia, Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Latin Americans, Association of Caribbean States, Astor Piazzolla, Astrud Gilberto, Asunción, Atahualpa Yupanqui, ..., Atlantic slave trade, Augusto Roa Bastos, Autonomous University of Mexico State, Aymara language, Aymara people, Aztec codices, Aztecs, Bachata (music), Balaiada, Bandoneon, Barão Vermelho, Barsa (encyclopedia), Basse-Terre, Belize, Benito Juárez, Bernal Díaz del Castillo, Bidu Sayão, Birdman (film), Biutiful, Bogotá, Bolivarian diaspora, Bolivia, Bomba (Puerto Rico), Bossa nova, Brasília, Brazil, Brazilian Expeditionary Force, Brazilian Portuguese, BRICS, Brookings Institution, Buenos Aires, Cabanagem, Cabo San Lucas, Cacique, Caetano Veloso, Café Tacuba, Calypso music, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Cancún, Candombe, Capital city, Caracas, Caracazo, Caribbean, Caribbean Community, Carlos Carrera, Carlos Cruz-Diez, Carlos Cuarón, Carlos Fuentes, Carlos Gardel, Carlos Monsiváis, Carlos Santana, Cartagena, Colombia, Casi Casi, Castizo, Catholic Church, Cayenne, Cazuza, Celia Cruz, Central America, Central American Integration System, Central Intelligence Agency, Central Station (film), Chabuca Granda, Chavela Vargas, Chibcha language, Chichen Itza, Chile, China–Latin America relations, Chinese language, Choro, Christopher Columbus, Cinema Novo, Cinema of Argentina, Cinema of Brazil, Cinema of Cuba, Cinema of Mexico, Cinema of Puerto Rico, Cinema of the United States, City of God (2002 film), Civilization, Classical music, Claudio Arrau, Coat of arms, Code (cryptography), Cold War, Collectivity of Saint Martin, Colombia, Colonialism, Common Era, Commonwealth Caribbean, Compas, Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador, Confederation of the Equator, Conquistador, Constitutional monarchy, Constructivism (art), Coolie, Corrientes, Costa Rica, Creole language, Criollo people, Crisis in Venezuela (2012–present), Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, CSS (band), Cuba, Cuban Revolution, Cueca, Culture of Africa, Culture of Asia, Culture of Europe, Culture of France, Cumbia, Cusco, Dani Rodrik, Daniel Barenboim, Daniel Ortega, David Alfaro Siqueiros, December 2001 riots in Argentina, Demographics of Guatemala, Dependency theory, Development 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Santiago, Santiago Martínez Delgado, Santiago Metropolitan Region, Santo Domingo, São Paulo, Sculpture, Sebastián Edwards, Second French intervention in Mexico, Second Mexican Empire, Secos & Molhados, Selena, Seymour Drescher, Shakira, Simón Bolívar, Simón Díaz, Skank (band), Slavery in Brazil, Slavs, Smallpox, Soca music, Social inequality, Socialism, Socioeconomics, Soda Stereo, Son of the Bride, South America, Southern Cone, Soviet Union, Spaniards, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish language, Spanish language in the Americas, Spanish–American War, Subaltern (postcolonialism), Sucre, Sumo languages, Suriname, Surrealism, Susana Baca, Symbolism (arts), Tabaré Vázquez, Taco, Tairona, Tamale, Tegucigalpa, Thalía, The American Historical Review, The Bahamas, The Crime of Father Amaro, The Guianas, The Mangy Parrot, The Official Story, The Orphanage (film), The Secret in Their Eyes, Time zone, Titãs, Toltec, Tomás Gutiérrez Alea, Tondero, Torrijos–Carter Treaties, Totó la Momposina, Toussaint Louverture, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of Tordesillas, Trinidad and Tobago, Tupi–Guarani languages, Ukrainian language, Una aventura llamada Menudo, Unitarian Party, United Fruit Company, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations geoscheme for the Americas, United States, United States Department of the Treasury, United States dollar, United States National Security Council, United States of Latin Africa, University of North Carolina, Uruguay, Uruguayan Civil War, Uruguayan tango, UTC−02:00, UTC−03:00, UTC−04:00, UTC−04:30, UTC−05:00, UTC−06:00, UTC−07:00, UTC−08:00, Valdivia culture, Vallenato, Víctor Jara, Venezuela, Viña del Mar, Vicente Fernández, Violeta Parra, W. W. Norton & Company, Walter Mignolo, War of Independence of Brazil, Washington Consensus, Water supply and sanitation in Latin America, Welsh language, Western culture, Western Hemisphere, White Latin Americans, Wild Tales (film), William Walker (filibuster), Woodrow Wilson, Workers' self-management, World Bank, World Bank Group, World Tourism Organization, World War I, World War II, Y Tu Mamá También, Yanomami, Yiddish, Yma Sumac, Zambo, Zapatista Army of National Liberation, Zimmermann Telegram, Zouk, 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état, 1998–2002 Argentine great depression, 2000s commodities boom, 2009 Honduran coup d'état, 2010 Haiti earthquake, 4th Summit of the Americas. Expand index (647 more) » « Shrink index
The Aberdeen Act of 1845 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (citation 8 & 9 Vict c. 122) passed during the reign Queen Victoria on August 9.
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
Acapulco de Juárez, commonly called Acapulco, is a city, municipality and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, south of Mexico City.
Acoustic music is music that solely or primarily uses instruments that produce sound through acoustic means, as opposed to electric or electronic means; typically the phrase refers to that made by acoustic string instruments.
Acre is a state located in the northern region of Brazil.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Afro-Latin Americans or Black Latin Americans refers to Latin American people of significant African ancestry.
Agroecology is an applied science that involves the adaptation of ecological concepts to the structure, performance, and management of sustainable agroecosystems.
Agustín Pío Barrios (also known as Agustín Barrios Mangoré and Nitsuga—Agustin spelled backwards—Mangoré; May 5, 1885 – August 7, 1944) was a Paraguayan virtuoso classical guitarist and composer, largely regarded as one of the greatest performers and most prolific composers for the guitar.
Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (27 September 178319 July 1824), also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician.
ALBA or ALBA-TCP, formally the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) or the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America - Peoples’ Trade Treaty (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América - Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos), is an intergovernmental organization based on the idea of the social, political and economic integration of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Alejandro González Iñárritu (credited since 2014 as Alejandro G. Iñárritu; born August 15, 1963) is a Mexican film director, producer, and screenwriter.
Alejandro Otero (El Manteco, Bolívar, March 7, 1921 — Caracas, August 13, 1990) was a Venezuelan painter of Geometric abstraction, a sculptor, a writer and a cultural promoter.
Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique (born 28 March 1946) is a Peruvian politician who served as the 63rd President of Peru, from 2001 to 2006.
Alejo Carpentier y Valmont (December 26, 1904 – April 24, 1980) was a Cuban novelist, essayist, and musicologist who greatly influenced Latin American literature during its famous "boom" period.
Alfonso Cuarón Orozco (born 28 November 1961) is a Mexican film director, screenwriter, producer, and editor.
The Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso), initiated by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in 1961, aimed to establish economic cooperation between the U.S. and Latin America.
Amazonas is a state of Brazil, located in the North Region in the northwestern corner of the country.
The meaning of the word American in the English language varies according to the historical, geographical, and political context in which it is used.
The American entry into World War I came in April 1917, after more than two and a half years of efforts by President Woodrow Wilson to keep the United States out of the war.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
The Americas, also known as America,"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amores perros is a 2000 Mexican drama thriller film directed by Alejandro González Iñárritu and written by Guillermo Arriaga.
The Andean Community (Comunidad Andina, CAN) is a customs union comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.
The Andean states (Estados Andinos) are a group of nations in South America connected by the Andes mountain range.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Anglo-America most often refers to a region in the Americas in which English is a main language and British culture and the British Empire have had significant historical, ethnic, linguistic and cultural impact.
Antônio Carlos Brasileiro de Almeida Jobim (January 25, 1927December 8, 1994), also known as Tom Jobim, was a Brazilian composer, pianist, songwriter, arranger and singer.
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
Antigua and Barbuda is a sovereign state in the West Indies in the Americas, lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
Delesio Antonio Berni (Rosario, 14 May 1905 - Buenos Aires, 13 October 1981) was an Argentine figurative artist.
Antonio Lauro (August 3, 1917 – April 18, 1986) was a Venezuelan musician, considered to be one of the foremost South American composers for the guitar in the 20th century.
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (21 February 1794 – 21 June 1876),Callcott, Wilfred H., "Santa Anna, Antonio Lopez De,", accessed April 18, 2017 often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and then for Mexican independence.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arawakan (Arahuacan, Maipuran Arawakan, "mainstream" Arawakan, Arawakan proper), also known as Maipurean (also Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúre), is a language family that developed among ancient indigenous peoples in South America.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Argentine Confederation (Spanish: Confederación Argentina) is one of the official names of Argentina according to the Argentine Constitution, Article 35.
Argentine tango is a musical genre and accompanying social dance originating at the end of the 19th century in the suburbs of Buenos Aires and Montevideo.
Armandro Reverón (1889–1954) was a Venezuelan painter and sculptor, precursor of Arte Povera and considered one of the most important of the 20th century in Latin America.
Arte Povera (literally poor art) is a contemporary art movement.
Arthur Zimmermann (5 October 1864 – 6 June 1940) was State Secretary for Foreign Affairs of the German Empire from 22 November 1916 until his resignation on 6 August 1917.
Aruba (Papiamento) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and north of the coast of Venezuela.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans are Hispanic and Latino Americans having Asian ancestry and for those Hispanics who consider themselves or were officially classified by the United States Census Bureau, Office of Management and Budget, and other U.S. government agencies as Asian Americans.
Asian Latin Americans are Latin Americans of East Asian, Southeast Asian or South Asian descent.
The Association of Caribbean States (ACS; Asociación de Estados del Caribe; Association des États de la Caraïbe) is a union of nations centered on the Caribbean Basin.
Astor Pantaleón Piazzolla (March 11, 1921July 4, 1992) was an Argentine tango composer, bandoneon player, and arranger.
Astrud Gilberto (born March 29, 1940) is a Brazilian samba and bossa nova singer.
Asunción is the capital and largest city of Paraguay.
Atahualpa Yupanqui (born Héctor Roberto Chavero; 31 January 1908 – 23 May 1992) was an Argentine singer, songwriter, guitarist, and writer.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Augusto Roa Bastos (June 13, 1917 – April 26, 2005) was a Paraguayan novelist and short story writer.
The Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (UAEM) (Autonomous University of Mexico State) is a public university in the State of Mexico, Mexico.
Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
The Aymara or Aimara (aymara) people are an indigenous nation in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1 million live in Bolivia, Peru and Chile.
Aztec codices (Mēxihcatl āmoxtli) are books written by pre-Columbian and colonial-era Nahuas in pictorial and/or alphabetic form.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Bachata is a genre of Latin American music that originated in the Dominican Republic in the first half of the 20th century with European, Indigenous, and African musical elements.
The Balaiada was a social revolt between 1838 and 1841 in the interior of the Province of Maranhão, Brazil.
The bandoneon (or bandonion, bandoneón) is a type of concertina particularly popular in Argentina, Uruguay, and Lithuania.
Barão Vermelho is a Brazilian rock band.
Barsa is a famous encyclopedia from Latin America.
Basse-Terre is a French commune in the Guadaloupe department of France in the Lesser Antilles.
Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.
Benito Pablo Juárez García (21 March 1806 – 18 July 1872) was a Mexican lawyer and liberal politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.
Bernal Díaz del Castillo (c. 1496 – 1584) was a Spanish conquistador, who participated as a soldier in the conquest of Mexico under Hernán Cortés and late in his life wrote an account of the events.
Balduína "Bidu" de Oliveira Sayão (pronounced bee-DOO sigh-OWN) (May 11, 1902 – March 13, 1999) was a Brazilian opera soprano.
Birdman or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance), commonly known simply as Birdman, is a 2014 American black comedy film directed by Alejandro G. Iñárritu.
Biutiful is a 2010 drama film directed, produced and co-written by Alejandro González Iñárritu and starring Javier Bardem.
Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.
The Bolivarian diaspora is the largest recorded refugee crisis in the Americas and refers to the emigration of millions of Venezuelans from their native country during the presidencies of Hugo Chávez and Nicolás Maduro, due to the establishment of their Bolivarian Revolution.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Bomba is one of the traditional musical styles of Puerto Rico.
Bossa nova is a genre of Brazilian music, which was developed and popularized in the 1950s and 1960s and is today one of the best-known Brazilian music genres abroad.
Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Brazilian Expeditionary Force or BEF (Força Expedicionária Brasileira; FEB) consisted of about 25,700 men arranged by the army and air force to fight alongside the Allied forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
The Cabanagem (1835–1840) was a popular revolution and pro-separatist movement that occurred in the then-state of Grão-Pará, Empire of Brazil.
Cabo San Lucas (Cape Saint Luke), commonly called Cabo in English, is a resort city at the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula, in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur.
A cacique (feminine form: cacica) is a leader of an indigenous group, derived from the Taíno word kasikɛ for the pre-Columbian tribal chiefs in the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles.
Caetano Emanuel Viana Telles Veloso (born August 7, 1942) is a Brazilian composer, singer, guitarist, writer, and political activist.
Café Tacuba (stylized Café Tacvba) is a band from Ciudad Satélite, Mexico.
Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music that originated in Trinidad and Tobago during the early to mid-19th century and eventually spread to the rest of the Caribbean Antilles and Venezuela by the mid-20th century.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cancún is a city in southeastern Mexico on the northeast coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo.
Candombe is an Uruguayan music and dance that comes from African slaves.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and centre of the Greater Caracas Area, and the largest city of Venezuela.
The Caracazo, or sacudón, is the name given to the wave of protests, riots, looting, shootings and massacres. that began on 27 February 1989 in Venezuela's capital, Caracas, and the surrounding towns. The weeklong clashes resulted in the deaths of hundreds of people, thousands by some accounts, mostly at the hands of security forces and the military.Amnesty International, March 1990, Reports of Arbitrary Killings and Torture:, February/March 1989, AI Index: AMR 53/02/90, https://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AMR53/002/1991/en/4e4929fa-ee43-11dd-99b6-630c5239b672/amr530021991en.pdf The riots and the protests began mainly in response to the government's economic reforms and the resulting increase in the price of gasoline and transportation.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is an organization of fifteen Caribbean nations and dependencies whose main objective is to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared, and to coordinate foreign policy.
Carlos Carrera (born August 18, 1962 in Mexico City) is a Mexican film director and screenwriter.
Carlos Cruz-Diez (born August 17, 1923 in Caracas) is a Venezuelan artist considered to be one of the greatest artistic innovators of the 20th and 21st centuries.
Carlos José Cuarón Orozco (born 2 October 1966) is a Mexican screenwriter, film producer and film director.
Carlos Fuentes Macías (November 11, 1928 – May 15, 2012) was a Mexican novelist and essayist.
Carlos Gardel (born Charles Romuald Gardès; 11 December 1890 – 24 June 1935) was a French Argentine singer, songwriter, composer and actor, and the most prominent figure in the history of tango.
Carlos Monsiváis Aceves (May 4, 1938 – June 19, 2010) was a Mexican writer, critic, political activist, and journalist.
Carlos Santana (born July 20, 1947) is a Mexican and American musician who first became famous in the late 1960s and early 1970s with his band, Santana, which pioneered a fusion of rock and Latin American jazz.
The city of Cartagena, known in the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias (Cartagena de Indias), is a major port founded in 1533, located on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region.
Casi, Casi (English Translation: Almost Nearly) is a 2006 Puerto Rican film, written and directed by brothers Jaime and Tony Vallés.
Castizo is a Spanish word with a general meaning of "pure", "genuine" or representative of its race (from the Spanish: "casta").
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cayenne is the capital city of French Guiana, an overseas region and department of France located in South America.
Agenor de Miranda Araújo Neto, better known as Cazuza (4 April 1958 – 7 July 1990), was a Brazilian singer and songwriter, born in Rio de Janeiro.
Celia de la Caridad Cruz Alfonso (October 21, 1925 – July 16, 2003) was a Cuban-American singer and the most popular Latin artist of the 20th century, gaining twenty-three gold albums during her career.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The Central American Integration System (Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana, or SICA) has been the economic and political organization of Central American states since February 1, 1993.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Central Station (Central do Brasil) is a 1998 Brazilian–French drama film set in Brazil.
María Isabel Granda Larco (Cotabambas, Apurímac, Peru, 3 September 1920 - Miami, United States, 1983), better known as Chabuca Granda, was a Peruvian singer and composer.
Isabel Vargas Lizano (17 April 1919 – 5 August 2012), better known as Chavela Vargas, was a Costa Rican singer.
Chibcha is an extinct language of Colombia, spoken by the Muisca, one of the four advanced indigenous civilizations of the Americas.
Chichen Itza, Chichén Itzá, often with the emphasis reversed in English to; from Chi'ch'èen Ìitsha' (Barrera Vásquez et al., 1980.) "at the mouth of the well of the Itza people" was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The relations between China and Latin America have become increasingly important.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Choro ("cry" or "lament"), also popularly called chorinho ("little cry" or "little lament"), is an instrumental Brazilian popular music genre which originated in 19th century Rio de Janeiro.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Cinema Novo is a genre and movement of film noted for its emphasis on social equality and intellectualism that rose to prominence in Brazil during the 1960s and 1970s.
Cinema of Argentina refers to the film industry based in Argentina.
Brazilian cinema was introduced early in the 20th century but took some time to consolidate itself as a popular form of entertainment.
Cinema arrived in Cuba at the beginning of the 20th century.
The history of Mexican cinema goes back to the ending of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, when several enthusiasts of the new medium documented historical events – most particularly the Mexican Revolution – and produced some movies that have only recently been rediscovered.
The history of the Cinema industry in Puerto Rico begins with the US invasion of the island in 1898.
The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century.
City of God (Cidade de Deus) is a 2002 Brazilian crime film directed by Fernando Meirelles and co-directed by Kátia Lund, released in its home country in 2002 and worldwide in 2003.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
Claudio Arrau León (February 6, 1903June 9, 1991) was a Chilean pianist known for his interpretations of a vast repertoire spanning the baroque to 20th-century composers, especially Bach, Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, Schumann, Liszt and Brahms.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
Cryptography in simple terms means the use of any alphabet or numerical statement which has a meaning or stores a message.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Saint Martin (Saint-Martin), officially the Collectivity of Saint Martin (Collectivité de Saint-Martin) is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies in the Caribbean.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The term Commonwealth Caribbean is used to refer to the independent English-speaking countries of the Caribbean region.
Compas (konpa), or kompa, is a dance music and modern méringue in Haiti with African roots.
The Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (La Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador) or more commonly, CONAIE, is Ecuador's largest indigenous organization.
The Confederation of the Equator (Confederação do Equador) was a short-lived rebellion that occurred in the northeastern region of Brazil after that nation's struggle for independence from Portugal.
Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1913 by Vladimir Tatlin.
The word coolie (also spelled koelie, kuli, cooli, cooly and quli); (Hindi: कुली, Tamil: கூலி, Telugu: కూలీ, Chinese: 苦力) meaning a labourer, has a variety of other implications and is sometimes regarded as offensive or a pejorative, depending upon the historical and geographical context.
Corrientes (Guaraní: Taragüí, literally: "Currents") is the capital city of the province of Corrientes, Argentina, located on the eastern shore of the Paraná River, about from Buenos Aires and from Posadas, on National Route 12.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
The Criollo is a term which, in modern times, has diverse meanings, but is most commonly associated with Latin Americans who are of full or near full Spanish descent, distinguishing them from both multi-racial Latin Americans and Latin Americans of post-colonial (and not necessarily Spanish) European immigrant origin.
The crisis in Venezuela is the socioeconomic and political crisis that Venezuela has been experiencing since 2012 under the presidency of Hugo Chávez and which has continued into the current presidency of Nicolás Maduro.
Cristina Elisabet Fernández de Kirchner (born 19 February 1953), sometimes referred to by her initials CFK, is an Argentine lawyer and politician, who served as President of Argentina from 2007 to 2015.
CSS (an initialism of Cansei de Ser Sexy) is a Brazilian rock band from São Paulo.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
Cueca is a family of musical styles and associated dances from Argentina, Chile and Bolivia.
The culture of Africa is varied and manifold, consisting of a mixture of countries with various tribes that each have their own unique characteristics from the continent of Africa.
The culture of Asia encompasses the collective and diverse customs and traditions of art, architecture, music, literature, lifestyle, philosophy, politics and religion that have been practiced and maintained by the numerous ethnic groups of the continent of Asia since prehistory.
The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe.
The culture of Paris,in France and of the French people has been shaped by geography, by profound historical events, and by foreign and internal forces and groups.
Cumbia folkloric rhythm and dance from Colombia.
Cusco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), often spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.
Dani Rodrik (born August 14, 1957) is a Turkish economist and Ford Foundation Professor of International Political Economy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.
Daniel Barenboim (דניאל בארנבוים; born 15 November 1942) is a pianist and conductor who is a citizen of Argentina, Israel, Palestine, and Spain.
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born November 11, 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician serving as President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction (1979–1985) and then as President (1985–1990).
David Alfaro Siqueiros (born José de Jesús Alfaro Siqueiros, December 29, 1896, in Chihuahua – January 6, 1974, in Cuernavaca, Morelos) was a Mexican social realist painter, better known for his large murals in fresco.
The December 2001 crisis, sometimes known as the Argentinazo, was a period of civil unrest and rioting in Argentina, which took place during December 2001, with the most violent incidents taking place on December 19 and December 20 in the capital, Buenos Aires, Rosario and other large cities around the country.
The Demographics of Guatemala are diverse, the 17,263,239 people (2018 estimate) consist primarily of Mestizos, Amerindians, and people of European descent.
Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.
Development studies is an interdisciplinary branch of social science.
Diamela Eltit (born 1947, Santiago de Chile) is a well known Chilean writer and university professor.
Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957) was a prominent Mexican painter.
Dilma Vana Rousseff (often known mononymously as Dilma; born 14 December 1947) is a Brazilian economist and politician who served as the 36th President of Brazil, holding the position from 2011 until her impeachment and removal from office on 31 August 2016, becoming the first democratically-elected female President in the world to be impeached and removed.
Dolores del Río (born María de los Dolores Asúnsolo López-Negrete; 3 August 1904 – 11 April 1983) was a Mexican actress.
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento (February 15, 1811 – September 11, 1888) was an Argentine activist, intellectual, writer, statesman and the seventh President of Argentina.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
The Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) is a free trade agreement (legally a treaty under international law, but not under U.S. law).
The Dutch Caribbean (historically known as the Dutch West Indies) is the territories, colonies, and countries, both former and current, of the Dutch Empire and the Kingdom of the Netherlands that are located in the Lesser Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Eduardo Hughes Galeano (3 September 1940 – 13 April 2015) was a Uruguayan journalist, writer and novelist considered, among other things, "global soccer's pre-eminent man of letters" and "a literary giant of the Latin American left".
El otro (The Other) is a 2007 Argentine, French, and German drama film, written and directed by Ariel Rotter, his second feature.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
El Universal is a major Venezuelan newspaper, headquartered in Caracas with an average daily circulation of about 150,000.
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology.
Elite Squad (Tropa de Elite) is a 2007 Brazilian crime film directed by José Padilha.
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Enrique Miguel Iglesias Preysler (born 8 May 1975) is a Spanish singer, songwriter, actor and record producer.
Euclides da Cunha (January 20, 1866 – August 15, 1909) was a Brazilian journalist, sociologist and engineer.
Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959), popularly known as Evo, is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006.
Facundo: Civilization and Barbarism (original Spanish title: Facundo: Civilización i Barbarie) is a book written in 1845 by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, a writer and journalist who became the seventh president of Argentina.
Facundo Cabral (May 22, 1937 – July 9, 2011) was an Argentine singer, songwriter and philosopher.
The Federal Republic of Central America (República Federal de Centroamérica), also called the United Provinces of Central America (Provincias Unidas del Centro de América) in its first year of creation, was a sovereign state in Central America consisting of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain.
Federales (singular Federale or, rarely but aligning with Spanish, Federal) is a Spanglish word used in an informal context to denote security forces operating under a federal political system.
Fernand Braudel (24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School.
Fernando Botero Angulo (born 19 April 1932) is a Colombian figurative artist and sculptor.
Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago of 21 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, offshore from the Brazilian coast.
Fernando Armindo Lugo Méndez (born 30 May 1951) is a Paraguayan politician who was President of Paraguay from 2008 to 2012.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
A filibuster or freebooter, in the context of foreign policy, is someone who engages in an (at least nominally) unauthorized military expedition into a foreign country or territory to foment or support a revolution.
The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) was a short-lived monarchy and the first independent post-colonial state in Mexico.
A flag is a piece of fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colors.
Fort-de-France is the capital of France's Caribbean overseas department of Martinique.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francisco Bilbao Barquín (19 January 1823 – 9 February 1865) was a Chilean writer, philosopher and liberal politician.
Sebastián Francisco de Miranda y Rodríguez de Espinoza (March 28, 1750 – July 14, 1816), commonly known as Francisco de Miranda, was a Venezuelan military leader and revolutionary.
Francisco Pizarro González (– 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that conquered the Inca Empire.
Francophonie, sometimes also spelt Francophonia in English, is the quality of speaking French.
Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was the 14th President of the United States (1853–1857), a northern Democrat who saw the abolitionist movement as a fundamental threat to the unity of the nation.
The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA; Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas, ALCA; Zone de libre-échange des Amériques, ZLÉA; Área de Livre Comércio das Américas, ALCA; Vrijhandelszone van Amerika) was a proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce the trade barriers among all countries in the Americas, excluding Cuba.
French America is the French-speaking community of people and their diaspora, notably those tracing back origins to New France, the early French colonization of the Americas.
French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The term French Louisiana refers to two distinct regions.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
The term French West Indies or French Antilles (Antilles françaises) refers to the seven territories currently under French sovereignty in the Antilles islands of the Caribbean.
Frida Kahlo de Rivera (born Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo y Calderón; July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican artist who painted many portraits, self-portraits, and works inspired by the nature and artifacts of Mexico.
The G-3 was a free trade agreement between Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela that came into effect on January 1, 1995, which created an extended market of 149 million consumers with a combined GDP (Gross domestic product) of US$486.5 billion.
Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez (6 March 1927 – 17 April 2014) was a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter and journalist, known affectionately as Gabo or Gabito throughout Latin America.
Lucila Godoy Alcayaga (7 April 1889 – 10 January 1957), known by her pseudonym Gabriela Mistral, was a Chilean poet-diplomat, educator and humanist.
The Gadsden Purchase (known in Mexico as Venta de La Mesilla, "Sale of La Mesilla") is a region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that the United States purchased via a treaty signed on December 30, 1853, by James Gadsden, U.S. ambassador to Mexico at that time.
Gal Costa (born Maria da Graça Costa Penna Burgos) is a Brazilian singer of popular music.
The Galápagos Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, west of continental Ecuador.
The Garifuna (Pardo) (pl. Garinagu in Garifuna) are Indigenous of mixed-race descendants of West African, Central African, Island Carib, European, and Arawak people.
Garifuna (Karif) is a minority language widely spoken in villages of Garifuna people in the western part of the northern coast of Central America.
Gertrud Louise Goldschmidt (1 August 1912 – 17 September 1994) also known as Gego, was a modern Venezuelan artist and sculptor.
The Generation of '80 (Generación del '80) was the governing elite in Argentina from 1880 to 1916.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Germanic-speaking Europe refers to the area of Europe that today uses a Germanic language.
Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (19 April 1882 – 24 August 1954) was a Brazilian lawyer and politician, who served as President during two periods: the first was from 1930–1945, when he served as interim president from 1930–1934, constitutional president from 1934–1937, and dictator from 1937–1945.
Giannina Braschi (born February 5, 1953) is a Puerto Rican writer.
Gilberto Passos Gil Moreira (born 26 June 1942), known professionally as Gilberto Gil, is a Brazilian singer, guitarist, and songwriter, known for both his musical innovation and political activism.
In economics, the Gini coefficient (sometimes expressed as a Gini ratio or a normalized Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality.
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Gloria Estefan (née Fajardo; born September 1, 1957) is a Cuban-American singer, songwriter, actress, and businesswoman.
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
The Golden Age of Mexican cinema (in Spanish Época de Oro del Cine Mexicano) is a period in the history of the Cinema of Mexico between 1933 and 1964 when the Mexican film industry reached high levels of production, quality and economic success of its films, besides having gained recognition internationally.
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.
Gran Colombia ("Great Colombia") is a name used today for the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831.
Granada is a city in western Nicaragua and the capital of the Granada Department.
Gravity is a 2013 science fiction thriller film directed, co-written, co-edited, and produced by Alfonso Cuarón.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Greater Belo Horizonte is the name usually used to describe the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region, which is composed of 34 municipalities.
Greater Buenos Aires (Gran Buenos Aires, GBA), Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area or Buenos Aires Metropolitan Region refers to the urban agglomeration comprising the autonomous city of Buenos Aires and the adjacent 24 partidos (districts) in the Province of Buenos Aires.
Greater Mexico City refers to the conurbation around Mexico City, officially called Valley of Mexico Metropolitan Area (Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México), constituted by Mexico City itself composed of 16 Municipalities—and 41 adjacent municipalities of the states of Mexico and Hidalgo.
Greater Rio de Janeiro, officially Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region (Grande Rio, officially Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, in Portuguese) is a large metropolitan area located in Rio de Janeiro state in Brazil, the second largest in Brazil and third largest in South America.
The Greater São Paulo (Grande São Paulo) is a nonspecific term for one of the multiple definitions the large metropolitan area located in the São Paulo state in Brazil.
Grenada is a sovereign state in the southeastern Caribbean Sea consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara.
The Guadalajara metropolitan area (officially, in Spanish: Zona Metropolitana de Guadalajara) is the most populous metropolitan area of the Mexican state of Jalisco and the second largest in the country after Greater Mexico City.
Guadalupe Victoria (29 September 1786 – 21 March 1843), born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix, was a Mexican general and political leader who fought for independence against the Spanish Empire in the Mexican War of Independence. He was a deputy in the Mexican Chamber of Deputies for Durango and a member of the Supreme Executive Power following the downfall of the First Mexican Empire. After the adoption of the Constitution of 1824, Victoria was elected as the first President of the United Mexican States. As President he established diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom, the United States, the Federal Republic of Central America, and Gran Colombia. He also abolished slavery, founded the National Museum, promoted education, and ratified the border with the United States of America. He decreed the expulsion of the Spaniards remaining in the country and defeated the last Spanish stronghold in the castle of San Juan de Ulúa. Victoria was the only president who completed his full term in more than 30 years of an independent Mexico. He died in 1843 at the age of 56 from epilepsy in the fortress of Perote, where he was receiving medical treatment. On 8 April of the same year, it was decreed that his name would be written in golden letters in the session hall of the Chamber of Deputies.
Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
Guanajuato is a city and municipality in central Mexico and the capital of the state of the same name.
Guaraní are a group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America.
Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family of the Tupian languages.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Guatemala City (Ciudad de Guatemala), locally known as Guatemala or Guate, officially Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción (New Guatemala of the Assumption), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Guatemala, and the most populous in Central America.
Guillermo Arriaga Jordán (born 13 March 1958) is a Mexican author, screenwriter, director and producer.
Guillermo del Toro Gómez (born October 9, 1964) is a Mexican filmmaker, screenwriter, producer, author and former special effects makeup artist.
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that usually has six strings.
The Guna, known as Kuna prior to an orthographic reform in 2010, and historically as Cuna, are an indigenous people of Panama and Colombia.
Gustavia is the main town and capital of the island of Saint Barthélemy.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen,; créole haïtien) is a French-based creole language spoken by 9.6–12million people worldwide, and the only language of most Haitians.
A happening is a performance, event, or situation meant to be considered art, usually as performance art.
Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American literary critic and Sterling Professor of Humanities at Yale University.
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban is a 2004 fantasy film directed by Alfonso Cuarón and distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
Heinrich von Eckardt (20 July 1861, Riga, Russian Empire – 3 March 1944, Jena, Germany) was a Baltic German diplomat in the service of the German Empire.
Heitor Villa-Lobos (March 5, 1887November 17, 1959) was a Brazilian composer, described as "the single most significant creative figure in 20th-century Brazilian art music".
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
High culture encompasses the cultural products of aesthetic value, which a society collectively esteem as exemplary art.
Hip hop, or hip-hop, is a subculture and art movement developed in the Bronx in New York City during the late 1970s.
The term Hispanic (hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain.
Hispanic America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica, or América hispana), also known as Spanish America (Spanish: América española), is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Estadounidenses hispanos) are people in the United States who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America and Spain.
The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia.
The Inca state was known as the Kingdom of Cusco before 1438.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Hondurans (Spanish: Hondureños) are people inhabiting in, originating from, or having significant heritage from Honduras.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
Hopscotch (Rayuela) is a novel by Argentine writer Julio Cortázar.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
The Human Poverty Index (HPI) was an indication of the standard of living in a country, developed by the United Nations (UN) to complement the Human Development Index (HDI) and was first reported as part of the Human Development Report in 1997.
Ibero-America (Iberoamérica, Ibero-América) or Iberian America is a region in the Americas comprising countries or territories where Spanish or Portuguese are predominant languages, usually former territories of Portugal or Spain.
Iguazú Falls or Iguaçu Falls (Cataratas del Iguazú; Chororo Yguasu; Cataratas do Iguaçu) are waterfalls of the Iguazu River on the border of the Argentine province of Misiones and the Brazilian state of Paraná.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
An international non-governmental organization (INGO) has the same mission as a non-governmental organization (NGO), but it is international in scope and has outposts around the world to deal with specific issues in many countries.
Inti-Illimani (from Quechuan inti and / Aymara illimani) are an instrumental and vocal Latin American folk music ensemble from Chile.
Isabel Allende (born August 2, 1942) is a Chilean writer.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Colonel Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán (September 14, 1913 – January 27, 1971), nicknamed The Big Blonde (Guatemalan El Chelón) or The Swiss (El Suizo) for his Swiss origins, was a Guatemalan military officer who was the second democratically elected President of Guatemala from 1951 to 1954.
Jaime Eyzaguirre (21 December 1908 – 17 September 1968) was a Chilean lawyer, essayist and historian.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fifth President of the United States from 1817 to 1825.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jazz piano is a collective term for the techniques pianists use when playing jazz.
Jesús Rafael Soto (June 5, 1923 – January 14, 2005) was a Venezuelan op and kinetic artist, a sculptor and a painter.
Joaquín Torres García (28 July 1874 – 8 August 1949) was a Spanish Uruguayan artist painter, sculptor, muralist, novelist, writer, teacher and theorist, active in Spain, United States, Italy, France and Uruguay.
João Gilberto Prado Pereira de Oliveira, known as João Gilberto (June 10, 1931), is a Brazilian singer, songwriter, and guitarist.
John Henry Coatsworth (born September 27, 1940) is an American historian of Latin America and the provost of Columbia University.
John Leddy Phelan (1924 - 24 July 1976) was a scholar of colonial Spanish America and the Philippines.
Jorge Antonio Cafrune (Perico Del Carmen, Jujuy, August 8, 1937 - Buenos Aires, February 1, 1978) was one of the most popular Argentine folklorist singers of his time, as well as an unflagging researcher, compilator, and diffuser of the native culture.
Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish-language literature.
Jorge Alberto Negrete Moreno (30 November 1911 – 5 December 1953) was a Mexican singer and actor.
José Carlos Mariátegui La Chira (14 June 1894 – 16 April 1930) was a Peruvian intellectual, journalist, political philosopher, and communist.
José Clemente Orozco (November 23, 1883 – September 7, 1949) was a Mexican painter, who specialized in political murals that established the Mexican Mural Renaissance together with murals by Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and others.
José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850), known simply as José de San Martín or El Libertador of Argentina, Chile and Peru, was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire who served as the Protector of Peru.
José Julián Martí Pérez (January 28, 1853 – May 19, 1895) was a Cuban National Hero and an important figure in Latin American literature.
José Alberto "Pepe" Mujica Cordano (born 20 May 1935) is a Uruguayan politician who served as the 40th President of Uruguay from 2010 to 2015.
José Vasconcelos Calderón (28 February 1882 – 30 June 1959) has been called the "cultural caudillo" of the Mexican Revolution.
Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University.
Juan León Mera Martínez (June 28, 1832 – December 13, 1894) was an Ecuadorian essayist, novelist, politician and painter.
Juan Manuel de Rosas (30 March 1793 – 14 March 1877), nicknamed "Restorer of the Laws", was a politician and army officer who ruled Buenos Aires Province and briefly the Argentine Confederation.
Juan Orlando Hernández Alvarado, often written as JOH (born 28 October 1968), is a former businessman and the fifty-fifth and current president of Honduras, who assumed office on January 27, 2014, after winning the 2013 Honduran presidential election.
Juan Nepomuceno Carlos Pérez Rulfo Vizcaíno, best known as Juan Rulfo (16 May 1917 – 7 January 1986), was a Mexican writer, screenwriter and photographer.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, O.S.H. (English: Sister Joan Agnes of the Cross; 12 November 1648 – 17 April 1695), was a self-taught scholar and student of scientific thought, philosopher, composer, and poet of the Baroque school, and Hieronymite nun of New Spain, known in her lifetime as "The Tenth Muse", "The Phoenix of America", or the "Mexican Phoenix".
Julio Cortázar, born Julio Florencio Cortázar; (August 26, 1914 – February 12, 1984) was an Argentine novelist, short story writer, and essayist.
Julio Alfredo Jaramillo Laurido (October 1, 1935 – February 9, 1978) was a notable Ecuadorian singer and recording artist who performed throughout Latin America, achieving great fame for his renditions of boleros, valses, pasillos, tangos, and rancheras.
In the Napoleonic era, junta was the name chosen by several local administrations formed in Spain during the Peninsular War as a patriotic alternative to the official administration toppled by the French invaders.
K'iche' (pronounced; previous Spanish spelling: Quiché) are indigenous peoples of the Americas and are one of the Maya peoples.
Kichwa (Kichwa shimi, Runashimi, also Spanish Quichua) is a Quechuan language that includes all Quechua varieties of Ecuador and Colombia (Inga), as well as extensions into Peru.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
La Paz, officially known as Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace), also named Chuqi Yapu (Chuquiago) in Aymara, is the seat of government and the de facto national capital of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (the constitutional capital of Bolivia is Sucre).
Labadee (Labadie) is a port located on the northern coast of Haiti within the arrondissement of Cap-Haïtien in the Nord department.
Landless Workers' Movement (Movimento dos Trabalhadores Sem Terra, MST) is a social movement in Brazil, inspired by Marxism, generally regarded as one of the largest in Latin America with an estimated informal membership of 1.5 million across 23 of Brazil's 26 states.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
The Las Vegas culture is the name given to a large number of Holocene settlements which flourished between 8000 BCE and 4600 BCE.(10,000 to 6,600 BP) near the coast of present-day Ecuador.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The term Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is an English-language acronym referring to the Caribbean and Latin America region.
Nine Latin American nations became charter members of the League of Nations when it was founded in 1919.
Historically speaking, bilateral relations between the United States and the various countries of Latin America have been multifaceted and complex, at times defined by strong regional cooperation and at others filled with economic and political tension and rivalry.
Latin American Australians refers to Australian persons who were born in Latin America (including the Caribbean and Central America) irrespective of their ancestral backgrounds, and their descendants.
The Latin American Boom (Boom Latinoamericano) was a literary movement of the 1960s and 1970s when the work of a group of relatively young Latin American novelists became widely circulated in Europe and throughout the world.
Latin American Canadians are Canadians who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America.
The Latin American debt crisis (Crisis de la deuda latinoamericana) was a financial crisis that originated in the early 1980s (and for some countries starting in the 1970s), often known as the "lost decade", when Latin American countries reached a point where their foreign debt exceeded their earning power and they were not able to repay it.
The integration of Latin America has a history going back to Spanish American and Brazilian independence, when there was discussion of creating a regional state or confederation of Latin American nations to protect the area's newly won autonomy.
Latin American migration to the United Kingdom dates back to the early 19th century.
Latin American studies (LAS) is an academic and research field associated with the study of Latin America.
Latin Americans (Latinoamericanos, Latino-americanos) are the citizens of the Latin American countries and dependencies.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
Latin pop (Spanish and Portuguese: Pop latino) refers to pop music that contains sounds or influence from Latin America, but it can also mean pop music from anywhere in the Spanish-speaking world.
Latino is a term often used in the United States to refer to people with cultural ties to Latin America, in contrast to Hispanic which is a demonym that includes Spaniards and other speakers of the Spanish language.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Legião Urbana (Portuguese for Urban Legion) was a Brazilian rock band formed in 1982 in Brasília, Distrito Federal.
The Lei Áurea (Golden Law), adopted on May 13, 1888, was the law that abolished slavery in Brazil.
Juan Leovigildo Brouwer Mezquida (born March 1, 1939) is a Cuban composer, conductor, and classical guitarist.
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The Liberal Wars, also known as the Portuguese Civil War, the War of the Two Brothers or Miguelite War, was a war between progressive constitutionalists and authoritarian absolutists in Portugal over royal succession that lasted from 1828 to 1834.
Libertadores ("Liberators") refers to the principal leaders of the Latin American wars of independence from Spain and Portugal.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.
The Lima metropolitan area (Área Metropolitana de Lima, also known as Lima Metropolitana), is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian cities of Lima (the nation's capital) and Callao.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.
This is a list of notable Latin American people, in alphabetical order within categories.
Los Diaz de Doris is a Puerto Rican film made in 2002.
Los Kjarkas is a Bolivian band from the Capinota province in the department of Cochabamba, and one of the most popular Andean folk music bands in the country's history.
Lost Embrace (El abrazo partido) is a 2004 Argentine, French, Italian, and Spanish comedy drama film, directed by Daniel Burman and written by Burman and Marcelo Birmajer.
Luis Miguel Gallego Basteri (born April 19, 1970) is a Mexican singer and icon in Latin America, often referred to as El Sol de México (The Sun of Mexico).
Luiz Gonzaga do Nascimento, Sr., "The King of Baião" or "Gonzagão" (standard orthography 'Luís';; Exu, December 13, 1912 – Recife, August 2, 1989) was a Brazilian singer, songwriter, musician and poet and one of the most influential figures of Brazilian popular music in the twentieth century.
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (born 27 October 1945), popularly known as Lula, is a Brazilian politician and former union leader, who served as the 35th President of Brazil from 2003 to 2011.
Lynda Aguirre Thomas (born December 21, 1981), known professionally as Lynda, is a Mexican musician, singer and songwriter.
Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, often known by his surnames as Machado de Assis, Machado, or Bruxo do Cosme VelhoVainfas, p. 505.
Machu Picchu (or,, Machu Pikchu) is a 15th-century Inca citadel situated on a mountain ridge above sea level.
Magical realism, magic realism, or marvelous realism is a genre of narrative fiction and, more broadly, art (literature, painting, film, theatre, etc.) that, while encompassing a range of subtly different concepts, expresses a primarily realistic view of the real world while also adding or revealing magical elements.
The Malê revolt (Revolta dos Malês,,, also known as The Great Revolt) is perhaps the most significant slave rebellion in Brazil.
Managua is the capital and largest city of Nicaragua, and the center of eponymous department.
Maná (Spanish: "manna") is a Mexican Rock band from Guadalajara, Jalisco.
Manuel Rendón Seminario (b. Paris, 1894 - d.Portugal, 1982) (Also known by Manuel Rendón) was a master Latin American painter credited with bringing the Constructivist Movement to Ecuador and Latin America together with Joaquín Torres García who brought the Constructivist Movement to his home country of Uruguay.
José Manuel Zelaya Rosales (born 20 September 1952)Encyclopædia Britannica, is a Honduran politician who was President of Honduras from 27 January 2006 until 28 June 2009.
The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.
In Mexico, a maquiladora or maquila is a manufacturing operation, where factories import certain material and equipment on a duty-free and tariff-free basis for assembly, processing, or manufacturing and then export the assembled, processed and/or manufactured products, sometimes back to the raw materials' country of origin.
María de los Ángeles Félix Güereña ((8 April 1914 – 8 April 2002) was a Mexican film actress and singer. Along with Pedro Armendáriz and Dolores del Río, she was one of the most successful figures of Latin American cinema in the 1940s and 1950s. She was known as La Doña, a name derived from her character in the film Doña Bárbara (1943), and María Bonita, thanks to the anthem composed exclusively for her, as a wedding gift by her second husband, the Mexican composer Agustín Lara. She completed a film career that included 47 films made in Mexico, Spain, France, Italy and Argentina.
Marco Antonio Muñiz (born September 16, 1968), known professionally as Marc Anthony, is an American singer, actor, record producer and television producer.
Margarita Island (Isla de Margarita) is the largest island in the Venezuelan state of Nueva Esparta, situated off the northeastern coast of the country, in the Caribbean Sea.
Maria Bethânia Viana Telles Veloso (born June 18, 1946), known by her stage name Maria Bethânia, is a Brazilian singer and songwriter.
Mariachi is a musical expression that dates back to at least 18th century in Western Mexico.
Marigot is the main town and capital in the French Collectivity of Saint Martin.
Marinera is a coastal dance of Peru.
Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, 1st Marquess of Vargas Llosa (born March 28, 1936), more commonly known as Mario Vargas Llosa, is a Peruvian writer, politician, journalist, essayist and college professor.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
Carlos Mauricio Funes Cartagena (born October 18, 1959) is a Salvadoran politician who was President of El Salvador from June 1, 2009 to June 1, 2014.
Maximilian I (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
The Mayan languagesIn linguistics, it is conventional to use Mayan when referring to the languages, or an aspect of a language.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Menudo (Spanish Synonym for Little) was a Latino boy band that was formed in the 1970s by producer Edgardo Díaz.
Haydée Mercedes Sosa (9 July 1935 at BrainyHistory.com – 4 October 2009), sometimes known as La Negra (literally: The Black One), was an Argentine singer who was popular throughout Latin America and many countries outside the region.
Mercosur (also known as Mercosul or Ñemby Ñemuha) is a South American trade bloc established by the Treaty of Asunción in 1991 and Protocol of Ouro Preto in 1994.
Merengue is a type of music and dance originating in the Dominican Republic, which has become a very popular genre throughout Latin America, and also in several major cities in the United States which have Hispanic communities.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
Metropolitan Area of Bogotá is the metropolitan area of the Colombian capital city of Bogotá, usually used for statistical analysis or technical use.
The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) was a major armed struggle,, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government.
The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War in the United States and in Mexico as the American intervention in Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States (Mexico) from 1846 to 1848.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Miami is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States.
Michel Chevalier (13 January 1806 – 18 November 1879) was a French engineer, statesman, economist and free market liberal.
Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (born 29 September 1951) is a Chilean politician who was the President of Chile twice, from 2006 to 2010 and from 2014 to 2018, the first woman in her country to occupy this position.
Miguel Ángel Asturias Rosales (October 19, 1899 – June 9, 1974) was a Nobel Prize-winning Guatemalan poet-diplomat, novelist, playwright and journalist.
Don Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo-Costilla y Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor (8 May 1753 – 30 July 1811), more commonly known as Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla or simply Miguel Hidalgo, was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.
Miranda! is an Argentine electropop band formed in 2001.
Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
Miskito (Mískitu in the Miskito language) is a Misumalpan language spoken by the Miskito people in northeastern Nicaragua, especially in the North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region, and in eastern Honduras.
Modernismo is a literary movement that primarily took place during the end of Nineteenth- and early Twentieth-century in Spanish-America, best exemplified by Rubén Darío.
The Monroe Doctrine was a United States policy of opposing European colonialism in the Americas beginning in 1823.
Monte Verde is an archaeological site in southern Chile, located near Puerto Montt, Southern Chile, which has been dated to as early as 18,500 BP (16,500 B.C.). Until recently, the widely published date has been 14,800 years BP.
The Monterrey metropolitan area refers to the surrounding urban agglomeration of Monterrey, Nuevo León.
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.
The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo (Asociación Madres de Plaza de Mayo) is an association of Argentine mothers whose children "disappeared" during the state terrorism of the military dictatorship, between 1976 and 1983.
The Muisca are an indigenous group of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia, that formed the Muisca Confederation before the Spanish conquest.
Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Nana Caymmi (b. Dinahir Tostes Caymmi, April 29, 1941) is a Brazilian singer.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
Nara Lofego Leão (January 19, 1942 – June 7, 1989) was a Brazilian bossa nova and MPB (popular Brazilian music) singer and occasional actress.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The National Reorganization Process (Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, often simply el Proceso, "the Process") was the name used by its leaders for the military dictatorship that ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1983.
The National Security Act of 1947 was a major restructuring of the United States government's military and intelligence agencies following World War II.
The term naturalism was coined by Émile Zola, who defines it as a literary movement which emphasizes observation and the scientific method in the fictional portrayal of reality.
Néstor Carlos Kirchner (25 February 195027 October 2010) was an Argentine politician who served as President of Argentina from 2003 to 2007 and as Governor of Santa Cruz from 1991 to 2003.
Nelson Freire (born October 18, 1944) is a Brazilian classical pianist.
Neocolonialism, neo-colonialism or neo-imperialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalization and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country in lieu of direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The Netherlands Antilles (Nederlandse Antillen,; Papiamentu: Antia Hulandes) was a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Ney de Souza Pereira, known as Ney Matogrosso (born August 1, 1941, in Bela Vista, Mato Grosso do Sul), is a Brazilian singer who is distinguished for his uncommon countertenor voice.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Nicaraguans (Nicaragüense; also Nica, Nicoya and Pinolero) are people inhabiting in, originating or having significant heritage from Nicaragua.
Nicolás Maduro Moros (born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has served as the 63rd President of Venezuela since 2013 and previously served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.
Nine Queens (Nueve Reinas) is a 2000 Argentine crime drama film written and directed by Fabián Bielinsky and starring Ricardo Darín, Gastón Pauls, Leticia Brédice, Tomás Fonzi and Alejandro Awada.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
The Nueces River is a river in the U.S. state of Texas, about long.
Nuevo tango is either a form of music in which new elements are incorporated into traditional tango music, or an evolution of tango dance that began to develop in the 1980s.
Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican poet and diplomat.
Ollanta Moisés Humala Tasso (born 27 June 1962) is a Peruvian politician who served as the 65th President of Peru from 2011 to 2016.
One Hundred Years of Solitude (Cien años de soledad) is a landmark 1967 novel by Colombian author Gabriel García Márquez that tells the multi-generational story of the Buendía family, whose patriarch, José Arcadio Buendía, founds the town of Macondo, a fictitious town in the country of Colombia.
Operation Car Wash (Operação Lava Jato) is an ongoing criminal investigation being carried out by the Federal Police of Brazil, Curitiba Branch, and judicially commanded by Judge Sérgio Moro since March 17, 2014.
The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to economic harmonisation and integration, protection of human and legal rights, and the encouragement of good governance between countries and dependencies in the Lesser Antilles in the Eastern Caribbean.
Os Mutantes ("The Mutants") are an influential Brazilian psychedelic rock band that were linked with the Tropicália movement of the late 1960s.
Os Paralamas do Sucesso (also known simply as Paralamas) is a Brazilian rock band, formed in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, in the late 1970s.
Os Sertões ("the backlands"; 1902), translated as Rebellion in the Backlands, is a book written by the Brazilian author Euclides da Cunha.
Otto Fernando Pérez Molina (born 1 December 1950) is a Guatemalan politician and retired military officer, who was President of Guatemala from 2012 to 2015.
The French overseas collectivities (collectivité d'outre-mer or COM), like the French regions, are first-order administrative divisions of France.
An overseas department (département d’outre-mer or DOM) is a department of France that is outside metropolitan France.
Ricardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto (12 July 1904 – 23 September 1973), better known by his pen name and, later, legal name Pablo Neruda, was a Chilean poet-diplomat and politician.
The Pacific Alliance (Alianza del Pacífico) is a Latin American trade bloc, formed by — Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, which all border the Pacific Ocean.
Palo de Mayo (Maypole; or ¡M ayo Ya!) is a type of Afro-Caribbean dance with sensual movements that forms part of the culture of several communities in the RAAS region in Nicaragua, as well as Belize, the Bay Islands of Honduras and Bocas del Toro in Panama.
The Pampas (from the pampa, meaning "plain") are fertile South American lowlands that cover more than and include the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos and Córdoba; all of Uruguay; and the southernmost Brazilian State, Rio Grande do Sul.
Pan's Labyrinth (lit) is a 2006 dark fantasy drama film written and directed by Guillermo del Toro.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
The Panama Canal Zone (Zona del Canal de Panamá) was an unincorporated territory of the United States from 1903 to 1979, centered on the Panama Canal and surrounded by the Republic of Panama.
Panama City (Ciudad de Panamá) is the capital and largest city of Panama.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
Patricio Rivas, a wealthy lawyer, was Acting President (then called Supreme Director) of Nicaragua from 30 June 1839 to 27 July 1839 and from 21 September 1840 to 4 March 1841.
Paulo Coelho de Souza (born 24 August 1947) is a Brazilian lyricist and novelist and the recipient of numerous international awards.
Dom Pedro II (English: Peter II; 2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years.
Pedro Infante Cruz (18 November 1917 – 15 April 1957), better known as Pedro Infante, was a Mexican actor and singer.
Pedro Nel Gómez Agudelo (4 July 1899 — 6 June 1984) was a Colombian engineer, painter, and sculptor, best known for his work as a muralist, and for starting, along with Santiago Martinez Delgado, the Colombian Muralist Movement, inspired by the Mexican movement that drew on nationalistic, social, and political messages as subjects.
In the context of the Spanish colonial caste system, a peninsular (pl. peninsulares) was a Spanish-born Spaniard residing in the New World or the Spanish East Indies.
The Perito Moreno Glacier is a glacier located in the Los Glaciares National Park in southwest Santa Cruz Province, Argentina.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
"Pink tide" (marea rosa, onda rosa) and "turn to the Left" (Sp.: vuelta hacia la izquierda, Pt.: Guinada à Esquerda) are phrases used in contemporary 21st century political analysis in the media and elsewhere to describe the perception of a turn towards left wing governments in Latin American democracies straying away from the neo-liberal economic model.
La Plena is a genre of music, chant and dance native to Ponce, Puerto Rico.
Poás Volcano National Park, in Spanish Parque Nacional Volcán Poás, is a National Park in Costa Rica that covers an area of approximately; the summit is.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Ponce is both a city and a municipality in the southern part of Puerto Rico.
Popol Vuh (also Popol Wuj) is a cultural narrative that recounts the mythology and history of the K'iche' people who inhabit the Guatemalan Highlands northwest of present-day Guatemala City.
Port-au-Prince (Pòtoprens) is the capital and most populous city of Haiti.
Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
The Praieira revolt, also known as the Beach rebellion, was a movement in the Pernambuco region of Brazil that lasted from 1848 to 1849.
Puerto Montt is a port city and commune in southern Chile, located at the northern end of the Reloncaví Sound in the Llanquihue Province, Los Lagos Region, 1,055 km to the south of the capital, Santiago.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
Puerto Vallarta is a Mexican beach resort city situated on the Pacific Ocean's Bahía de Banderas.
Punta is a dance originated in the Central American coast of Belize, Honduras and Guatemala in the late 18th century with African beats.
Punta Cana is a resort town within the Punta Cana-Bávaro-Veron-Macao municipal district, in the municipality of Higüey, in La Altagracia Province, the easternmost province of the Dominican Republic.
Punta del Este is the second city of Uruguayhttp://www.lanacion.com.ar/1439666-tips-gasoleros-para-veranear-en-punta-del-este and the most important resort town in South America, the Punta area 220,000 residents add to a peak of over 600,000 people during the summer season, while year-round the town receives one million tourists.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
The Quechua people are the indigenous peoples of South America who speak any of the Quechua languages.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
Quito (Kitu; Kitu), formally San Francisco de Quito, is the capital city of Ecuador, and at an elevation of above sea level, it is the second-highest official capital city in the world, after La Paz, and the one which is closest to the equator.
José Rafael Carrera Turcios (24 October 1814 – 14 April 1865) was the president of Guatemala from 1844 to 1848 and from 1851 until his death in 1865, after being appointed President for Life in 1854.
Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado (born 6 April 1963) is an Ecuadorian politician and economist who served as President of Ecuador from 2007 to 2017.
The Ragamuffin War (Portuguese: Guerra dos Farrapos or, more commonly Revolução Farroupilha) was a Republican uprising that began in southern Brazil, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in 1835.
Rama is one of the indigenous languages of the Chibchan family spoken by the Rama people on the island of Rama Cay and south of lake Bluefields on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua.
Ranchera, or canción ranchera is a genre of the traditional music of Mexico.
The Río de la Plata ("river of silver") — rendered River Plate in British English and the Commonwealth and La Plata River (occasionally Plata River) in other English-speaking countries — is the estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay and the Paraná rivers.
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Reggaeton (also known as reggaetón and reguetón) is a music genre which originated in Puerto Rico during the late 1990s.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Edgar R. Arjona Morales (born 19 January 1964), known as Ricardo Arjona, is a Guatemalan singer-songwriter.
Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar (born 2 March 1938) is a Chilean lawyer, economist and social democrat politician who served as President of Chile from 2000 to 2006.
Ricardo Alberto Martinelli Berrocal, (born March 11, 1952) is a Panamanian politician and businessman who was the 36th President of Panama from 2009 to 2014.
Ricardo Piglia (November 24, 1941, Androgué, Argentina – January 6, 2017, Buenos Aires) was an Argentine author, critic, and scholar best known for introducing hard-boiled fiction to the Argentine public.
Enrique José Martín Morales (born December 24, 1971), commonly known as Ricky Martin, is a Puerto Rican singer, actor and author.
Rigoberta Menchú Tum (born 9 January 1959) is a K'iche' political and human rights activist from Guatemala.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
The Rio Grande (or; Río Bravo del Norte, or simply Río Bravo) is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Colorado River).
Rita Lee (born Rita Lee Jones, December 31, 1947) is a Brazilian rock singer and composer.
The Riviera Maya is a tourism and resort district in Mexico.
Roberto Bolaño Ávalos (28 April 1953 – 15 July 2003) was a Chilean novelist, short-story writer, poet and essayist.
Rock en español (Spanish-language rock) is a term used widely in the English-speaking world to refer any kind of rock music featuring Spanish vocals.
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
The Romance-speaking world, romanophone, neolatin world, or Latin-speaking world, is the part of the world where Romance languages (those derived from Latin) are either official, co-official, or significantly used, comprising Latin America, Latin Europe, Romance-speaking Africa and Romance-speaking Asia.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
The royalists were the Latin American and European supporters of the various governing bodies of the Spanish Monarchy, during the Spanish American wars of independence, which lasted from 1808 until the king's death in 1833.
Félix Rubén García Sarmiento (January 18, 1867 – February 6, 1916), known as Rubén Darío, was a Nicaraguan poet who initiated the Spanish-American literary movement known as modernismo (modernism) that flourished at the end of the 19th century.
Rudo y Cursi (Spanish, literally, "Rough and Corny") is a 2008 Mexican film starring Diego Luna, Gael García Bernal and Guillermo Francella.
Rufino del Carmen Arellanes Tamayo (August 25, 1899 – June 24, 1991) was a Mexican painter of Zapotec heritage, born in Oaxaca de Juárez, Mexico.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Sabinada (1837–1838) was a revolt by military officer Francisco Sabino that occurred in Brazil's Bahia state between 6 November 1837 and 16 March 1838.
Saint Barthélemy, officially the Territorial collectivity of Saint-Barthélemy (Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Barthélemy), called Ouanalao by the indigenous people, is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies.
Saint Kitts and Nevis, also known as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis, is an island country in the West Indies.
Saint Lucia (Sainte-Lucie) is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, officially the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité d'Outre-mer de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804.
Saint-Simonianism was a French political and social movement of the first half of the 19th century, inspired by the ideas of Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon (1760–1825).
Salar de Uyuni (or Salar de Tunupa) is the world's largest salt flat at 10 582 square kilometers (4 086 sq mi).
Salsa music is a popular dance music that initially arose in New York City during the 1960s.
Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.
Salvador Sánchez Cerén (born 18 June 1944) is the current President of El Salvador.
Samba is a Brazilian musical genre and dance style, with its roots in Africa via the West African slave trade and African religious traditions, particularly of Angola and the Congo, through the samba de roda genre of the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia, from which it derived.
San Andrés is a Colombian coral island in the Caribbean Sea.
San Ignacio Miní was one of the many missions founded in 1632, in Argentina, by the Jesuits in what the colonial Spaniards called the Province of Paraguay of the Americas during the Spanish colonial period.
San José (literally meaning "Saint Joseph") is the capital and largest city of Costa Rica.
San Juan (Saint John) is the capital and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States.
San Miguel de Allende is a city and municipality located in the far eastern part of the state of Guanajuato in central Mexico.
San Salvador ("Holy Savior") is the capital and the most populous city of El Salvador and its eponymous department.
Sandungueo is a style of dance and party music associated with reggaeton that emerged in the late 1980s in Puerto Rico.
Santa Marta, officially Distrito Turístico, Cultural e Histórico de Santa Marta ("Touristic, Cultural and Historic District of Santa Marta"), is a city in Colombia.
Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.
Santiago Martínez Delgado (1906–1954) was a Colombian painter, sculptor, art historian and writer.
Santiago Metropolitan Region (Región Metropolitana de Santiago) is one of Chile's 15 first-order administrative divisions.
Santo Domingo (meaning "Saint Dominic"), officially Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic and the largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean by population.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
Sebastián Edwards (born 16 August 1953, Santiago, Chile) is a Chilean economist, professor, speaker, and consultant.
The Second French Intervention in Mexico (Sp.: Segunda intervención francesa en México, 1861–67) was an invasion of Mexico, launched in late 1861, by the Second French Empire (1852–70).
The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) or Second Mexican Empire (Segundo Imperio Mexicano) was the name of Mexico under a limited hereditary monarchy declared by the Assembly of Notables on July 10, 1863, during the Second French intervention in Mexico.
Secos & Molhados was an innovative Brazilian band formed in 1971 and best known for their first two studio albums that helped launch singer Ney Matogrosso's career.
Selena Quintanilla-Pérez (April 16, 1971 – March 31, 1995) was an American singer, songwriter, spokesperson, model, actress, and fashion designer.
Seymour Drescher is an American historian and a professor at the University of Pittsburgh, known for his studies on Alexis de Tocqueville and Slavery.
Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll (born 2 February 1977) is a Colombian singer, songwriter, and dancer.
Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco (24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar and also colloquially as El Libertador, was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule.
Simón Narciso Díaz Márquez (August 8, 1928 – February 19, 2014) was a Venezuelan singer and Grammy Award-winning composer of EBV music.
Skank is a Brazilian band from Belo Horizonte.
Slavery in Brazil began long before the first Portuguese settlement was established in 1532, as members of one tribe would enslave captured members of another.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Soca music (also defined by Lord Shorty, its inventor, as the "Soul Of Calypso") is a genre of music that originated within a marginalized subculture in Trinidad and Tobago in the early 1970s, and developed into a range of styles by the 1980s and later.
Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.
Soda Stereo was an Argentine rock band created in Buenos Aires in 1982 by the power trio made up of Gustavo Cerati (lead vocals, guitars), Héctor "Zeta" Bosio (bass), and Charly Alberti (drums).
Son of the Bride (El hijo de la novia) is a 2001 Argentine comedy drama film directed by Juan José Campanella and written by Campanella and Fernando Castets.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Southern Cone (Cono Sur, Cone Sul) is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The different varieties of the Spanish language spoken in the Americas are distinct from Peninsular Spanish and Spanish spoken elsewhere, such as in Africa and Asia.
The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-americana or Guerra hispano-estadounidense; Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was fought between the United States and Spain in 1898.
In critical theory and postcolonialism, the term subaltern designates the populations which are socially, politically, and geographically outside of the hegemonic power structure of the colony and of the colonial homeland.
Sucre is the constitutional capital of Bolivia, the capital of the Chuquisaca Department and the 6th most populated city in Bolivia.
Sumo (also known as Sumu) is the collective name for a group of Misumalpan languages spoken in Nicaragua and Honduras.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
Susana Esther Baca de la Colina (born 24 May 1944 in Chorrillos, Lima Province, Peru) is a prominent Peruvian singer-songwriter, school teacher, folklorist, ethnomusicologist and two-times Latin Grammy Award winner.
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.
Tabaré Ramón Vázquez Rosas (born 17 January 1940) is a Uruguayan politician serving as the 41st and current President of Uruguay since 2015.
A taco is a traditional Mexican dish consisting of a corn or wheat tortilla folded or rolled around a filling.
Tairona was a group of chiefdoms in the region of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in present-day Cesar, Magdalena and La Guajira Departments of Colombia, South America, which goes back at least to the 1st century CE and had significant demographic growth around the 11th century.
A tamale (tamal, tamalli) is a traditional Mesoamerican dish made of masa or dough (starchy, and usually corn-based), which is steamed in a corn husk or banana leaf.
Tegucigalpa (formally Tegucigalpa, Municipality of the Central District, Tegucigalpa, Municipio del Distrito Central or Tegucigalpa, M.D.C.), colloquially referred to as Téguz, is the capital and largest city of Honduras along with its twin sister, Comayagüela.
Ariadna Thalía Sodi Miranda (born 26 August 1971), known mononymously as Thalía, is a Mexican singer, songwriter, and actress, who is one of the most successful and influential Mexican singers worldwide.
The American Historical Review is the official publication of the American Historical Association.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Crime of Father Amaro, sometimes The Crime of Padre Amaro, (El crimen del padre Amaro) is a 2002 Mexican-Spanish film directed by Carlos Carrera.
The Guianas, sometimes called by the Spanish loan-word Guayanas (Las Guayanas), are a region in north-eastern South America which includes the following three territories.
The Mangy Parrot: The Life and Times of Periquillo Sarniento Written by himself for his Children (El Periquillo Sarniento) by Mexican author José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi, is generally considered the first novel written and published in Latin America.
The Official Story (La historia oficial) is a 1985 Argentine drama historical film directed by Luis Puenzo and written by Puenzo and Aída Bortnik.
The Orphanage (El Orfanato) is a 2007 Spanish horror film and the debut feature of Spanish filmmaker J. A. Bayona.
The Secret in Their Eyes (El secreto de sus ojos) is a 2009 Argentine-Spanish crime drama film directed, co-written, produced and edited by Juan José Campanella, based on the novel La pregunta de sus ojos ("The Question in Their Eyes") by Eduardo Sacheri, who also co-wrote the screenplay.
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes.
Titãs are a rock band from São Paulo, Brazil.
The Toltec culture is an archaeological Mesoamerican culture that dominated a state centered in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology (ca. 900–1168 CE).
Tomás Gutiérrez Alea (December 11, 1928 – April 16, 1996) was a Cuban filmmaker.
Tondero is a dance and guitar rhythm from Peru that developed in the country's northern coastal region (Piura–Lambayeque).
The Torrijos–Carter Treaties (Tratados Torrijos-Carter) are two treaties signed by the United States and Panama in Washington, D.C., on September 7, 1977, which abrogated the Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty of 1903.
Sonia Bazanta Vides, also known as Totó la Momposina, is a Colombian singer of Afro-Colombian and Indigenous descent.
François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture (9 May 1743 – 7 April 1803), also known as Toussaint L'Ouverture or Toussaint Bréda, was the best-known leader of the Haitian Revolution.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish), officially titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo (now a neighborhood of Mexico City) between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican–American War (1846–1848).
The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
Tupi–Guarani is the name of the most widely distributed subfamily of the Tupian languages of South America.
Una aventura llamada Menudo is a 1982 film featuring teen boy band Menudo and Puerto Rican actress Gladys Rodríguez.
Unitarianists or Unitarians (in Spanish, Unitarios) were the proponents of the concept of a unitary state (centralized government) in Buenos Aires during the civil wars which shortly followed the Declaration of Independence of Argentina in 1816.
The United Fruit Company was an American corporation that traded in tropical fruit (primarily bananas), grown on Central and South American plantations, and sold in the United States and Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly.
The following is an alphabetical list of subregions in the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The White House National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for consideration of national security, military matters, and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the executive office of the president of the United States.
The United States of Latin Africa (French: Les États-Unis de l'Afrique Latine, Portuguese: Estados Unidos da África Latina, Spanish: Estados Unidos de África Latina) was the proposed union of Romance-language-speaking Central African countries envisioned by Barthélémy Boganda.
The University of North Carolina is a multi-campus public university system composed of all 16 of North Carolina's public universities, as well as the NC School of Science and Mathematics, the nation's first public residential high school for gifted students.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
The Uruguayan Civil War, also known in Spanish as the Guerra Grande ("Great War"), was a series of armed conflicts between the leaders of Uruguayan independence.
Tango is a rhythm that has its roots in the poor areas of Montevideo around 1880.
UTC−02:00 is a time offset that subtracts 2 hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
UTC−03:00 is a time offset that subtracts 3 hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
UTC−04:00 is a time offset that subtracts 4 hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
UTC−04:30 is a time offset that subtracts 4 1/2 hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
UTC−05:00 is a time offset that subtracts five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
UTC−06:00 is a time offset that subtracts six hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
UTC−07:00 is a time offset that subtracts 7 hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
UTC−08:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of −08.
The Valdivia culture is one of the oldest settled cultures recorded in the Americas.
Vallenato, along with cumbia, is a popular folk music of Colombia.
Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez (28 September 1932 – 16 September 1973) was a Chilean teacher, theater director, poet, singer-songwriter and political activist tortured and killed during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Viña del Mar (meaning "Vineyard of the Sea"), is a city and commune on central Chile's Pacific coast.
Vicente "Chente" Fernández Gómez (born 17 February 1940) is a Mexican retired singer, actor, and film producer.
Violeta del Carmen Parra Sandoval (4 October 1917 – 5 February 1967) was a Chilean composer, songwriter, folklorist, ethnomusicologist and visual artist.
Walter D. Mignolo (born May 1, 1941) is an Argentine semiotician (École des Hautes Études) and professor at Duke University, who has published extensively on semiotics and literary theory, and worked on different aspects of the modern and colonial world, exploring concepts such as global coloniality, the geopolitics of knowledge, transmodernity, Border-Thinking, and pluriversality.
The War of Independence of Brazil (also known as the Brazilian War of Independence) was waged between the newly independent Brazilian Empire and United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves which had just undergone the Liberal Revolution of 1820.
The Washington Consensus is a set of 10 economic policy prescriptions considered to constitute the "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.C.–based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and United States Department of the Treasury.
Water supply and sanitation in Latin America is characterized by insufficient access and in many cases by poor service quality, with detrimental impacts on public health.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.
White Latin Americans or European Latin Americans are Latin Americans who are considered white, typically due to European, or in some cases Levantine, descent.
Wild Tales (Relatos salvajes) is a 2014 Argentine-Spanish black comedy anthology film composed of six standalone shorts, all written and directed by Damián Szifron, united by a common theme of violence and vengeance.
William Walker (May 8, 1824 – September 12, 1860) was an American physician, lawyer, journalist and mercenary who organized several private military expeditions into Latin America, with the intention of establishing English-speaking slave colonies under his personal control, an enterprise then known as "filibustering".
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
Self-management or workers' self-management (also referred to as labor management, autogestión, workers' control, industrial democracy, democratic management and producer cooperatives) is a form of organizational management based on self-directed work processes on the part of an organization's workforce.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.
The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Y Tu Mamá También (And Your Mother Too) is a 2001 Mexican drama film directed by Alfonso Cuarón and co-written by Cuarón and his brother Carlos.
The Yanomami, also spelled Yąnomamö or Yanomama, are a group of approximately 35,000 indigenous people who live in some 200–250 villages in the Amazon rainforest on the border between Venezuela and Brazil.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Yma Sumac (September 10, 1923 – November 1, 2008), was a Peruvian–American coloratura soprano.
Zambo and cafuzo are racial terms used in the Spanish and Portuguese empires and occasionally today to identify individuals in the Americas who are of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry (the analogous English term, sambo, is considered a slur).
The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN), often referred to as the Zapatistas, is a left-wing revolutionary political and militant group based in Chiapas, the southernmost state of Mexico.
The Zimmermann Telegram (or Zimmermann Note or Zimmerman Cable) was a secret diplomatic communication issued from the German Foreign Office in January 1917 that proposed a military alliance between Germany and Mexico in the event that the United States entered World War I against Germany.
Zouk is a fast jump-up carnival beat originating from the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, popularized by the French Antillean band Kassav' in the 1980s.
The 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état was a covert operation carried out by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that deposed the democratically elected Guatemalan President Jacobo Árbenz and ended the Guatemalan Revolution of 1944–1954.
The 1998–2002 Argentine Great Depression was an economic depression in Argentina, which began in the third quarter of 1998 and lasted until the second quarter of 2002.
The 2000s commodities boom or the commodities super cycle was the rise, and fall, of many physical commodity prices (such as those of food, oil, metals, chemicals, fuels and the like) during the early 21st century (2000–2014), following the Great Commodities Depression of the 1980s and 1990s.
The 2009 Honduran coup d'état, part of the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis, occurred when the Honduran Army on June 28, 2009 followed orders from the Honduran Supreme Court to oust President Manuel Zelaya and send him into exile.
The 2010 Haiti earthquake (Séisme de 2010 à Haïti; Tranblemanntè 12 janvye 2010 nan peyi Ayiti) was a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake, with an epicenter near the town of Léogâne (Ouest), approximately west of Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital.
The 4th Summit of the Americas was held at Mar del Plata, about southeast of Buenos Aires in Argentina, on November 4–5, 2005.
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