144 relations: Ablative case, Acute accent, Aeneid, Ancient Greek, Anglicanism, Apex (diacritic), Appius Claudius Caecus, Approximant consonant, Aspirated consonant, Assimilation (phonology), Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Back vowel, Bilabial consonant, Breve, Catalan language, Catholic Church, Central vowel, Chi (letter), Choir, Circumflex, Classical Latin, Close front rounded vowel, Close vowel, Dactylic hexameter, Dalmatian language, Debuccalization, Dental consonant, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Diacritic, Diaeresis (diacritic), Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Dissimilation, Double entendre, Ennius, Epigraphy, Etruscan language, French language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Fusion (phonetics), Gaius Lucilius, Gamma, Gemination, German language, Glottal consonant, Great Vowel Shift, Greek alphabet, Handwriting, ..., Hard and soft C, Hard and soft G, Historically informed performance, Hypercorrection, Igor Stravinsky, Interpolation (manuscripts), Italian language, Italian orthography, James B. Greenough, Labial consonant, Labialization, Labiodental consonant, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin grammar, Latin poetry, Latin regional pronunciation, Length (phonetics), Letter case, Letterform, Liber Usualis, Loanword, Long I, Lucius Accius, Lucretius, Macron (diacritic), Marcus Terentius Varro, Metre (poetry), Mid vowel, Minimal pair, Monophthong, Monophthongization, Morpheme, Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, Nominative case, Oedipus rex (opera), Old Italic script, Old Latin, Open vowel, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (sound change), Pange Lingua Gloriosi Corporis Mysterium, Phi, Phoenician alphabet, Phoneme, Phonology, Plautus, Plutarch, Pontifical academy, Pontifical Academy for Latin, Pope Pius X, Portuguese language, Praenomen, Praetor, Priscian, Prodelision, Proto-Italic language, Renaissance, Rhotacism (sound change), Rhotic consonant, Roman cursive, Roman square capitals, Romance languages, Romanian language, Romansh language, Sardinian language, Sicilicus, Small caps, Spanish language, Spurius Carvilius Ruga, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Syllable weight, Syncope (phonology), Tenuis consonant, Theta, Thomas Aquinas, Traditional English pronunciation of Latin, Typeface anatomy, Typographic ligature, Upsilon, Velar consonant, Velar nasal, Virgil, Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel length, Vulgar Latin, W. Sidney Allen, Word divider, Xi (letter), Zeta. Expand index (94 more) » « Shrink index
The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
In written Latin, the apex (plural "apices") is a mark with roughly the shape of an acute accent (´) which is placed over vowels to indicate that they are long.
Appius Claudius Caecus ("the blind"; c. 340 BC – 273 BC) was a Roman politician from a wealthy patrician family.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Augustan literature is the period of Latin literature written during the reign of Augustus (27 BC–AD 14), the first Roman emperor.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
A breve (less often;; neuter form of the Latin brevis “short, brief”) is the diacritic mark ˘, shaped like the bottom half of a circle.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Chi (uppercase Χ, lowercase χ; χῖ) is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet, pronounced or in English.
A choir (also known as a quire, chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
The close front rounded vowel, or high front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
Dactylic hexameter (also known as "heroic hexameter" and "the meter of epic") is a form of meter or rhythmic scheme in poetry.
Dalmatian or Dalmatic was a Romance language spoken in the Dalmatia region of present-day Croatia, and as far south as Kotor in Montenegro.
Debuccalization is a sound change in which an oral consonant loses its original place of articulation and moves it to the glottis (usually,, or). The pronunciation of a consonant as is sometimes called aspiration but in phonetics, aspiration is the burst of air accompanying a stop.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
In phonology, particularly within historical linguistics, dissimilation is a phenomenon whereby similar consonants or vowels in a word become less similar.
A double entendre is a figure of speech or a particular way of wording that is devised to be understood in two ways, having a double meaning.
Quintus Ennius (c. 239 – c. 169 BC) was a writer and poet who lived during the Roman Republic.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
In phonetics and historical linguistics, fusion, or coalescence, is the merger of features from two or more segments into a single segment.
Gaius Lucilius (c. 180 – 103/2 BC), the earliest Roman satirist, of whose writings only fragments remain, was a Roman citizen of the equestrian class, born at Suessa Aurunca in Campania.
Gamma (uppercase, lowercase; gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Handwriting is the writing done with a writing instrument, such as a pen or pencil, in the hand.
In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), a distinction between hard and soft occurs in which represents two distinct phonemes.
In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), the letter is used in different contexts to represent two distinct phonemes, often called hard and soft.
Historically informed performance (also referred to as period performance, authentic performance, or HIP) is an approach to the performance of classical music, which aims to be faithful to the approach, manner and style of the musical era in which a work was originally conceived.
In linguistics or usage, hypercorrection is a non-standard usage that results from the over-application of a perceived rule of grammar or a usage prescription.
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor.
An interpolation, in relation to literature and especially ancient manuscripts, is an entry or passage in a text that was not written by the original author.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
James Bradstreet Greenough (May 4, 1833 in Portland, Maine – October 11, 1901) was a classical scholar.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin is a heavily inflected language with largely free word order.
The history of Latin poetry can be understood as the adaptation of Greek models.
Latin pronunciation, both in the classical and post-classical age, has varied across different regions and different eras.
In phonetics, length or quantity is a feature of sounds that have distinctively extended duration compared with other sounds.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
A letterform, letter-form or letter form, is a term used especially in typography, paleography, calligraphy and epigraphy to mean a letter's shape.
The Liber Usualis is a book of commonly used Gregorian chants in the Catholic tradition, compiled by the monks of the Abbey of Solesmes in France.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Long i,, transcribes a long i-vowel in Latin.
Lucius Accius (170 – c. 86 BC), or Lucius Attius, was a Roman tragic poet and literary scholar.
Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.
A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.
Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer.
In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
Monophthongization is a sound change by which a diphthong becomes a monophthong, a type of vowel shift.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
Oedipus rex is an "Opera-oratorio after Sophocles" by Igor Stravinsky, scored for orchestra, speaker, soloists, and male chorus.
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin, refers to the Latin language in the period before 75 BC: before the age of Classical Latin.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
"Pange Lingua Gloriosi Corporis Mysterium" is a Medieval Latin hymn written by Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) for the Feast of Corpus Christi.
Phi (uppercase Φ, lowercase φ or ϕ; ϕεῖ pheî; φι fi) is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254 – 184 BC), commonly known as Plautus, was a Roman playwright of the Old Latin period.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
A pontifical academy is an academic honorary society established by or under the direction of the Holy See.
The Pontifical Academy for Latin (Pontificia Academia Latinitatis) is the eleventh and newest pontifical academy.
Pope Saint Pius X (Pio), born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, (2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914) was head of the Catholic Church from August 1903 to his death in 1914.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The praenomen (plural: praenomina) was a personal name chosen by the parents of a Roman child.
Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).
Priscianus Caesariensis, commonly known as Priscian, was a Latin grammarian and the author of the Institutes of Grammar which was the standard textbook for the study of Latin during the Middle Ages.
Prodelision is a form of elision in which the latter word loses its first vowels.
The Proto-Italic language is the ancestor of the Italic languages, including notably Latin and thus its descendants, the Romance languages.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Rhotacism or rhotacization is a sound change that converts one consonant (usually a voiced alveolar consonant:,,, or) to a rhotic consonant in a certain environment.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
Roman cursive (or Latin cursive) is a form of handwriting (or a script) used in ancient Rome and to some extent into the Middle Ages.
Roman square capitals, also called capitalis monumentalis, inscriptional capitals, elegant capitals and capitalis quadrata, are an ancient Roman form of writing, and the basis for modern capital letters.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
Sardinian or Sard (sardu, limba sarda or língua sarda) is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken on most of the island of Sardinia (Italy).
A sicilicus was an old Latin diacritical mark, ͗, like a reversed C (Ɔ) placed above a letter and evidently deriving its name from its shape like a little sickle (which is sicilis in Latin).
In typography, small capitals (usually abbreviated small caps) are lowercase characters typeset with glyphs that resemble uppercase letters ("capitals") but reduced in height and weight, close to the surrounding lowercase (small) letters or text figures, for example:.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spurius Carvilius Ruga (fl. 230 BC) was the freedman of Spurius Carvilius Maximus Ruga.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
In linguistics, syllable weight is the concept that syllables pattern together according to the number and/or duration of segments in the rime.
In phonology, syncope (from συγκοπή||cutting up) is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
In linguistics, a tenuis consonant is an obstruent that is unvoiced, unaspirated, unpalatalized, and unglottalized.
Theta (uppercase Θ or ϴ, lowercase θ (which resembles digit 0 with horizontal line) or ϑ; θῆτα thē̂ta; Modern: θήτα| thī́ta) is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, derived from the Phoenician letter Teth.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
The traditional English pronunciation of Latin, and Classical Greek words borrowed through Latin, is the way the Latin language was traditionally pronounced by speakers of English until the early 20th century.
Typeface anatomy describes the graphic elements that make up printed letters in a typeface.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Upsilon (or; uppercase Υ, lowercase υ; ύψιλον ýpsilon) or ypsilon is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
William Sidney Allen, FBA (1918–2004) was a British linguist and philologist, best known for his work on Indo-European phonology.
In punctuation, a word divider is a glyph that separates written words.
Xi (uppercase Ξ, lowercase ξ; ξι) is the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Zeta (uppercase Ζ, lowercase ζ; ζῆτα, label, classical or zē̂ta; zíta) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet.
Iambic shortening, Latin language/Phonemes, Latin orthography, Latin phonemes, Latin phonology, Latin phonology and orthography, Latin pronunciation, Latin spelling, Latin spelling & pronunciation, Latin spelling and phonology, Penultimate rule, Phonology of Latin, Pronunciation of Latin, Sonus medius.