90 relations: Albers projection, Altitude, Antarctic Circle, Arctic Circle, Astronomer, Axial tilt, Bowditch's American Practical Navigator, Cardinal direction, Celestial equator, Celestial sphere, Centrifugal force, Circle of latitude, Conformal map, Cross section (geometry), Decimal degrees, Declination, Degree (angle), Degree Confluence Project, Ecliptic, Ecliptic coordinate system, ED50, Eiffel Tower, Ellipse, Ellipsoid, Epoch (astronomy), Equator, Equatorial coordinate system, Equirectangular projection, Figure of the Earth, Fixed-point iteration, Flattening, Geodesy, Geodetic datum, Geographic coordinate conversion, Geographic coordinate system, Geographical distance, Geographical pole, Geography, Geoid, Geotagging, Global Positioning System, Gravitational acceleration, Great-circle distance, Gudermannian function, History of latitude measurements, International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service, Isaac Newton, List of countries by latitude, List of population centers by latitude, Longitude, ..., Map projection, Mercator projection, Meridian (geography), Meridian arc, Minute and second of arc, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Natural Area Code, Nautical mile, Navigation, Newton's method, Normal (geometry), North, North Pole, Orders of magnitude (length), Phi, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Plumb bob, Prime meridian, Radius of curvature, Reference ellipsoid, Sea level, Sexagesimal, Significant figures, Solstice, SourceForge, South, South Pole, Sphere, Spherical coordinate system, Spheroid, Subtropical ridge, Theodolite, Transverse Mercator projection, Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, Tropics, Vertical bar, Vincenty's formulae, World Geodetic System, Zenith. Expand index (40 more) » « Shrink index
The Albers equal-area conic projection, or Albers projection (named after Heinrich C. Albers), is a conic, equal area map projection that uses two standard parallels.
Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).
The Antarctic Circle is the most southerly of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth.
The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.
In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.
The American Practical Navigator (colloquially often referred to as Bowditch), originally written by Nathaniel Bowditch, is an encyclopedia of navigation.
The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east.
The celestial equator is the great circle of the imaginary celestial sphere on the same plane as the equator of Earth.
In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an abstract sphere with an arbitrarily large radius concentric to Earth.
In Newtonian mechanics, the centrifugal force is an inertial force (also called a "fictitious" or "pseudo" force) directed away from the axis of rotation that appears to act on all objects when viewed in a rotating frame of reference.
A circle of latitude on Earth is an abstract east–west circle connecting all locations around Earth (ignoring elevation) at a given latitude.
In mathematics, a conformal map is a function that preserves angles locally.
In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.
Decimal degrees (DD) express latitude and longitude geographic coordinates as decimal fractions and are used in many geographic information systems (GIS), web mapping applications such as OpenStreetMap, and GPS devices.
In astronomy, declination (abbreviated dec; symbol δ) is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle.
A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.
The Degree Confluence Project is a World Wide Web-based, all-volunteer project which aims to have people visit each of the integer degree intersections of latitude and longitude on Earth, posting photographs and a narrative of each visit online.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
The ecliptic coordinate system is a celestial coordinate system commonly used for representing the apparent positions and orbits of Solar System objects.
ED50 ("European Datum 1950") is a geodetic datum which was defined after World War II for the international connection of geodetic networks.
The Eiffel Tower (tour Eiffel) is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France.
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
An ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation.
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
The equatorial coordinate system is a celestial coordinate system widely used to specify the positions of celestial objects.
The equirectangular projection (also called the equidistant cylindrical projection, geographic projection, or la carte parallélogrammatique projection, and which includes the special case of the plate carrée projection or geographic projection) is a simple map projection attributed to Marinus of Tyre, who Ptolemy claims invented the projection about AD 100.
The figure of the Earth is the size and shape of the Earth in geodesy.
In numerical analysis, fixed-point iteration is a method of computing fixed points of iterated functions.
Flattening is a measure of the compression of a circle or sphere along a diameter to form an ellipse or an ellipsoid of revolution (spheroid) respectively.
Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.
A geodetic datum or geodetic system is a coordinate system, and a set of reference points, used to locate places on the Earth (or similar objects).
In geodesy, conversion among different geographic coordinate systems is made necessary by the different geographic coordinate systems in use across the world and over time.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.
Geographical distance is the distance measured along the surface of the earth.
A geographical pole is either of the two points on a rotating body (planet, dwarf planet, natural satellite, sphere...etc) where its axis of rotation intersects its surface.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
The geoid is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of Earth's gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other influences such as winds and tides.
Geotagging or GeoTagging, is the process of adding geographical identification metadata to various media such as a geotagged photograph or video, websites, SMS messages, QR Codes or RSS feeds and is a form of geospatial metadata.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
In physics, gravitational acceleration is the acceleration on an object caused by the force of gravitation.
The great-circle distance or orthodromic distance is the shortest distance between two points on the surface of a sphere, measured along the surface of the sphere (as opposed to a straight line through the sphere's interior).
The Gudermannian function, named after Christoph Gudermann (1798–1852), relates the circular functions and hyperbolic functions without explicitly using complex numbers.
The Greeks studied the results of the measurements of latitude by the explorer Pytheas who voyaged to Britain and beyond, as far as the Arctic Circle (observing the midnight sun), in 325 BC.
The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS), formerly the International Earth Rotation Service, is the body responsible for maintaining global time and reference frame standards, notably through its Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) and International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) groups.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
The following table lists the regions of the Earth at various latitudes: ! Latitude ! Locations |- |90° N | North pole |- |75° N |Arctic Ocean; northern Siberia, Russia; northern Canada; Greenland |- |60° N |Oslo, Norway; Helsinki, Finland; Stockholm, Sweden; major parts of Nordic countries in EU; St.
The following is a list of population centers by latitude.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
A map projection is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on a plane.
The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569.
A (geographical) meridian (or line of longitude) is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude.
In geodesy, a meridian arc measurement is the distance between two points with the same longitude, i.e., a segment of a meridian curve or its length.
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is both a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and an intelligence agency of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting, analyzing, and distributing geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) in support of national security.
The Natural Area Code (or Universal Address) is a proprietary geocode system for identifying an area anywhere on the Earth, or a volume of space anywhere around the Earth.
A nautical mile is a unit of measurement defined as exactly.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
In numerical analysis, Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method), named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson, is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function.
In geometry, a normal is an object such as a line or vector that is perpendicular to a given object.
North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions.
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different lengths.
Phi (uppercase Φ, lowercase φ or ϕ; ϕεῖ pheî; φι fi) is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet.
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
A plumb bob, or plummet, is a weight, usually with a pointed tip on the bottom, suspended from a string and used as a vertical reference line, or plumb-line.
A prime meridian is a meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°.
In differential geometry, the radius of curvature,, is the reciprocal of the curvature.
In geodesy, a reference ellipsoid is a mathematically defined surface that approximates the geoid, the truer figure of the Earth, or other planetary body.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
Sexagesimal (base 60) is a numeral system with sixty as its base.
The significant figures (also known as the significant digits) of a number are digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution.
A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.
SourceForge is a Web-based service that offers software developers a centralized online location to control and manage free and open-source software projects.
South is one of the four cardinal directions or compass points.
The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface.
A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").
In mathematics, a spherical coordinate system is a coordinate system for three-dimensional space where the position of a point is specified by three numbers: the radial distance of that point from a fixed origin, its polar angle measured from a fixed zenith direction, and the azimuth angle of its orthogonal projection on a reference plane that passes through the origin and is orthogonal to the zenith, measured from a fixed reference direction on that plane.
A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.
The subtropical ridge, also known as the subtropical high or horse latitudes, is a significant belt of atmospheric high pressure situated around the latitudes of 30°N in the Northern Hemisphere and 30°S in the Southern Hemisphere.
A theodolite is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes.
The transverse Mercator map projection is an adaptation of the standard Mercator projection.
The Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead.
The Tropic of Capricorn (or the Southern Tropic) is the circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point on the December (or southern) solstice.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
The vertical bar (|) is a computer character and glyph with various uses in mathematics, computing, and typography.
Vincenty's formulae are two related iterative methods used in geodesy to calculate the distance between two points on the surface of a spheroid, developed by Thaddeus Vincenty (1975a).
The World Geodetic System (WGS) is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and satellite navigation including GPS.
The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere.
Astronomical latitude, Authalic latitude, Conformal latitude, Geodetic latitude, Geographic Latitude, Geographic latitude, Isometric latitude, Latetude, Latittude, Latitudes, Latitudinal, Lattitude, Length of a degree of latitude, North latitude, Planetocentric Latitude, Planetographic Latitude, Rectifying latitude, South latitude.