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Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. [1]

564 relations: A cappella, Adalia bipunctata, Administrative divisions of Latvia, Ainaži, AirBaltic, Alūksne, Allied Command Transformation, Allies of World War I, Amber, Amber Road, Amnesty International, Andrievs Niedra, Andris Biedriņš, Arajs Kommando, Aristocracy, Artūrs Irbe, ASK Riga, Association football, Atmospheric pressure, Augusts Kirhenšteins, Autonomous administrative division, Autonomy, Ķegums Hydroelectric Power Station, Ķemeri National Park, Šiauliai International Airport, Balance of trade, Baltic Air Policing, Baltic Air Surveillance Network, Baltic Assembly, Baltic Basketball League, Baltic Defence College, Baltic Germans, Baltic languages, Baltic Naval Squadron, Baltic region, Baltic Sea, Baltic Sea Region Programme, Baltic states, Baltische Landeswehr, Balto-Slavic languages, Balts, Bandava, Battle of Cēsis (1919), Battle of Daugavpils, Belarus, Belarusians, Bernhard Borchert, Birch, BK VEF Rīga, BK Ventspils, ..., Black stork, Blizzard, Bobsleigh, Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications, Boreal Kingdom, Bourgeoisie, Brown bear, Byzantium, Cape Kolka, Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia, Catholic Church, Catholic Church in Latvia, Cēsis, Central Intelligence Agency, Choir, Christianity, Circumboreal Region, Citizenship, Climate Change Performance Index, Collective farming, Collectivization in the Soviet Union, Common crane, Common Security and Defence Policy, Constituent assembly, Constitution of Latvia, Consumption (economics), Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, Corn crake, Corruption Perceptions Index, Council of Europe, Council of the Baltic Sea States, Council of the European Union, Courland, Courland Governorate, Courland Peninsula, Crusader states, Cultural regions of Latvia, Curonians, Daugava, Daugavpils, Dāvis Bertāns, De jure, Debt, Democracy Index, Demographics of Latvia, Detention (imprisonment), Deutsche Welle, Devonian, Dievs, svētī Latviju!, Dievturība, Dinamo Riga, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, Duchy of Livonia, Ease of doing business index, East European Craton, Eastern European Summer Time, Eastern European Time, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Partnership, Economic bubble, Economic Freedom of the World, Ecoregion, EF English Proficiency Index, Einsatzgruppen, Electric power distribution, Electrical equipment, Electricity, Electronics, Enemy of the people, Environmental Performance Index, Estonia, Estonians, EU Battlegroup, Eurasian beaver, Eurasian lynx, Eurasian otter, Euro, Euro health consumer index, Euro sign, Eurobarometer, EuroBasket, EuroBasket 1935, EuroBasket 1939, EuroBasket 2015, EuroCup Basketball, Euroleague Basketball, European bison, European Capital of Culture, European Commission, European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, European route E22, European route E67, European Union, Eurostat, Eurotopics, Eurovision Song Contest 2003, Eurozone, Evangelical Lutheran Church of Latvia, Executive (government), FIBA EuroChallenge, FIFA, Financial services, Finland, Finnic languages, Finnic peoples, Flag of Latvia, Floorball, Fog, Folk music, Folklore, Forest management, Fragile States Index, Freedom House, Freedom Monument, Freedom of the press, Freikorps, Frost, Gaiziņkalns, Gauja, Gauja National Park, General election, Generalplan Ost, Geographical distribution of German speakers, Geographical distribution of Russian speakers, German occupation of Latvia during World War II, Germanic languages, Germans, Germany, Glasnost, Global Gender Gap Report, Global Innovation Index, Global Peace Index, Golden State Warriors, Gotthard Kettler, Governorate of Livonia, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Gray wolf, Great Depression, Great Northern War, Great Northern War plague outbreak, Gulag, Gulf of Riga, Gundars Vētra, Hanseatic League, Health care, Heck cattle, Heim ins Reich, Helmuts Balderis, Henry of Latvia, High Commissioner on National Minorities, History of Latvia, History of the Jews in Latvia, Holocene, House management, Human development (humanity), Human Development Index, Human Development Report, Human Rights Watch, Humid continental climate, ICT Development Index, Igors Miglinieks, Index of Economic Freedom, Indigenous language, Indo-European languages, Inflanty Voivodeship, International Front of the Working People of Latvia, International Futures, International human rights law, International Monetary Fund, International Security Assistance Force, Irreligion, Islam in Latvia, January Uprising, Jāņi, Jānis Krūmiņš, Jēkabpils, Jūrmala, Jeļena Ostapenko, Jelgava, Jews, John the Baptist, Kaunas, Kārlis Skrastiņš, Kārlis Ulmanis, Koknese, Kontinental Hockey League, Kristaps Porziņģis, Kulak, Kuldīga, Lake Drīdzis, Lake Lubāns, Land reform, Landtag, Latgale, Latgalian language, Latgalians, Latinisation of names, Lattelecom, Latvenergo, Latvia at the Olympics, Latvia national basketball team, Latvia national football team, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Latvian Air Force, Latvian constitutional referendum, 2012, Latvian Hockey Higher League, Latvian Land Forces, Latvian language, Latvian lats, Latvian Legion, Latvian Military Police, Latvian mythology, Latvian National Armed Forces, Latvian National Armed Forces Staff Battalion, Latvian National Awakening, Latvian National Guard, Latvian Naval Forces, Latvian Orthodox Church, Latvian partisans, Latvian Provisional Government, Latvian Railways, Latvian Sign Language, Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic, Latvian Song and Dance Festival, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, Latvian Special Tasks Unit, Latvian State Language Center, Latvian Supreme Soviet election, 1990, Latvian War of Independence, Latvians, Latvijas Basketbola līga, Latvijas Gāze, Latvijas Pasts, League of Nations, Legatum Prosperity Index, Lesser spotted eagle, Leucanthemum vulgare, Lielupe, Liepāja, Liepāja International Airport, Limbaži, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of Latvians, List of museums in Latvia, List of non-marine molluscs of Latvia, Lithuania, Lithuania men's national basketball team, Lithuanian language, Lithuanians, Littorina Sea, Livonian Coast, Livonian language, Livonian Order, Livonian War, Livonians, Logistics, Logistics Performance Index, Lutheranism, Maigonis Valdmanis, Mail, Mairis Briedis, Maritime boundary, Maxima Group, Māris Štrombergs, Māris Kučinskis, Megafauna, Metres above sea level, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minority group, Mire, Modern Paganism, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Moody's Investors Service, Moose, Multi-National Force – Iraq, Multilingualism, Multinational state, National Basketball Association, National park, NATO, Natural gas, Natural gas storage, Nazi Germany, Nīca Parish, Networked Readiness Index, New Current, New York Knicks, Nils Ušakovs, Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, Non-citizens (Latvia), NORDEFCO, Nordic Battlegroup, Nordic Council, Nordic countries, Nordic Investment Bank, Nordic-Baltic Eight, Northern Dimension, Northern Europe, Northern Future Forum, Numeracy, Oak, Occupation of the Baltic states, Oceanic climate, OECD, OECD Better Life Index, Official language, Olaine, Old Believers, On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Priboi, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Outline of Latvia, Ozolnieki Municipality, Paganism, Pape Nature Reserve, Parliamentary republic, Parliamentary system, Paul Krugman, Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital, Pavel Bermondt-Avalov, Pēteris Stučka, Pļaviņas Hydroelectric Power Station, Perestroika, Phytogeography, Picea abies, Piemare, Planning regions of Latvia, Plywood, Poles, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish–Soviet War, Polish–Swedish War (1600–11), Polotsk, Popular Front of Latvia, Port of Ventspils, Precipitation, Presidency of the Council of the European Union, President of Latvia, Priekuļi Parish, Prime Minister of Latvia, Principality of Jersika, Privacy, Privacy International, Privatization, Programme for International Student Assessment, Proletariat, Protestantism, Proto-Indo-Europeans, Public holidays in Latvia, Public transport, Quercus robur, Rail Baltica, Rail transport, Raimonds Vējonis, Raoul Dufy, Raw material, Rāzna National Park, Rēzekne, Rīgas Satiksme, Red Army, Red fox, Reichskommissariat Ostland, Reporters Without Borders, Republic, Retail, Riga, Riga Autobus Factory, Riga City Council, Riga Hydroelectric Power Plant, Riga International Airport, Riga Stradiņš University, Riga Technical University, Rimi Baltic, Roe deer, Romance languages, Romani people, Rupjmaize, Russia, Russian Empire, Russian Empire Census, Russian language, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Revolution, Russians, Russians in Latvia, Russians in the Baltic states, Russification, Saeima, Saint Meinhard, Salaca, Salmon, San Antonio Spurs, Sandis Ozoliņš, Sarmatic mixed forests, Scenography, Schengen Area, Scots pine, Secretary of state, Self-determination, Selonia, Selonians, Semigallia, Semigallians, Serfdom, Siege of Leningrad, Singing Revolution, Skeleton (sport), Skrunda-1, Slavophilia, Slītere National Park, Snow, Social Progress Index, Socialist realism, Society of Jesus, Sorrel soup, Sovereign state, Soviet invasion of Poland, Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940, Soviet re-occupation of Latvia in 1944, Soviet Union, Sovietization, Sphere of influence, Standard & Poor's, Standard-gauge railway, Staple food, State continuity of the Baltic states, State Council of the Soviet Union, Statelessness, Statistical regions of Latvia, Summer Olympic Games, Summer solstice, Supreme Council of the Republic of Latvia, Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, Sustainable Society Index, Sweden, Swedish Empire, Swedish Livonia, Switzerland, Tallinn, Tartu, Tautas padome, Tālava, Telecommunication, Telephone numbers in Latvia, Temperate climate, Terra Mariana, Teutonic Order, The Guardian, The Holocaust, The New York Times, Thunderstorm, Tilia, Tilia cordata, Total fertility rate, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of Nystad, Truce of Altmark, UEFA, UEFA Euro 2004, Ukrainians, Unicameralism, Unitary state, United Baltic Duchy, United Nations, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Security Council Resolution 710, United States Department of State, Universal health care, University of Daugavpils, University of Latvia, Uralic languages, Utah Jazz, Valdis Muižnieks, Valdis Valters, Valmiera, Venta, Venta Rapid, Ventspils, Vidzeme, Vidzeme Upland, Waffen-SS, Warsaw, West Russian Volunteer Army, Western Europe, White wagtail, White-backed woodpecker, Wild boar, Winter Olympic Games, World Bank high-income economy, World Boxing Council, World Choir Games, World Trade Organization, World War I, World War II, World Wide Fund for Nature, Young Latvians, Zemgus Girgensons, .eu, .lv, 1905 Russian Revolution, 1934 Latvian coup d'état, 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, 2004 enlargement of the European Union, 2006 IIHF World Championship, 2006 Riga summit, 2017 French Open – Women's Singles, 21st meridian east, 27th European Film Awards, 29th meridian east, 308th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 5 ft and 1520 mm gauge railways, 55th parallel north, 58th parallel north. Expand index (514 more) »

A cappella

A cappella (Italian for "in the manner of the chapel") music is specifically group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way.

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Adalia bipunctata

Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region.

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Administrative divisions of Latvia

Administrative divisions of Latvia (valid since 1 July 2009).

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Ainaži

Ainaži (pronounced; Heinaste, Haynasch) is a harbour town in the Vidzeme region of Latvia.

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AirBaltic

airBaltic, legally incorporated as AS Air Baltic Corporation, is a state-owned Latvian low-cost carrier and the country's flag carrier, with its head office on the grounds of Riga International Airport in Mārupe municipality near Riga.

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Alūksne

Alūksne is a town on the shores of Lake Alūksne in northeastern Latvia near the borders with Estonia and Russia.

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Allied Command Transformation

Allied Command Transformation (ACT; Le Commandement allié Transformation) is a NATO military command, which was formed in 2003 after North Atlantic Treaty Organisation restructuring.

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.

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Amber

Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.

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Amber Road

The Amber Road was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber from coastal areas of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Andrievs Niedra

Andrievs Niedra (archaic spelling: Andreews Needra; born 8 February 1871 in Tirza parish, Russian Empire – 25 September 1942 in Riga, Reichskommissariat Ostland) was a Latvian writer, Lutheran pastor and the Prime Minister of the German puppet government in Latvia between April and June 1919, during the Latvian War of Independence.

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Andris Biedriņš

Andris Biedriņš (born April 2, 1986) is a Latvian former professional basketball player.

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Arajs Kommando

The Arajs Kommando (also: Sonderkommando Arajs), led by SS commander and collaborator Viktors Arājs, was a unit of Latvian Auxiliary Police (Lettische Hilfspolizei) subordinated to the German Sicherheitsdienst (SD).

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Aristocracy

Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.

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Artūrs Irbe

Artūrs Irbe (born 2 February 1967) is a Latvian professional ice hockey coach and former goaltender.

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ASK Riga

ASK Rīga is a former professional basketball club that was based in Riga, Latvia.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).

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Augusts Kirhenšteins

Augusts Kirhenšteins, formerly spelt Kirchenšteins (18 September 1872 in Mazsalaca – 3 November 1963 in Riga), was a Latvian microbiologist and educator.

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Autonomous administrative division

An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.

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Autonomy

In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.

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Ķegums Hydroelectric Power Station

The Ķegums Hydro Power Plant is the oldest hydropower plant on the river Daugava and the third largest in Latvia located in Ķegums.

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Ķemeri National Park

Ķemeri National Park (Ķemeru nacionālais parks) is a national park west of the city of Jūrmala, Latvia.

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Šiauliai International Airport

Šiauliai International Airport (also known as Zokniai Airport, Zoknių oro uostas) is located southeast of the city of Šiauliai, in northern Lithuania.

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Balance of trade

The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period.

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Baltic Air Policing

The Baltic air-policing mission is a NATO air defence Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) in order to guard the airspace over the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

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Baltic Air Surveillance Network

Baltic Air Surveillance Network (BALTNET) is an air defense radar network operated by the Baltic States of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia.

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Baltic Assembly

The Baltic Assembly (BA) is a regional organisation that promotes intergovernmental cooperation between Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

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Baltic Basketball League

Baltic Basketball League (BBL) is the Baltic states basketball league founded in 2004.

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Baltic Defence College

The Baltic Defence College (official acronym BALTDEFCOL) is a multinational military college, established by the three Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) in 1999.

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Baltic Germans

The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.

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Baltic languages

The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Baltic Naval Squadron

The Baltic Naval Squadron (BALTRON) was inaugurated in 1998.

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Baltic region

The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Baltic Sea Region Programme

The Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007–2013 (alias INTERREG IV B programme for the Baltic Sea region) is a support programme part-financed by the:European Union and Norway.

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Baltic states

The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

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Baltische Landeswehr

The Baltic Landwehr or Baltische Landeswehr ("Baltic Territorial Army") was the name of the unified armed forces of the Couronian and Livonian nobility from 7 December 1918 to 3 July 1919.

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Balto-Slavic languages

The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.

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Balts

The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in the area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and in the Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.

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Bandava

Bandava (in Latvian and Lithuanian; Bandowe) - and old Curonian land which existed in the territory of the Latvia during the late iron age until it was conquered and divided in 1253 by Bishopric of Courland and Livonian Order.

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Battle of Cēsis (1919)

The Battle of Cēsis (Cēsu kaujas; Võnnu lahing Battle of Võnnu; Schlacht von Wenden, Battle of Wenden), fought near Cēsis (or Võnnu, Wenden) in June 1919, was a decisive battle in the Estonian War of Independence and the Latvian War of Independence. After heavy fighting an Estonian force moving from the north, supplemented by Latvian units, repelled Baltic German attacks and went on full counter-attack.

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Battle of Daugavpils

Battle of Daugavpils (also known as the Battle of Dyneburg) was the final battle in the Polish-Soviet campaign of 1919.

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Belarus

Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

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Belarusians

Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.

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Bernhard Borchert

Bernhard Borchert (1 December 1863, Riga - 1945) was a Baltic-German painter who spent the greatest part of his life in Latvia.

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Birch

A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.

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BK VEF Rīga

VEF Rīga is a Latvian professional basketball team that is based in Riga, Latvia.

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BK Ventspils

BK Ventspils is a professional basketball club that is located in Ventspils, Latvia.

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Black stork

The black stork (Ciconia nigra) is a large bird in the stork family Ciconiidae.

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Blizzard

A blizzard is a severe snowstorm characterized by strong sustained winds of at least and lasting for a prolonged period of time—typically three hours or more.

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Bobsleigh

Bobsleigh or bobsled is a winter sport in which teams of two or four teammates make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked, iced tracks in a gravity-powered sleigh.

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Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications

The Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC;, EEKRE; Gremium Europäischer Regulierungsstellen für elektronische Kommunikation, GEREK), based in Riga (Latvia), is the regulating agency of the telecommunication market in the European Union.

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Boreal Kingdom

The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia.

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Bourgeoisie

The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.

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Brown bear

The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.

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Byzantium

Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.

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Cape Kolka

Cape Kolka (Kūolka nanā, Kolkasrags, Old German name - Domesnes, Russian - Колка or мыс Домеснес) - cape on the Baltic Sea, near the entry to Gulf of Riga, in Livonian coast, in the Courland Peninsula of Latvia.

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Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia

With the Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia in 1710 the Swedish dominions Estonia and Livonia were integrated into the Russian EmpireLuts (2006), p. 159 following their conquest during the Great Northern War.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic Church in Latvia

The Roman Catholic Church of Latvia is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.

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Cēsis

Cēsis, (Wenden, Venden, Võnnu, Kieś) is a town in Latvia located in the northern part of the Central Vidzeme Upland.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Choir

A choir (also known as a quire, chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Circumboreal Region

The Circumboreal Region in phytogeography is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.

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Citizenship

Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.

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Climate Change Performance Index

The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) is an annual publication by Germanwatch and Climate Action Network Europe.

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Collective farming

Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.

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Collectivization in the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization (Коллективизация) of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 (in West - between 1948 and 1952) during the ascendancy of Joseph Stalin.

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Common crane

The common crane (Grus grus), also known as the Eurasian crane, is a bird of the family Gruidae, the cranes.

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Common Security and Defence Policy

The Common Security and Defence Policy, CSDP, whose structures are sometimes referred to as the European Defence Union) is the EU's policy arrangements and related institutions in the fields of defence and crisis management. The implementation of the CSDP involves the deployment of military or civilian missions for peace-keeping, conflict prevention and strengthening international security in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Military missions are carried out by EU forces established with contributions from the member states' armed forces. The CSDP also entails collective self-defence amongst member states as well as a Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) in which 25 of the 28 national armed forces pursue structural integration. The Union's High Representative (HR/VP), currently Federica Mogherini, is responsible for proposing and implementing CSDP decisions. Such decisions are adopted by the Foreign Affairs Council (FAC), generally requiring unanimity. The CSDP structures, headed by the HR/VP, comprise relevant sections of the External Action Service (EEAS)—including the Military Staff (EUMS) with its operational headquarters (MPCC)—a number of FAC preparatory bodies—such as the Military Committee (EUMC)—as well as four agencies, including the Defence Agency (EDA).

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Constituent assembly

A constituent assembly or constitutional assembly is a body or assembly of popularly elected representatives composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a document called the constitution.

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Constitution of Latvia

The Constitution of Latvia (Satversme) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Latvia.

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Consumption (economics)

Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.

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Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence

NATO CCD COE, officially the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (K5 or NATO küberkaitsekoostöö keskus) is one of NATO Centres of Excellence, located in Tallinn, Estonia.

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Corn crake

The corn crake, corncrake or landrail (Crex crex) is a bird in the rail family.

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Corruption Perceptions Index

Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".

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Council of Europe

The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

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Council of the Baltic Sea States

The Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) is a regional intergovernmental organisation working on three priority areas: Regional Identity, Safe & Secure Region and Sustainable & Prosperous Region.

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Council of the European Union

The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.

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Courland

Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Kurāmō; German and Kurland; Curonia/Couronia; Курляндия; Kuršas; Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia.

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Courland Governorate

Courland Governorate, also known as the Province of Courland, Governorate of Kurland (Курля́ндская губерния), and Government of Courland (Kurländisches Gouvernement, Kurzemes guberņa), was one of the Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire, that is now part of the Republic of Latvia.

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Courland Peninsula

The Courland Peninsula is the north-western part of Courland.

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Crusader states

The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.

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Cultural regions of Latvia

Cultural regions of Latvia are several areas within Latvia formally recognised as distinct from the rest of the country.

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Curonians

The Curonians or Kurs (Curonian: Kursi; Kuren; kurši; курши; kuršiai; kuralased; Kurowie) were a Baltic tribe living on the shores of the Baltic Sea in what are now the western parts of Latvia and Lithuania from the 5th to the 16th centuries, when they merged with other Baltic tribes.

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Daugava

The Daugava (Daugova) or Western Dvina is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, Russia, flowing through Russia, Belarus, and Latvia and into the Gulf of Riga.

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Daugavpils

Daugavpils (Daugpiļs; Даугавпилс; see other names) is a city in southeastern Latvia, located on the banks of the Daugava River, from which the city gets its name.

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Dāvis Bertāns

Dāvis Bertāns (born 12 November 1992) is a Latvian professional basketball player for the San Antonio Spurs of the National Basketball Association (NBA).

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De jure

In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.

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Debt

Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.

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Democracy Index

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.

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Demographics of Latvia

This article is about the demographic features of the population of the historical territory of Latvia, including population density, ethnic background, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

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Detention (imprisonment)

Detention is the process whereby a state or private citizen lawfully holds a person by removing his or her freedom or liberty at that time.

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Deutsche Welle

Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.

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Devonian

The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.

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Dievs, svētī Latviju!

Dievs, svētī Latviju! (God, Bless Latvia!) is the national anthem of Latvia.

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Dievturība

Dievturība is a Neopagan religious movement which claims to be a modern revival of the folk religion of the Latvians before Christianization in the 13th century.

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Dinamo Riga

Dinamo Riga (Rīgas Dinamo) is a professional ice hockey team based in Riga, Latvia.

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Duchy of Courland and Semigallia

The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Ducatus Curlandiæ et Semigalliæ, Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii, Herzogtum Kurland und Semgallen, Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste) was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726, On 28 March 1795, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in the Third Partition of Poland.

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Duchy of Livonia

The Duchy of Livonia (Księstwo Inflanckie; Livonijos kunigaikštystė; Ducatus Ultradunensis; Üleväina-Liivimaa hertsogkond; Pārdaugavas hercogiste; also referred to as Polish Livonia or Inflanty) was a territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania—and later the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—that existed from 1561 to 1621.

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Ease of doing business index

The ease of doing business index is an index created by Simeon Djankov at the World Bank Group.

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East European Craton

The East European Craton (EEC) is the core of the Baltica proto-plate and consists of three crustal regions/segments: Fennoscandia to the northwest, Volgo-Uralia to the east, and Sarmatia to the south.

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Eastern European Summer Time

Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.

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Eastern European Time

Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Eastern Partnership

The Eastern Partnership (EaP) is an initiative of the European External Action Service of the European Union (EU) governing its relationship with the post-Soviet states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine, intended to provide an avenue for discussions of trade, economic strategy, travel agreements, and other issues between the EU and its Eastern European neighbours.

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Economic bubble

An economic bubble or asset bubble (sometimes also referred to as a speculative bubble, a market bubble, a price bubble, a financial bubble, a speculative mania, or a balloon) is trade in an asset at a price or price range that strongly exceeds the asset's intrinsic value.

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Economic Freedom of the World

Economic Freedom of the World is an annual survey published by the libertarian Canadian think tank Fraser Institute.

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Ecoregion

An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.

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EF English Proficiency Index

The EF English Proficiency Index (EF EPI) attempts to rank countries by the average level of English language skills amongst those adults who took the EF test.

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Einsatzgruppen

Einsatzgruppen ("task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45).

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Electric power distribution

Electric power distribution is the final stage in the delivery of electric power; it carries electricity from the transmission system to individual consumers.

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Electrical equipment

Electrical equipment includes any machine powered by electricity.

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Electricity

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Electronics

Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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Enemy of the people

The term enemy of the people is a designation for the political or class opponents of the subgroup in power within a larger group.

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Environmental Performance Index

The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.

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Estonia

Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Estonians

Estonians (eestlased) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Estonia who speak the Estonian language.

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EU Battlegroup

An EU Battlegroup (EU BG) is a military unit adhering to the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the European Union (EU).

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Eurasian beaver

The Eurasian beaver or European beaver (Castor fiber) is a species of beaver which was once widespread in Eurasia.

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Eurasian lynx

The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Eurasian otter

The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), also known as the European otter, Eurasian river otter, common otter, and Old World otter, is a semiaquatic mammal native to Eurasia.

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Euro

The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

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Euro health consumer index

Euro Health Consumer Index (EHCI) is a comparison of European health care systems based on waiting times, results, and generosity.

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Euro sign

The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).

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Eurobarometer

Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.

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EuroBasket

EuroBasket, also commonly referred to as the European Basketball Championship, is the main international basketball competition that is contested biannually, by the senior men's national teams that are governed by FIBA Europe, which is the European zone within the International Basketball Federation.

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EuroBasket 1935

The 1935 FIBA European Championship, commonly called EuroBasket 1935, was the first FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship, held by FIBA Europe, as well as a test event preceding the first Olympic basketball tournament at the 1936 Summer Olympics.

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EuroBasket 1939

The 1939 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 1939, was the third FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship, held by FIBA Europe.

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EuroBasket 2015

FIBA EuroBasket 2015 was the 39th annual edition of the EuroBasket championship that is organised by FIBA Europe.

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EuroCup Basketball

EuroCup Basketball, commonly known as EuroCup and currently called the 7DAYS EuroCup for name sponsorship reasons, is an annual European-wide second tier level professional basketball club competition that is organized by Euroleague Basketball, since 2002, for eligible European basketball clubs.

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Euroleague Basketball

Euroleague Basketball is the private company that runs and operates the top two continental-wide men's professional club basketball competitions in Europe, the first-tier EuroLeague, and the second-tier EuroCup.

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European bison

The European bison (Bison bonasus), also known as wisent or the European wood bison, is a Eurasian species of bison.

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European Capital of Culture

The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union (EU) for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong pan-European dimension.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Commission against Racism and Intolerance

European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) is the Council of Europe’s independent human rights monitoring body specialised in combating antisemitism, discrimination, racism, religious intolerance, and xenophobia.

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European route E22

The European route E 22 is one of the longest European routes.

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European route E67

European route E 67 is an E-road running from Prague in the Czech Republic to Helsinki in Finland by way of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Eurostat

Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.

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Eurotopics

Eurotopics (euro|topics) is a European press review which is published by the Federal Agency for Civic Education.

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Eurovision Song Contest 2003

The Eurovision Song Contest 2003 was the 48th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.

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Eurozone

No description.

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Evangelical Lutheran Church of Latvia

The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Latvia (Latvijas evaņģēliski luteriskā baznīca, or LELB) is a Lutheran Protestant church in Latvia.

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Executive (government)

The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.

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FIBA EuroChallenge

FIBA EuroChallenge (called the FIBA Europe League in 2003–05, and FIBA EuroCup in 2005–08) was the 3rd tier level transnational men's professional club basketball competition in Europe, from 2003 to 2015.

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FIFA

The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.

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Financial services

Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.

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Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Finnic languages

The Finnic languages (Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic), are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland and Estonia, by about 7 million people.

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Finnic peoples

The Finnic peoples or Baltic Finns consist of the peoples inhabiting the region around the Baltic Sea in Northeastern Europe who speak Finnic languages, including the Finns proper, Estonians (including Võros and Setos), Karelians (including Ludes and Olonets), Veps, Izhorians, Votes, and Livonians as well as their descendants worldwide.

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Flag of Latvia

The national flag of Latvia (Latvijas karogs) was used by independent Latvia from 1918 until the country was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940.

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Floorball

Floorball is a type of floor hockey with five players and a goalkeeper in each team.

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Fog

Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of minute water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface.

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Folk music

Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.

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Folklore

Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.

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Forest management

Forest management is a branch of forestry concerned with overall administrative, economic, legal, and social aspects, as well as scientific and technical aspects, such as silviculture, protection, and forest regulation.

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Fragile States Index

The Fragile States Index (FSI; formerly the Failed States Index) is an annual report published by the United States think tank the Fund for Peace and the American magazine Foreign Policy since 2005.

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Freedom House

Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.

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Freedom Monument

The Freedom Monument (Brīvības piemineklis) is a memorial located in Riga, Latvia, honouring soldiers killed during the Latvian War of Independence (1918–1920).

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Freedom of the press

Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.

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Freikorps

Freikorps ("Free Corps") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, which effectively fought as mercenary or private armies, regardless of their own nationality.

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Frost

Frost is the coating or deposit of ice that may form in humid air in cold conditions, usually overnight.

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Gaiziņkalns

The Gaising or Gaiziņkalns (German: Mesenberg), at 1,022 feet (311,94) above sea level, is the highest point in Latvia.

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Gauja

The Gauja River (Koiva jõgi, Livländische Aa) is a river in Vidzeme, Latvia.

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Gauja National Park

The Gauja National Park (Gaujas nacionālais parks) in Vidzeme is the largest national park in Latvia, with an area of 917.45 km² running from north-east of Sigulda to south-west of Cēsis along the valley of the Gauja River, from which the park takes its name.

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General election

A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are chosen.

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Generalplan Ost

The Generalplan Ost (Master Plan for the East), abbreviated GPO, was the German government's plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe by Germans.

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Geographical distribution of German speakers

In addition to the German-speaking area (Deutscher Sprachraum) in Europe, German-speaking minorities are present in many countries and on all six inhabited continents.

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Geographical distribution of Russian speakers

This article details the geographical distribution of Russian speakers.

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German occupation of Latvia during World War II

The occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany was completed on July 10, 1941 by Germany's armed forces.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Germans

Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Glasnost

In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.

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Global Gender Gap Report

The Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum.

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Global Innovation Index

The Global Innovation Index (GII) is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation.

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Global Peace Index

Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.

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Golden State Warriors

The Golden State Warriors are an American professional basketball team based in the San Francisco Bay Area in Oakland, California.

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Gotthard Kettler

Gotthard von Kettler (also Ketteler, Gotthard Kettler, Herzog von Kurland; 2 February 1517 – 17 May 1587) was the last Master of the Livonian Order and the first Duke of Courland and Semigallia.

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Governorate of Livonia

The Governorate of Livonia (Лифляндская губерния, Liflyandskaya guberniya; Gouvernement Livland, Livländisches Gouvernement; Vidzemes guberņa, after the Latvian inhabited Vidzeme region) was one of the Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire, now divided between the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Estonia.

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Grand Duchy of Lithuania

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.

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Gray wolf

The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Great Northern War

The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Great Northern War plague outbreak

During the Great Northern War (1700–1721), many towns and areas of the Circum-Baltic and East-Central Europe suffered from a severe outbreak of the plague with a peak from 1708 to 1712.

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Gulag

The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.

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Gulf of Riga

The Gulf of Riga, Bay of Riga, or Gulf of Livonia (Rīgas jūras līcis, Liivi laht, Рижский залив) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia.

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Gundars Vētra

Gundars Vētra (born May 22, 1967) is a Latvian former professional basketball player and a current coach.

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Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.

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Health care

Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.

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Heck cattle

Heck cattle are a hardy breed of domestic cattle.

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Heim ins Reich

The Heim ins Reich (meaning "back home to the Reich") was a foreign policy pursued by Adolf Hitler during World War II, beginning in 1938.

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Helmuts Balderis

Helmuts Balderis-Sildedzis (born 31 July 1952) is a retired Latvian soviet ice hockey player.

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Henry of Latvia

Henry of Latvia (Henricus de Lettis, Heinrich von Lettland, Latviešu Indriķis, Läti Henrik; before 1188, Magdeburg, Landgraviate of Thuringia – after 1259 in Papendorf, Livonia (currently Rubene, Kocēni parish, Kocēni Municipality, Latvia)), also known in the English speaking world as Henry of Livonia, was a priest, missionary and historian.

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High Commissioner on National Minorities

Created on July 8, 1992 by the Helsinki Summit Meeting of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), now known as the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the High Commissioner on National Minorities (HCNM) is charged with identifying and seeking early resolution of ethnic tension that might endanger peace, stability or friendly relations between and within the participating states of the OSCE.

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History of Latvia

The history of Latvia began around 9000 BC with the end of the last glacial period in northern Europe.

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History of the Jews in Latvia

The History of the Jews in Latvia dates back to the first Jewish colony established in Piltene in 1571.

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Holocene

The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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House management

In theatre, house management concerns the selling of tickets, the ushering of patrons in front of house areas, and the maintenance and management of the theatre building.

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Human development (humanity)

Human development is the science that seeks to understand how and why the people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time.

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Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Human Development Report

The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual milestone published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

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Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

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Humid continental climate

A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.

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ICT Development Index

The ICT Development Index (IDI) is an index published by the United Nations International Telecommunication Union based on internationally agreed information and communication technologies (ICT) indicators.

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Igors Miglinieks

Igors Yanovich Miglinieks (born 4 May 1964 in Jelgava, Riga, Latvian SSR, USSR) is a retired Soviet and Latvian professional basketball player and coach.

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Index of Economic Freedom

The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.

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Indigenous language

An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Inflanty Voivodeship

The Inflanty Voivodeship (Województwo inflanckie), or Livonian Voivodeship (Livonijos vaivadija), also known as Polish Livonia, was an administrative division and local government in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, since it was formed in the 1620s out of the Wenden Voivodeship and lasted until the First Partition of Poland in 1772.

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International Front of the Working People of Latvia

The International Front of the Working People of the Latvian SSR or Interfront was a pro-Soviet socialist organization in the Latvian SSR, which during the years 1989–1991, supported Latvia remaining part of the USSR.

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International Futures

International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

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International human rights law

International human rights law (IHRL) is the body of international law designed to promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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International Security Assistance Force

The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.

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Irreligion

Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.

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Islam in Latvia

The presence of Muslims in Latvia was first recorded in the early 19th century.

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January Uprising

The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.

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Jāņi

Jāņi is an annual Latvian festival celebrating the summer solstice.

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Jānis Krūmiņš

Jānis Krūmiņš (30 January 1930 – 20 November 1994) was a Soviet-Latvian professional basketball player.

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Jēkabpils

Jēkabpils (Jakobstadt; Jakubów) is a city in southeastern Latvia roughly halfway between Riga and Daugavpils and spanning the Daugava River.

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Jūrmala

Jūrmala ("seaside") is a city in Latvia, about west of Riga.

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Jeļena Ostapenko

Jeļena Ostapenko (born 8 June 1997), also known as Aļona Ostapenko, is a professional tennis player from Latvia.

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Jelgava

Jelgava (Mitau; see also other names) is a city in central Latvia about southwest of Riga with about 63,000 inhabitants.

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Jews

Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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John the Baptist

John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.

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Kaunas

Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.

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Kārlis Skrastiņš

Kārlis Skrastiņš (July 9, 1974 – September 7, 2011) was a Latvian professional ice hockey player.

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Kārlis Ulmanis

Kārlis Augusts Vilhelms Ulmanis (September 4, 1877 in Bērze, Bērze Parish, Courland Governorate, Russian Empire – September 20, 1942 in Krasnovodsk prison, Soviet Union, now Türkmenbaşy, Turkmenistan) was one of the most prominent Latvian politicians of pre-World War II Latvia during the interwar period of independence from November 1918 to June 1940.

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Koknese

Koknese is a historic town in Latvia, the administrative centre of Koknese municipality on the right bank of the Daugava River.

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Kontinental Hockey League

The Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) (Континентальная хоккейная лига (КХЛ), Kontinental'naya hokkeynaya liga) is an international professional ice hockey league founded in 2008.

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Kristaps Porziņģis

Kristaps Porziņģis (born 2 August 1995) is a Latvian professional basketball player for the New York Knicks of the National Basketball Association (NBA).

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Kulak

The kulaks (a, plural кулаки́, p, "fist", by extension "tight-fisted"; kurkuli in Ukraine, but also used in Russian texts in Ukrainian contexts) were a category of affluent peasants in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and the early Soviet Union.

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Kuldīga

Kuldīga (Goldingen) is a town in western Latvia.

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Lake Drīdzis

Lake Drīdzis (Dreidzs in local dialect) is the deepest lake in Latvia with a maximum depth of 65.1 m. Dridzis.

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Lake Lubāns

Lake Lubāns is a lake in Latvia (in Latvian: Lubāns, Lubānas ezers or Lubāna ezers).

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Land reform

Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.

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Landtag

A Landtag (State Diet) is a representative assembly (parliament) in German-speaking countries with legislative authority and competence over a federated state (Land).

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Latgale

Latgale (Latgola; Латгалия; Lettgallia) is one of the four historical and cultural regions of Latvia recognised in the Constitution of the Latvian Republic.

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Latgalian language

Latgalian is spoken in Latgale, the eastern part of Latvia.

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Latgalians

Latgalians, sometimes also Ancient Latvians (Letti, Lethi, modern; variant translations also include Latgallians, Lettigalls or Lettigallians), were an ancient Baltic tribe.

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Latinisation of names

Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.

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Lattelecom

Lattelecom (previously Lattelekom) is a Latvian internet service provider, telecommunications, technology and entertainment company.

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Latvenergo

Latvenergo is a state-owned electric utility company in Latvia.

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Latvia at the Olympics

Latvia first participated at the Olympic Games in 1924.

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Latvia national basketball team

The Latvian national basketball team (Latvijas basketbola izlase) had a remarkable success during the inter-war period, being the smallest in population nation to win the EuroBasket.

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Latvia national football team

The Latvia national football team (Latvijas futbola izlase) represents the country in international football competitions, such as the World Cup and the European Championships.

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Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies

The Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies (until March 6, 2018 – Latvia University of Agriculture (LLU); Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitāte; LLU) is a university in Jelgava, Latvia, specializing in agricultural science, forestry, food technology and related areas.

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Latvian Air Force

Latvian Air Force (Latvijas Gaisa spēki) is the aviation branch of the National Armed Forces.

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Latvian constitutional referendum, 2012

A constitutional referendum on the "Amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of Latvia" was held on 18 February 2012.

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Latvian Hockey Higher League

The Latvian Hockey Higher League (Latvijas Virslīgas hokeja čempionāts), now called Optibet Hockey League due to sponsorship by Optibet, is the top tier league of ice hockey in Latvia currently comprising six teams.

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Latvian Land Forces

The Latvian Land Forces (Sauszemes Spēki, SzS) together with the Latvian National Guard form the land warfare branch of the Latvian National Armed Forces.

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Latvian language

Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Latvian lats

The lats (plural: lati (2–9) latu (10 and more)), ISO 4217 currency code: LVL or 428) was the currency of Latvia until it was replaced by the euro on 1 January 2014. A two-week transition period during which the lats was in circulation alongside the euro ended on 14 January 2014. It is abbreviated as Ls and was subdivided into 100 santīmi (singular: santīms; from French centime).

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Latvian Legion

The Latvian Legion (Latviešu leģions) was a formation of the German Waffen-SS during World War II.

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Latvian Military Police

Latvian Military Police (Militārā Policija (MP)) provide military discipline and legal order.

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Latvian mythology

Latvian mythology is set of paganic beliefs of Latvian people reconstructed from written evidence and folklore materials.

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Latvian National Armed Forces

The Latvian National Armed Forces (Nacionālie Bruņotie Spēki) are the armed forces of the Republic of Latvia.

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Latvian National Armed Forces Staff Battalion

NAF Staff Battalion (NBS Štāba Bataljons) was formed in 1992 in need to reestablish the national and military traditions and rituals of the Republic of Latvia.

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Latvian National Awakening

The Latvian National Awakening (latviešu tautas atmoda) refers to three distinct but ideologically related National revival movements.

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Latvian National Guard

The Latvian National Guard or NG (Latvijas Republikas Zemessardze or ZS) is a part of the Latvian National Armed Forces.

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Latvian Naval Forces

Latvian Naval Forces (Latvijas Jūras Spēki) is the naval warfare branch of the National Armed Forces.

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Latvian Orthodox Church

The Latvian Orthodox Church (Latvijas Pareizticīgā Baznīca, Latviyskaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov’) is a self-governing, i.e. autonomous, Eastern Orthodox Church under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Moscow.

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Latvian partisans

Latvian national partisans were the Latvian national partisans who waged guerrilla warfare against Soviet rule during and after Second World War.

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Latvian Provisional Government

The Latvian Provisional Government (Latvijas Pagaidu valdība; 1918–1920) was formed on November 18, 1918 by the People's Council of Latvia.

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Latvian Railways

Latvian Railways (Latvijas dzelzceļš or LDz) is the main state-owned railway company in Latvia with more than 12,400 employees.

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Latvian Sign Language

Latvian Sign Language is the sign language used by deaf people in Latvia.

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Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic

The Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic (Latvijas Sociālistiskā Padomju Republika, LSPR) was a short-lived socialist republic formed during the Latvian War of Independence.

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Latvian Song and Dance Festival

The Latvian Song and Dance Festival (Latvian Vispārējie latviešu Dziesmu un Deju svētki) is one of the largest amateur choral events in the world and an important event in Latvian culture and social life.

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Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (Latvian SSR; Latvijas Padomju Sociālistiskā Republika; Латвийская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Latviyskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known as Soviet Latvia or Latvia, was a republic of the Soviet Union.

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Latvian Special Tasks Unit

The Special Tasks Unit (Speciālo uzdevumu vienība (SUV)) is a special operations unit of the National Armed Forces.

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Latvian State Language Center

Latvian State Language Centre (VVC; Valsts valodas centrs) is a direct administration institution subordinated to the Minister of Justice of the Republic of Latvia.

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Latvian Supreme Soviet election, 1990

Parliamentary elections were held in the Latvian SSR on 18 March 1990.

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Latvian War of Independence

The Latvian War of Independence (Latvijas brīvības cīņas, literally, "Latvia's freedom struggles"), sometimes called the Latvian War of Liberation (Latvijas atbrīvošanas karš, "War of Latvian Liberation"), was a series of military conflicts in Latvia between 5 December 1918, after the newly proclaimed Republic of Latvia was invaded by Soviet Russia, and the signing of the Latvian-Soviet Riga Peace Treaty on 11 August 1920.

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Latvians

Latvians (latvieši; lețlizt) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to what is modern-day Latvia and the immediate geographical region.

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Latvijas Basketbola līga

The Latvian Basketball League (LBL; Latvijas Basketbola līga) also known as the OlyBet LBL for sponsorship reasons, is the national basketball championship in Latvia; composed of 9 teams.

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Latvijas Gāze

A/S Latvijas Gāze is a Latvian natural gas company, which deals in the importation and sale of natural gas.

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Latvijas Pasts

VAS Latvijas Pasts (Latvian Post) is the main state-owned postal service provider in Latvia headquartered in Riga.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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Legatum Prosperity Index

The Legatum Prosperity Index is an annual ranking developed by the Legatum Institute, a division of the private investment firm Legatum.

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Lesser spotted eagle

The lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina) is a large Eastern European bird of prey.

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Leucanthemum vulgare

Leucanthemum vulgare, the ox-eye daisy, or oxeye daisy, is a widespread flowering plant native to Europe and the temperate regions of Asia and an introduced plant to North America, Australia and New Zealand.

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Lielupe

The Lielupe (in Latvian literally: Large River, Lielupė, Kurländische Aa) is a river in central Latvia.

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Liepāja

Liepāja (pronounced) (Libau; see other names) is a city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic Sea.

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Liepāja International Airport

Liepāja International Airport is a regional airport in western Latvia which is certified for international air traffic in the summer.

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Limbaži

Limbaži (Lemsalu, Lemsal, Limbaž) is a town in the Vidzeme region of northern Latvia.

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

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List of Latvians

This is a list of prominent Latvians with Wikipedia articles.

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List of museums in Latvia

Many of the museums in Latvia are located in the capital, Riga.

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List of non-marine molluscs of Latvia

There are 159 species of non-marine molluscs living in the wild in Latvia.

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Lithuania

Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.

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Lithuania men's national basketball team

The Lithuania men's national basketball team (Lithuanian: Lietuvos nacionalinė vyrų krepšinio rinktinė) participates in FIBA's competitions.

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Lithuanian language

Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Lithuanians

Lithuanians (lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.

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Littorina Sea

Littorina Sea (also Litorina Sea) is a geological brackish water stage of the Baltic Sea, which existed around 7500–4000 BP and followed the Mastogloia Sea, transitional stage of the Ancylus Lake.

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Livonian Coast

Livonian Coast (Līvõd Rānda, Lībiešu krasts) is a territory of Latvia historically inhabited by Livonian people.

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Livonian language

Livonian (Livonian: līvõ kēļ or rāndakēļ) is a Finnic language.

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Livonian Order

The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237.

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Livonian War

The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia), when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.

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Livonians

The Livonians, or Livs (Livonian: līvlizt), are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous to northern Latvia and southwestern Estonia.

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Logistics

Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.

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Logistics Performance Index

The Logistics Performance Index (LPI) is an interactive benchmarking tool created by the World Bank to help countries identify the challenges and opportunities they face in their performance on trade logistics and what they can do to improve their performance.

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Lutheranism

Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.

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Maigonis Valdmanis

Maigonis Valdmanis (September 8, 1933 – October 30, 1999) was a Latvian basketball player.

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Mail

The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels.

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Mairis Briedis

Mairis Briedis (born January 13, 1985) is a Latvian professional boxer.

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Maritime boundary

A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria.

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Maxima Group

Maxima is a Lithuanian retail chain operating in Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Poland and Bulgaria and it is the largest Lithuanian capital company and the largest employer in the Baltic states.

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Māris Štrombergs

Māris Štrombergs (born March 10, 1987 in Valmiera) is a Latvian professional BMX racer.

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Māris Kučinskis

Māris Kučinskis (born 28 November 1961) is a Latvian politician and the current Prime Minister of Latvia.

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Megafauna

In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.

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Metres above sea level

Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.

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Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.

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Minority group

A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.

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Mire

A mire is a wetland type, dominated by living, peat-forming plants.

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Modern Paganism

Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.

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Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.

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Moody's Investors Service

Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corporation, representing the company's traditional line of business and its historical name.

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Moose

The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.

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Multi-National Force – Iraq

The Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I), often referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America (Operation Iraqi Freedom), United Kingdom (Operation TELIC), Australia, Spain and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations.

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Multilingualism

Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.

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Multinational state

A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations.

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National Basketball Association

The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).

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National park

A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Natural gas storage

Natural gas, like many other commodities, can be stored for an indefinite period of time in natural gas storage facilities for later consumption.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nīca Parish

Nīca parish (Nīcas pagasts) is an administrative unit of the Nīca Municipality, Latvia.

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Networked Readiness Index

The World Economic Forum's Networked Readiness Index (NRI), also referred to as Technology Readiness, measures the propensity for countries to exploit the opportunities offered by information and communications technology (ICT).

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New Current

The New Current (Jaunā strāva) in the history of Latvia was a broad leftist social and political movement that followed the First Latvian National Awakening (led by the Young Latvians from the 1850s to the 1880s) and culminated in the 1905 Revolution.

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New York Knicks

The New York Knickerbockers, commonly referred to as the Knicks, are an American professional basketball team based in the borough of Manhattan, in New York City.

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Nils Ušakovs

Nils Ušakovs (Нил Валерьевич Ушаков, Nil Valeryevich Ushakov) (born 8 June 1976) is Latvian politician and former journalist.

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Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics

The Classification of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS; French: Nomenclature des unités territoriales statistiques) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of countries for statistical purposes.

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Non-citizens (Latvia)

Non-citizens (nepilsoņi) in Latvian law are individuals who are not citizens of Latvia or any other country but, who, in accordance with the Latvian law "Regarding the status of citizens of the former USSR who possess neither Latvian nor other citizenship", have the right to a non-citizen passport issued by the Latvian government as well as other specific rights.

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NORDEFCO

NORDEFCO (Nordic Defence Cooperation) is a collaboration among the Nordic countries in the area of defense.

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Nordic Battlegroup

The Nordic Battlegroup (NBG) is one of eighteen European Union battlegroups.

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Nordic Council

The Nordic Council is the official body for formal inter-parliamentary co-operation among the Nordic countries.

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Nordic countries

The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").

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Nordic Investment Bank

The Nordic Investment Bank (NIB) is an international financial institution founded in the mid-1970s by the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

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Nordic-Baltic Eight

Nordic-Baltic Eight (NB8) is a regional co-operation format that includes Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden.

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Northern Dimension

The Northern Dimension is a joint policy between four equal partners - the European Union, Russia, Norway and Iceland - regarding the cross-border and external policies geographically covering North-West Russia, the Baltic Sea and the Arctic regions, including the Barents region.

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Northern Europe

Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.

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Northern Future Forum

Northern Future Forum was an annual, informal meeting of prime ministers, policy innovators, entrepreneurs and business leaders from the 9 nations of Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

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Numeracy

Numeracy is the ability to reason and to apply simple numerical concepts.

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Oak

An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.

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Occupation of the Baltic states

The occupation of the Baltic states involved the military occupation of the three Baltic states—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in June 1940 followed by their incorporation into the USSR as constituent republics in August 1940 - most Western powers never recognised this incorporation.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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OECD Better Life Index

The OECD Better Life Index, in May 2011 by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development following a decade of work on this issue, is a first attempt to bring together internationally comparable measures of well-being in line with the recommendations of the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress also known as the Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Commission.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Olaine

Olaine (Olai) is a city in Latvia that gained town rights in 1967.

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Old Believers

In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.

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On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia

The Declaration "On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia" (Deklarācija par Latvijas Republikas neatkarības atjaunošanu) was adopted on 4 May 1990, by the Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR.

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Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.

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Operation Priboi

Operation Priboi ("Coastal Surf") was the code name for the Soviet mass deportation from the Baltic states on 25–28 March 1949.

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Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.

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Outline of Latvia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Latvia: Latvia – sovereign country located in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Ozolnieki Municipality

Ozolnieki Municipality (Ozolnieku novads) is a municipality in Zemgale, Latvia.

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Paganism

Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).

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Pape Nature Reserve

Pape Nature Reserve is a Nature Reserve in Latvia about 15 km south of Liepaja.

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Parliamentary republic

A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Paul Krugman

Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times.

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Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital

Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital (Paula Stradiņa Klīniskā universitātes slimnīca) is an outpatient and hospital health care service provider in Riga, Latvia.

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Pavel Bermondt-Avalov

Pavel Rafalovich Bermon(d)t-Avalov (Avalishvili) (Павел Рафалович Бермон(д)т-Авалов) (4 March 1877 – 27 January 1974) was an Ussuri Cossack and warlord.

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Pēteris Stučka

Pēteris Stučka, sometimes spelt Pyotr Ivanovich Stuchka (Пётр Ива́нович Сту́чка, Peter Stutschka (in contemporary writings); b. in Koknese parish, Governorate of Livonia – d. January 25, 1932 in Moscow), was the head of the Bolshevik government in Latvia during the Latvian War of Independence, one of the leaders of the New Current movement in the late 19th century, a prolific writer and translator, an editor of major Latvian and Russian socialist and communist newspapers and periodicals, a prominent jurist and educator, and the first president of the Supreme Court of the Soviet Union.

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Pļaviņas Hydroelectric Power Station

The Pļaviņas Hydroelectric Power Station has the largest hydroelectric power plant in the Baltics and one of the biggest in the European Union.

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Perestroika

Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.

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Phytogeography

Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.

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Picea abies

Picea abies, the Norway spruce, is a species of spruce native to Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Piemare

Piemare (Piemarė; Bihavelanc) was one of the main Curonian kihelkonds with an administrative center in Esestua (Seeburg) before the 13th century.

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Planning regions of Latvia

There are five planning regions of Latvia (Latvijas plānošanas reģioni); Kurzeme, Latgale, Riga, Vidzeme and Zemgale.

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Plywood

Plywood is a sheet material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer that are glued together with adjacent layers having their wood grain rotated up to 90 degrees to one another.

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Poles

The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.

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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Polish–Soviet War

The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.

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Polish–Swedish War (1600–11)

The Polish–Swedish War (1600–11) was a continuation of struggle between Sweden and Poland over control of Livonia and Estonia, as well as the dispute over the Swedish throne between Charles IX of Sweden and Sigismund III of Poland.

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Polotsk

Polack (official transliteration), Polotsk or Polatsk (translit, translit, Połock, Polockas, Polotsk) is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River.

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Popular Front of Latvia

The Popular Front of Latvia (Latvijas Tautas fronte) was a political organisation in Latvia in late 1980s and early 1990s which led Latvia to its independence from the Soviet Union.

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Port of Ventspils

The port of Ventspils is an ice-free, deep-water sea port located on Latvia's Baltic coast.

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Precipitation

In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.

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Presidency of the Council of the European Union

The presidency of the Council of the European Union is responsible for the functioning of the Council of the European Union, the upper house of the EU legislature.

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President of Latvia

The President of Latvia (Latvijas Valsts prezidents, literally "State President"), is head of state and commander-in-chief of the National Armed Forces of the Republic of Latvia.

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Priekuļi Parish

Priekuļi parish (Priekuļu pagasts) is an administrative unit of Priekuļi Municipality, Latvia.

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Prime Minister of Latvia

The Prime Minister of Latvia (Ministru prezidents) is the most powerful member of the Government of Latvia, and presides over the Latvian Cabinet of Ministers.

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Principality of Jersika

The principality of Jersika (Gerzika, terra Lettia, Gerzika, Zargrad, Ерсика, Герцике; also known as Лотыголa) was an early medieval Latgalian principality in eastern modern-day Latvia and one of the largest early states in Latvia before the German conquests.

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Privacy

Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively.

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Privacy International

Privacy International (PI) is a UK-based registered charity that defends and promotes the right to privacy across the world.

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Privatization

Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.

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Programme for International Student Assessment

The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.

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Proletariat

The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Proto-Indo-Europeans

The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.

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Public holidays in Latvia

This is a list of holidays in Latvia.

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Public transport

Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.

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Quercus robur

Quercus robur, commonly known as common oak, pedunculate oak, European oak or English oak, is a species of flowering plant in the beech and oak family, Fagaceae.

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Rail Baltica

Rail Baltica (in Estonia also known as Rail Baltic and the Baltic part referred to as the Rail Baltica Global Project) is a greenfield railway infrastructure project to link Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland with a European standard gauge rail line, providing passenger and freight service between the countries and improving rail connections between Central and Northern Europe as well as acting as a catalyst for building the economic corridor in the Northeastern Europe.

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Rail transport

Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.

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Raimonds Vējonis

Raimonds Vējonis (Rájmonds Véjonis; born 15 June 1966) is the current President of Latvia, in office since 2015.

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Raoul Dufy

Raoul Dufy (3 June 1877 – 23 March 1953) was a French Fauvist painter, brother of Jean Dufy.

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Raw material

A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.

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Rāzna National Park

Rāzna National Park (Rāznas nacionālais parks) is a national park in the Latgale region of Latvia.

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Rēzekne

Rēzekne (Latgalian Rēzekne or Rēzne, Rēzekne; see other names) is a city in the Rēzekne River valley in Latgale region of eastern Latvia.

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Rīgas Satiksme

Rīgas Satiksme (Riga Transport) is a municipally-owned public transportation and parking authority serving Riga, Latvia and the surrounding areas.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Red fox

The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.

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Reichskommissariat Ostland

Nazi Germany established the Reichskommissariat Ostland (RKO) in 1941 as the civilian occupation regime in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), the northeastern part of Poland and the west part of the Belarusian SSR during World War II.

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Reporters Without Borders

Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.

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Republic

A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.

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Retail

Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.

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Riga

Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.

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Riga Autobus Factory

The Riga Autobus Factory (abbreviated RAF) was a factory in Jelgava, Latvia, making vans and minibuses under the brand name Latvija.

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Riga City Council

Riga City Council (Rīgas Dome) is the government of Riga City, the capital of Latvia.

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Riga Hydroelectric Power Plant

Riga's Hydroelectric Power Plant (Rīgas hidroelektrostacija, shortened Rīgas HES) is located just beyond Riga's southern border.

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Riga International Airport

Riga International Airport (Starptautiskā lidosta "Rīga") is the international airport of Riga, the capital of Latvia, and the largest airport in the Baltic states with direct flights to 100 destinations in 30 countries.

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Riga Stradiņš University

Rīga Stradiņš University (RSU) (Latvian: Rīgas Stradiņa universitāte, Latin: Universitas Rigensis Stradina) is a public university located in the city of Riga, Latvia.

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Riga Technical University

Riga Technical University (RTU) (Rīgas Tehniskā universitāte) is the oldest technical university in the Baltics established on October 14, 1862.

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Rimi Baltic

Rimi Baltic is a major retail operator in the Baltic states based in Riga, Latvia.

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Roe deer

The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romani people

The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.

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Rupjmaize

Rupjmaize is a traditional dark bread made from rye and is considered to be the staple of the Latvian diet.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian Empire Census

The Russian Imperial Census of 1897 was first and only census carried out in the Russian Empire (Finland was excluded).

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Russian Orthodox Church

The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.

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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.

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Russians

Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.

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Russians in Latvia

Russians have been the largest ethnic minority in Latvia for the last two centuries.

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Russians in the Baltic states

Russians in the Baltic states describes self-identifying ethnic Russians and other primary Russian-speaking communities in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, commonly referred to collectively as the Baltic states.

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Russification

Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.

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Saeima

The Saeima is the parliament of the Republic of Latvia.

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Saint Meinhard

Saint Meinhard (b. 1134 or 1136 - died August 14 or October 11, 1196) was a German canon regular and the first Bishop of Livonia.

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Salaca

The Salaca is a river in northern Latvia.

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Salmon

Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.

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San Antonio Spurs

The San Antonio Spurs are an American professional basketball team based in San Antonio, Texas.

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Sandis Ozoliņš

Sandis Ozoliņš (born August 3, 1972), commonly spelled Sandis Ozolinsh in North America, was the Latvian head coach of Dinamo Riga and a retired ice hockey player.

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Sarmatic mixed forests

The Sarmatic mixed forests constitute an ecoregion within the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome, according to the World Wide Fund for Nature classification (ecoregion PA0436).

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Scenography

Scenography relates to the study and practice of performance design.

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Schengen Area

The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.

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Scots pine

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a species of pine that is native to Eurasia, ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains and Anatolia, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia.

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Secretary of state

The title secretary of state or state secretary is commonly used for senior or mid-level posts in governments around the world.

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Self-determination

The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.

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Selonia

Selonia (Sēlija; Sėla), also known as Augšzeme (the "Highland"), is a cultural region of Latvia encompassing the eastern part of the historical region of Semigallia (Zemgale).

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Selonians

This article is about the Baltic ethnicity.

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Semigallia

Semigallia, also spelled Semigalia, (Zemgale; Semgallen; Žiemgala; Semigalia; Zemgāl) is a historical region of Latvia, sometimes also including a part of Lithuania.

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Semigallians

Semigallians (Latvian Zemgaļi; Žiemgaliai, also Zemgalians, Semigalls, Semigalians) were the Baltic tribe that lived in the southcentral part of contemporary Latvia and northern Lithuania.

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Serfdom

Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.

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Siege of Leningrad

The Siege of Leningrad (also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: Blokada Leningrada) and the 900-Day Siege) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany and the Finnish Army in the north, against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.

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Singing Revolution

The Singing Revolution is a commonly used name for events between 1987 and 1991 that led to the restoration of the independence of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

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Skeleton (sport)

Skeleton is a winter sliding sport in which a person rides a small sled, known as a skeleton bobsled (or -sleigh), down a frozen track while lying face down and head-first.

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Skrunda-1

Skrunda-1, also known as Skrunda-2, is a ghost town and former Soviet radar station located 5 km (3 mi) to the north of Skrunda, in Raņķi Parish, Latvia.

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Slavophilia

Slavophilia was an intellectual movement originating from 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history.

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Slītere National Park

Slītere National Park (Slīteres nacionālais parks) is a national park in Talsi district, Kurzeme Region, on the west coast of Latvia.

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Snow

Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.

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Social Progress Index

The Social Progress Index (SPI) measures the extent to which countries provide for the social and environmental needs of their citizens.

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Socialist realism

Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was imposed as the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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Sorrel soup

Sorrel soup is a soup made from water or broth, sorrel leaves, and salt.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Soviet invasion of Poland

The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet Union military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.

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Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940

The Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940 refers, according to the European Court of Human Rights,European Court of Human Rights cases on Occupation of Baltic States the Government of Latvia, at Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia the United States Department of State, at state.gov and the European Union, by EU to the military occupation of the Republic of Latvia by the Soviet Union ostensibly under the provisions of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany.

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Soviet re-occupation of Latvia in 1944

The Soviet re-occupation of Latvia in 1944 refers to the military occupation of Latvia by the Soviet Union in 1944.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Sovietization

Sovietization is the adoption of a political system based on the model of soviets (workers' councils) or the adoption of a way of life and mentality modelled after the Soviet Union.

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Sphere of influence

In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.

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Standard & Poor's

Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC (S&P) is an American financial services company.

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Standard-gauge railway

A standard-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge of.

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Staple food

A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.

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State continuity of the Baltic states

State continuity of the Baltic states describes the continuity of the Baltic states as legal entities under international lawZiemele (2005).

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State Council of the Soviet Union

Following the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, the State Council of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Государственный Совет СССР), but also known as the State Soviet, was formed on 5 September 1991 and was designed to be one of the most important government offices in Mikhail Gorbachev's Soviet Union.

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Statelessness

In International law a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law".

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Statistical regions of Latvia

There are six statistical regions in Latvia (Latvijas statistiskie reģioni) are Kurzeme, Latgale, Pieriga, Riga, Vidzeme and Zemgale.

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Summer Olympic Games

The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.

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Summer solstice

The summer solstice (or estival solstice), also known as midsummer, occurs when one of the Earth's poles has its maximum tilt toward the Sun.

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Supreme Council of the Republic of Latvia

The Supreme Council of the Republic of Latvia was the transitional parliament of Latvia from 1990 to 1993, after the restoration of independence.

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Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union

The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments.

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Sustainable Society Index

The Sustainable Society Index (SSI) shows the level of sustainability of each of 151 assessed countries.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Swedish Empire

The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.

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Swedish Livonia

Swedish Livonia (Svenska Livland) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1629 until 1721.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Tallinn

Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.

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Tartu

Tartu (South Estonian: Tarto) is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn.

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Tautas padome

Tautas padome — People's Council or People's Council of Latvia was a temporary council which declared Latvia's independence on November 18, 1918 and then acted as a temporary parliament until a Constitutional Assembly (Satversmes sapulce) was elected.

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Tālava

Tālava was a Latgalian county in the northern Vidzeme and northern Latgale region of today's Latvia.

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Telecommunication

Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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Telephone numbers in Latvia

The Latvian telephone numbering plan is a telephone number assigning system used in Latvia.

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Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

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Terra Mariana

Terra Mariana (Medieval Latin for "Land of Mary") was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (Alt-Livland, Vana-Liivimaa, Livonija), which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia.

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Teutonic Order

The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Holocaust

The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Thunderstorm

A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder.

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Tilia

Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees, or bushes, native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere.

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Tilia cordata

Tilia cordata (small-leaved lime, occasionally littleleaf linden or small-leaved linden) is a species of Tilia native to much of Europe.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.

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Treaty of Nystad

The Treaty of Nystad (Ништадтский мир, Uudenkaupungin rauha, Freden i Nystad, Uusikaupunki rahu) was the last peace treaty of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721.

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Truce of Altmark

The six-year Truce of Altmark (or Treaty of Stary Targ, Vertrag von Altmark, Stillståndet i Altmark, Rozejm w Altmarku) was signed on 16 (O.S.)/26 (N.S.) September 1629 at the Altmark (Stary Targ), near Danzig (Gdańsk) by Sweden and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during Thirty Years' War, ending the Polish–Swedish War (1626–1629).

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UEFA

The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; Union des Associations Européennes de Football; Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia.

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UEFA Euro 2004

The 2004 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2004 or simply Euro 2004, was the 12th edition of the UEFA European Championship, a quadrennial football competition contested by the men's national teams of UEFA member associations.

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Ukrainians

Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.

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Unicameralism

In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

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United Baltic Duchy

The proposed United Baltic Duchy, (Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum, Balti Hertsogiriik, Apvienotā Baltijas hercogiste) also known as the Grand Duchy of Livonia, was a state proposed by the Baltic German nobility and exiled Russian nobility after the Russian Revolution and German occupation of the Courland, Livonian, and Estonian governorates of the Russian Empire.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Development Programme

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 710

United Nations Security Council resolution 710, adopted without a vote on 12 September 1991, after examining the application of the Republic of Latvia for membership in the United Nations, the Council recommended to the General Assembly that Latvia be admitted.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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Universal health care

Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.

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University of Daugavpils

The University of Daugavpils (Daugavpils Universitāte, DU) is a public university in Daugavpils, Latvia, and the largest regional university in the country.

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University of Latvia

The University of Latvia (LU) (Latvijas Universitāte) is a state-run university located in Riga, Latvia.

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Uralic languages

The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.

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Utah Jazz

The Utah Jazz are an American professional basketball team based in Salt Lake City, Utah.

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Valdis Muižnieks

Valdis Muižnieks (February 22, 1935 – November 29, 2013) was a Latvian basketball player.

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Valdis Valters

Valdis Valters (born August 4, 1957) is a retired Latvian professional basketball player.

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Valmiera

Valmiera (Wolmar; Wolmar see other names) is the largest city of the historical Vidzeme region, Latvia, with a total area of.

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Venta

Venta is a small city in Lithuania in the Akmenė district municipality.

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Venta Rapid

Venta Rapid (Ventas rumba) is a waterfall on the Venta River in Kuldīga, Latvia.

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Ventspils

Ventspils (see other names) is a town in northwestern Latvia in the historical Courland region of Latvia, and is the sixth largest city in the country.

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Vidzeme

Vidzeme (Vidžemė, Vidūmō) is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia.

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Vidzeme Upland

The Vidzeme Upland (Vidzeme Highland, Latvian: Vidzemes augstiene) is a hilly area of higher elevation in northeastern Latvia, named after the historical region of Vidzeme.

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Waffen-SS

The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.

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Warsaw

Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.

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West Russian Volunteer Army

The West Russian Volunteer Army or Bermontians was an army in the Baltic provinces of the former Russian Empire during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1920.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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White wagtail

The white wagtail (Motacilla alba) is a small passerine bird in the family Motacillidae, which also includes pipits and longclaws.

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White-backed woodpecker

The white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos) is a Eurasian woodpecker belonging to the genus Dendrocopos.

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Wild boar

The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.

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Winter Olympic Games

The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.

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World Bank high-income economy

A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,236 or more in 2016, calculated using the Atlas method.

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World Boxing Council

The World Boxing Council (WBC) is one of four major organizations which sanction world championship boxing bouts, alongside the International Boxing Federation (IBF), World Boxing Association (WBA) and World Boxing Organization (WBO) and one of the two original sanctioning bodies (along with the WBA).

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World Choir Games

The World Choir Games (formerly named the Choir Olympics) is the largest choral event in the world.

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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World Wide Fund for Nature

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.

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Young Latvians

New Latvians (jaunlatvieši) is the term most often applied to the intellectuals of the First Latvian National Awakening (Tautas atmoda), active from the 1850s to the 1880s.

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Zemgus Girgensons

Zemgus Girgensons (born 5 January 1994) is a Latvian professional ice hockey centre currently playing for the Buffalo Sabres of the National Hockey League (NHL).

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.eu

.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).

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.lv

.lv is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Latvia.

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1905 Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.

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1934 Latvian coup d'état

The 1934 Latvian coup d'état, known in Latvia as the May 15 Coup or Ulmanis' Coup, was a self-coup by the veteran Prime Minister Kārlis Ulmanis against the parliamentary system in Latvia.

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1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt

The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.

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2004 enlargement of the European Union

The 2004 enlargement of the European Union was the largest single expansion of the European Union (EU), in terms of territory, number of states, and population to date; however, it was not the largest in terms of gross domestic product.

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2006 IIHF World Championship

The 2006 IIHF World Championship was held in May 2006 in Riga, Latvia.

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2006 Riga summit

The 2006 Riga summit or the 19th NATO Summit was a NATO summit held in the Olympic Sports Centre, Riga, Latvia from 28 to 29 November 2006.

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2017 French Open – Women's Singles

Garbiñe Muguruza was the defending champion, but lost to Kristina Mladenovic in the fourth round.

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21st meridian east

The meridian 21° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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27th European Film Awards

The 27th European Film Awards were presented on 13 December 2014 in Riga, Latvia.

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29th meridian east

The meridian 29° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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308th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

The 308th Rifle Division was a rifle division of the Soviet Red Army during World War II.

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5 ft and 1520 mm gauge railways

Railways with a railway track gauge of were first constructed in the United Kingdom and the United States.

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55th parallel north

The 55th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 55 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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58th parallel north

The 58th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 58 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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ISO 3166-1:LV, LatviA, Latvian Republic, Latvijas Republika, Letland, Letonia, Lettland, Lettonia, Lettonie, Litavia, Republic of Latvia, Republic of Latvia (1918-1940), Republic of Latvia (1918–1940), Republic of Latvia (1919-1940), Republic of Latvia (1919–1940).

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latvia

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