136 relations: Abrene County, Aizsargi, Aleksandrs Grīns, Alfrēds Rubiks, Andrew Ezergailis, Annexation, Anthem of the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, Arajs Kommando, Arturs Sproģis, Arvīds Pelše, Augusts Voss, Baltic Germans, Baltic Military District, Baltic states, Boris Pugo, Cold War, Communist Party of Latvia, Constitution of Latvia, Courland Pocket, Daugavpils, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Eduards Berklavs, Einsatzgruppen, Era of Stagnation, Esperanto, Estonia, European Court of Human Rights, European Economic Community, European Union, Extermination camp, Flag of Latvia, Forced settlements in the Soviet Union, Forest Brothers, Glasnost, Government of Russia, Government of the Soviet Union, Great Purge, Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Gulag, Harvard University Press, History of Latvia, Ivan Serov, Jāņi, Jānis Balodis, Jānis Pīnups, Jānis Sudrabkalns, Jūrmala, Jews, June deportation, Kārlis Ulmanis, ..., Kolka, Latvia, Krišjānis Berķis, Kulak, Latvia, Latvian Central Council, Latvian Diplomatic Service, Latvian independence and democracy referendum, 1991, Latvian language, Latvian lats, Latvian Legion, Latvian parliamentary election, 1940, Latvian partisans, Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, Lavrentiy Beria, Liepāja, List of First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Latvia, Litene, Lithuania, Livonians, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mikhail Suslov, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia), Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, NATO, Nazi Germany, Nikita Khrushchev, NKVD, Ogre, Latvia, On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, Operation Bagration, Operation Priboi, Pļaviņas Hydroelectric Power Station, People's Commissariat for State Security, People's Parliament, Perestroika, Popular Front of Latvia, Puppet state, Raimonds Pauls, Rēzekne, Rīgas Vagonbūves Rūpnīca, Red Army, Reichskommissariat Ostland, Republics of the Soviet Union, Riga Autobus Factory, Riga Film Studio, Romani people, Rumbula, Riga, Russian language, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russians in Latvia, Russification, Serov Instructions, Siberia, Sicherheitsdienst, Socialist realism, Socialist state, Soviet Army, Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940, Soviet partisans, Soviet republic (system of government), Soviet Union, Soviet–Estonian Mutual Assistance Treaty, Soviet–Latvian Mutual Assistance Treaty, State continuity of the Baltic states, State Council of the Soviet Union, Stéphane Courtois, Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, The Black Book of Communism, Transneft, United Nations, United Nations Human Rights Council, United States, Vanšu Bridge, VEF, Ventspils, Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Centre, Vilis Lācis, Vyacheslav Molotov, Waffen-SS, Wehrmacht, Welles Declaration, White émigré, World War II, 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt. Expand index (86 more) » « Shrink index
The Abrene County (Abrenes apriņķis) was an administrative district in the Republic of Latvia with an area of 4292 square kilometers, formed in 1925 from the northern part of the Ludza district and the western part of the Ostrov region as the Jaunlatgale (New Latgale) district, but this was renamed Abrene in 1938.
Aizsargi (literally: "Defenders", "Guards") was a paramilitary organization (Aizsargu organizācija, "Guards Organization"), or a militia, in Latvia during the interbellum period (1918–1939).
Aleksandrs Grīns (1895–1941) was a Latvian writer, translator and army officer.
Alfrēds Rubiks (Альфред Петрович Рубикс; born 24 September 1935 in Daugavpils) is a Latvian communist politician and a former leader of the Communist Party of Latvia.
Andrew (Andrievs) Ezergailis (born 10 December 1930 in Viesīte Municipality) is a retired Professor of History, Ithaca College, Ithaca, New York, United States, known for his research into the 20th-century history of Latvia, particularly of the 1917 Revolution and the Holocaust in Latvia.
Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.
The State Anthem of the Latvian SSR (Latvijas Padomju Sociālistiskās Republikas himna, Гимн Латви́йская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Gimn Latvijskaja Sovetskaja Socialističeskaja Respublika) was the anthem of the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic under the Soviet Union.
The Arajs Kommando (also: Sonderkommando Arajs), led by SS commander and collaborator Viktors Arājs, was a unit of Latvian Auxiliary Police (Lettische Hilfspolizei) subordinated to the German Sicherheitsdienst (SD).
Arturs Sproģis (6 March 1904 – 2 October 1980; Артур Карлович Спрогис) was a Latvian colonel and commander of the Soviet partisans during the occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany in World War II.
Arvīds Pelše (А́рвид Я́нович Пе́льше, Arvid Yanovich Pelshe); – May 29, 1983) was a Latvian Soviet politician, functionary, and historian.
Augusts Voss (Август Эдуардович Восс; 30 October 1919 in Omsk Governorate – 10 February 1994 in Moscow) was a Soviet politician and party functionary of Latvian origin.
The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.
The Baltic Military District was a military district of the Soviet armed forces in the occupied Baltic states, formed briefly before the German invasion during the World War II.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Boris Karlovich Pugo, OAN (Boriss Pugo, Борис Карлович Пуго) (February 19, 1937 – August 22, 1991) was a Soviet Communist political figure, Latvian by ethnicity.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Communist Party of Latvia (Latvijas Komunistiskā partija, LKP; Коммунистическая партия Латвии) was a political party in Latvia.
The Constitution of Latvia (Satversme) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Latvia.
The Courland Pocket was a group of German forces of Reichskommissariat Ostland on the Courland Peninsula that was cut off and surrounded by the Red Army from July 1944 through May 1945.
Daugavpils (Daugpiļs; Даугавпилс; see other names) is a city in southeastern Latvia, located on the banks of the Daugava River, from which the city gets its name.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Eduards Berklavs (June 15, 1914 – November 25, 2004) was a Latvian politician.
Einsatzgruppen ("task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45).
The Era of Stagnation (Период застоя, Stagnation Period, also called the Brezhnevian Stagnation) was the period in the history of the Soviet Union which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982) and continued under Yuri Andropov (1982–1984) and Konstantin Chernenko (1984–1985).
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
The national flag of Latvia (Latvijas karogs) was used by independent Latvia from 1918 until the country was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940.
Forced settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms.
The Forest Brothers (also Brothers of the Forest, Forest Brethren, or Forest Brotherhood; metsavennad, meža brāļi, miško broliai) were Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian partisans who waged a guerrilla war against Soviet rule during the Soviet invasion and occupation of the three Baltic states during, and after, World War II.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
The Government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation.
The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
The history of Latvia began around 9000 BC with the end of the last glacial period in northern Europe.
State Security General Ivan Alexandrovich Serov (Ива́н Алексáндрович Серóв; 13 August 1905 – 1 July 1990) was a prominent leader of Soviet security and intelligence agencies, head of the KGB between March 1954 and December 1958, as well as head of the GRU between 1958 and 1963.
Jāņi is an annual Latvian festival celebrating the summer solstice.
Jānis Balodis (20 February 1881 – 8 August 1965) was an army general, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Latvia (1919–1921), Minister of War (1931–1940) and politician who was one of the principal figures during the Latvian War of Independence and the dictatorship of Kārlis Ulmanis, when he officially was the number two of the regime as the Minister of War, Deputy Prime Minister and Vice President.
Jānis Pīnups (10 May 1925 — 15 June 2007) was the last of the World War II Forest brothers, who only came out of hiding in 1995, at the age of 70.
Jānis Sudrabkalns (May 17, 1894 – September 4, 1975), born Arvīds Peine, was a Latvian poet and writer.
Jūrmala ("seaside") is a city in Latvia, about west of Riga.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The June deportation (Juuniküüditamine, Jūnija deportācijas, Birželio trėmimai) was a mass deportation by the Soviet Union of tens of thousands of people from the territories occupied in 1940–1941: Baltic states, occupied Poland (mostly present-day western Belarus and western Ukraine), and Moldavia.
Kārlis Augusts Vilhelms Ulmanis (September 4, 1877 in Bērze, Bērze Parish, Courland Governorate, Russian Empire – September 20, 1942 in Krasnovodsk prison, Soviet Union, now Türkmenbaşy, Turkmenistan) was one of the most prominent Latvian politicians of pre-World War II Latvia during the interwar period of independence from November 1918 to June 1940.
Kolka (Livonian: Kūolka; Russian: "Колка") is a village in Kolka parish, Dundaga municipality, on the tip of Cape Kolka in Courland in Latvia, on the coast of the Gulf of Riga in ancient Livonia.
Krišjānis Berķis (April 26, 1884 in Īslīce parish, Bauska municipality, Courland, modern Latvia – July 29, 1942 in Perm, Russia) was a Latvian general.
The kulaks (a, plural кулаки́, p, "fist", by extension "tight-fisted"; kurkuli in Ukraine, but also used in Russian texts in Ukrainian contexts) were a category of affluent peasants in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and the early Soviet Union.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
The Latvian Central Council (LCC) ('Latvijas Centrālā Padome, LCP') was the pro-independence Latvian resistance movement during World War II from 1943 onwards.
The Latvian Diplomatic Service maintained representation of independent Latvia during the Soviet occupation of their homeland (1940–1991).
An independence referendum was held in Latvia on 3 March 1991,Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1122 alongside a similar referendum in the Republic of Estonia.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The lats (plural: lati (2–9) latu (10 and more)), ISO 4217 currency code: LVL or 428) was the currency of Latvia until it was replaced by the euro on 1 January 2014. A two-week transition period during which the lats was in circulation alongside the euro ended on 14 January 2014. It is abbreviated as Ls and was subdivided into 100 santīmi (singular: santīms; from French centime).
The Latvian Legion (Latviešu leģions) was a formation of the German Waffen-SS during World War II.
Parliamentary elections were held in Latvia on 14 and 15 July 1940, alongside simultaneous similarly undemocratic and anticonstitutional elections in Estonia and Lithuania, following the Soviet occupation of the three countries.
Latvian national partisans were the Latvian national partisans who waged guerrilla warfare against Soviet rule during and after Second World War.
The Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party (Latvijas Sociāldemokrātiskā Strādnieku Partija, LSDSP) is a social-democratic political party in Latvia.
The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (Latvian SSR; Latvijas Padomju Sociālistiskā Republika; Латвийская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Latviyskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known as Soviet Latvia or Latvia, was a republic of the Soviet Union.
Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (p; tr,; 29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953) was a Soviet politician, Marshal of the Soviet Union and state security administrator, chief of the Soviet security and secret police apparatus (NKVD) under Joseph Stalin during World War II, and promoted to deputy premier under Stalin from 1941.
Liepāja (pronounced) (Libau; see other names) is a city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic Sea.
The First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Latvia was the leader of the Communist Party of Latvia, which was in turn a branch of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Litene (Lettin) is the center of Litene parish, in Gulbene Municipality, in north-eastern Latvia.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The Livonians, or Livs (Livonian: līvlizt), are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous to northern Latvia and southwestern Estonia.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov (Михаи́л Андре́евич Су́слов; 25 January 1982) was a Soviet statesman during the Cold War.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (MFA Russia; Министерство иностранных дел Российской Федерации, МИД РФ) is the central government institution charged with leading the foreign policy and foreign relations of Russia.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
Ogre (Oger; Uogrė) (population 26,573 in 2000 census) is the principal town of Ogre Municipality (and previously Ogre District) in Central Latvia, east of the capital Riga, situated at the confluence of the Daugava and Ogre rivers.
The Declaration "On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia" (Deklarācija par Latvijas Republikas neatkarības atjaunošanu) was adopted on 4 May 1990, by the Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR.
Operation Bagration (Операция Багратио́н, Operatsiya Bagration) was the codename for the Soviet 1944 Belorussian Strategic Offensive Operation, (Белорусская наступательная операция «Багратион», Belorusskaya nastupatelnaya Operatsiya Bagration) a military campaign fought between 22 June and 19 August 1944 in Soviet Byelorussia in the Eastern Front of World War II.
Operation Priboi ("Coastal Surf") was the code name for the Soviet mass deportation from the Baltic states on 25–28 March 1949.
The Pļaviņas Hydroelectric Power Station has the largest hydroelectric power plant in the Baltics and one of the biggest in the European Union.
The People's Commissariat for State Security (Народный комиссариат государственной безопасности) or NKGB, was the name of the Soviet secret police, intelligence and counter-intelligence force that existed from February 3, 1941 to July 20, 1941, and again in 1943, before being renamed the Ministry for State Security (MGB).
The term People's Parliaments or People's Assemblies (Tautas Saeima, Liaudies Seimas) was used in 1940 for puppet legislatures put together after show elections in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to legitimize the occupation by the Soviet Union.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
The Popular Front of Latvia (Latvijas Tautas fronte) was a political organisation in Latvia in late 1980s and early 1990s which led Latvia to its independence from the Soviet Union.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
Ojārs Raimonds Pauls (born 12 January 1936 in Iļģuciems, Riga, Latvia) is a Latvian composer and piano player who is well known in Latvia, Russia, post-Soviet countries and world-wide.
Rēzekne (Latgalian Rēzekne or Rēzne, Rēzekne; see other names) is a city in the Rēzekne River valley in Latgale region of eastern Latvia.
Rīgas Vagonbūves Rūpnīca (RVR) is one of the largest machine-building plants in Latvia, founded in 1895 by the businessman Oscar Freywirth under the name Phoenix.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Nazi Germany established the Reichskommissariat Ostland (RKO) in 1941 as the civilian occupation regime in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), the northeastern part of Poland and the west part of the Belarusian SSR during World War II.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
The Riga Autobus Factory (abbreviated RAF) was a factory in Jelgava, Latvia, making vans and minibuses under the brand name Latvija.
Riga Film Studio (Rīgas kinostudija, (historical)Рижская киностудия.) is a Latvian film production company based in Riga and founded in 1940 on the basis of the earlier private film companies.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Rumbula is a neighbourhood of Riga located in the Latgale Suburb, on the right bank of the Daugava river.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russians have been the largest ethnic minority in Latvia for the last two centuries.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
The so-called Serov Instructions (full title: On the Procedure for Carrying out the Deportation of Anti-Soviet Elements from Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) was an undated top secret document, signed by General Ivan Serov, Deputy People's Commissar for State Security of the Soviet Union (NKGB).
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service), full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS (Security Service of the Reichsführer-SS), or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany.
Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was imposed as the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.
The Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940 refers, according to the European Court of Human Rights,European Court of Human Rights cases on Occupation of Baltic States the Government of Latvia, at Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia the United States Department of State, at state.gov and the European Union, by EU to the military occupation of the Republic of Latvia by the Soviet Union ostensibly under the provisions of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany.
The Soviet partisans were members of resistance movements that fought a guerrilla war against the Axis forces in the Soviet Union, the previously Soviet-occupied territories of interwar Poland in 1941–45 and eastern Finland.
A soviet republic (from Советская республика - Sovetskaya respublika, Räterepublik, République des conseils, Radenrepubliek, Радянська республіка, Савецкая рэспубліка, etc) is a term used to describe a republic in which the government is formed of soviets (workers' councils) and politics are based on soviet democracy and democratic centralism.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Estonian Mutual Assistance Treaty, also known as the Bases Treaty was a bilateral treaty signed in Moscow on 28 September 1939.
The Soviet–Latvian Mutual Assistance Treaty was a bilateral treaty signed in Moscow on October 5, 1939.
State continuity of the Baltic states describes the continuity of the Baltic states as legal entities under international lawZiemele (2005).
Following the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, the State Council of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Государственный Совет СССР), but also known as the State Soviet, was formed on 5 September 1991 and was designed to be one of the most important government offices in Mikhail Gorbachev's Soviet Union.
Stéphane Courtois (born 25 November 1947) is a French historian and university professor, a Director of research at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), Professor at the Catholic Institute of Higher Studies (ICES) in La Roche-sur-Yon, and Director of a collection specialized in the history of communist movements and regimes.
The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments.
The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a 1997 book by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Andrzej Paczkowski and several other European academics documenting a history of political repressions by Communist states, including genocides, extrajudicial executions, deportations, killing population in labor camps and artificially created famines.
Joint Stock Company Transneft (Транснефть) is a Russian state-owned transport monopoly, the largest oil pipeline company in the world.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Vanšu Bridge (Vanšu tilts) in Riga is a cable-stayed bridge that crosses the Daugava river in Riga, the capital of Latvia.
VEF, Latvian acronym for Valsts elektrotehniskā fabrika (State Electrotechnical Factory), is a manufacturer of electrical and electronic products in Riga, Latvia.
Ventspils (see other names) is a town in northwestern Latvia in the historical Courland region of Latvia, and is the sixth largest city in the country.
The Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Centre (Ventspils Starptautiskais radioastronomijas centrs – VIRAC) is an ex-Soviet radio astronomy installation 30 km north of Ventspils, Latvia, on the coast of the Baltic Sea in Ance parish.
Vilis Lācis (May 12, 1904 – February 6, 1966) was a Latvian writer and communist politician.
Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (né Skryabin; 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin.
The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Welles Declaration was a diplomatic statement issued on July 23, 1940 by Sumner Welles, the United States' acting Secretary of State, condemning the June 1940 occupation by the Soviet Union of the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, and refusing to recognize their annexation as Soviet Republics.
A white émigré was a Russian subject who emigrated from Imperial Russia in the wake of the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War, and who was in opposition to the contemporary Russian political climate.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.