152 relations: A, Accusative case, Adalbert Bezzenberger, Administrative divisions of Latvia, Affricate consonant, Alphabet book, AltGr key, Alveolar consonant, Archaism, Ķ, Back vowel, Baltic Germans, Baltic languages, Baltic region, Balto-Slavic languages, Belarusian language, Belarusians, Bible translations into Latvian, C, Calque, Caron, Cedilla, Central vowel, Centum and satem languages, Christianization, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Cognate, Cosmographia (Sebastian Münster), Courland, Curonian language, Curonian Spit, Cyrillic script, Dative case, Dead key, Declension, Dental consonant, Diacritic, Dialect, Diphthong, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, E, English language, Estonian language, Euro, European Union, Final-obstruent devoicing, First language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, ..., Fusional language, Genitive case, German language, German orthography, Germanic languages, Glottochronology, Gotthard Friedrich Stender, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, History of the Jews in Latvia, I, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Instrumental case, Intonation (linguistics), Jānis Endzelīns, Johann Ernst Glück, Kārlis Mīlenbahs, Keyboard layout, Labial consonant, Latgale, Latgalian language, Latgalians (modern), Latin script, Latvia, Latvian Braille, Latvian language, Latvian orthography, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, Latvians, Lecropt, Letter case, Linguistic purism, List of Latin-script letters, Lithuanian language, Livonian Crusade, Livonian language, Livonians, Locative case, Lord's Prayer, Lutheranism, Macron (diacritic), Modifier key, Nasal consonant, New Curonian, New Testament, Nominative case, Numeric keypad, Old Testament, Open vowel, Orthographic transcription, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (phonetics), Personal name, Philip M. Parker, Phoneme, Poles, Polish alphabet, Polish language, Postalveolar consonant, Prefix, Proto-Balto-Slavic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Q, QWERTY, Riga, Romani language, Russian language, Russians, Russification, S, Sebastian Münster, Selonian language, Semigallian language, SMS, Sonorant, Standard language, Stop consonant, Stratum (linguistics), Subject–verb–object, Syllable, Terra Mariana, The First Latvian National Awakening, Tillicoultry, Transliteration, Trill consonant, U, Ukrainian language, Ukrainians, Variety (linguistics), Velar consonant, Verb, Vidzeme, Vocative case, Vowel length, W, Windows-1252, X, Y, Yiddish, Young Latvians, Z. Expand index (102 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
Adalbert Bezzenberger (14 April 1851 – 31 October 1922) was a German philologist.
Administrative divisions of Latvia (valid since 1 July 2009).
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
An alphabet book is a book primarily designed for young children.
AltGr (also Alt Graph, or Right Alt) is a modifier key found on some computer keyboards and is primarily used to type characters that are unusual for the locale of the keyboard layout, such as currency symbols and accented letters.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In language, an archaism (from the ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts.
Ķ, ķ (k-cedilla) is the 17th letter of the Latvian language.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.
The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
The Lutheran pastor Johann Ernst Glück translated the Bible into the Latvian language in 1685.
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
A caron, háček or haček (or; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic (ˇ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation (c > č; >). The use of the haček differs according to the orthographic rules of a language.
A cedilla (from Spanish), also known as cedilha (from Portuguese) or cédille (from French), is a hook or tail (¸) added under certain letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Languages of the Indo-European family are classified as either centum languages or satem languages according to how the dorsal consonants (sounds of "K" and "G" type) of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) developed.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
The Cosmographia ("Cosmography") by Sebastian Münster (1488–1552) from 1544 is the earliest German-language description of the world.
Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Kurāmō; German and Kurland; Curonia/Couronia; Курляндия; Kuršas; Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia.
The Curonian language (Kurisch; kuršu valoda; kuršių kalba), or Old Curonian, is a nearly unattested extinct language spoken by the Curonians, a Baltic tribe who inhabited the Courland Peninsula (now western Latvia) and the nearby Baltic shore.
The Curonian Spit (Kuršių nerija; Ку́ршская коса́ (Kurshskaya kosa); Kurische Nehrung,; Kuršu kāpas) is a 98 km long, thin, curved sand-dune spit that separates the Curonian Lagoon from the Baltic Sea coast.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
A dead key is a special kind of a modifier key on a mechanical typewriter, or computer keyboard, that is typically used to attach a specific diacritic to a base letter.
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Glottochronology (from Attic Greek γλῶττα "tongue, language" and χρóνος "time") is the part of lexicostatistics dealing with the chronological relationship between languages.
Gotthard Friedrich Stender (Gothards Frīdrihs Stenders; 1714-1796) was a Baltic German Lutheran pastor who played an outstanding role in Latvia's history of culture.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
The History of the Jews in Latvia dates back to the first Jewish colony established in Piltene in 1571.
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
Jānis Endzelīns (22 February 1873 – 1 July 1961) was a Latvian linguist.
Johann Ernst Glück (Ernsts Gliks; 10 November 1652 – 5 May 1705) was a German translator and Lutheran theologian active in Livonia, which is now in Latvia.
Kārlis Mīlenbahs (his surname was formerly also written as Mühlenbach, Mühlenbachs, Mǖlenbachs or Mīlenbachs) (18 January 1853 in Courland – 27 March 1916 in Võru, Estonia) was the first native speaker of Latvian to devote his career to linguistics.
A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Latgale (Latgola; Латгалия; Lettgallia) is one of the four historical and cultural regions of Latvia recognised in the Constitution of the Latvian Republic.
Latgalian is spoken in Latgale, the eastern part of Latvia.
The Latgalians (latgalieši, latgalīši) are the ethnic Latvians of Latgale, who speak a distinct dialect of Latvian and share a common culture that sets them apart from other Latvians.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Latvian Braille is the braille alphabet of the Latvian language.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Latvian orthography, historically, has used a system based upon German phonetic principles and the Latgalian dialect was written using Polish orthographic principles.
The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (Latvian SSR; Latvijas Padomju Sociālistiskā Republika; Латвийская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Latviyskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known as Soviet Latvia or Latvia, was a republic of the Soviet Union.
Latvians (latvieši; lețlizt) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to what is modern-day Latvia and the immediate geographical region.
Lecropt (Leac Croit in Gaelic) is a rural parish lying to the west of Bridge of Allan, Scotland.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
Linguistic purism or linguistic protectionism is the practice of defining or recognizing one variety of a language as being purer or of intrinsically higher quality than other varieties.
This is a list of letters of the Latin script.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The Livonian Crusade refers to the conquest of the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes.
Livonian (Livonian: līvõ kēļ or rāndakēļ) is a Finnic language.
The Livonians, or Livs (Livonian: līvlizt), are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous to northern Latvia and southwestern Estonia.
Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
The Lord's Prayer (also called the Our Father, Pater Noster, or the Model Prayer) is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray: Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthaen version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, "very likely in Judea".
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.
In computing, a modifier key is a special key (or combination) on a computer keyboard that temporarily modifies the normal action of another key when pressed together.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The New Curonian language (New Curonian: Kuršu valoda; Nehrungskurisch, Spit Curonian) is a dialect of the Latvian language spoken by the Kurši of the Curonian Spit, a thin strip of land stretching between southwestern Lithuania and Russia.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
A numeric keypad, number pad, numpad, or ten key, is the palm-sized, 17-key section of a standard computer keyboard, usually on the far right.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
Orthographic transcription is a transcription method that employs the standard spelling system of each target language.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
A personal name or full name is the set of names by which an individual is known and that can be recited as a word-group, with the understanding that, taken together, they all relate to that one individual.
Philip M. Parker (born June 20, 1960) holds the INSEAD Chair Professorship of Management Science at INSEAD (Fontainebleau, France).
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
Proto-Balto-Slavic is a reconstructed proto-language descending from Proto-Indo-European (PIE).
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
QWERTY is a keyboard design for Latin-script alphabets.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Sebastian Münster (20 January 1488 – 26 May 1552) was a German cartographer, cosmographer, and a Christian Hebraist scholar.
Selonian was a Baltic language spoken by the Eastern Baltic tribe of the Selonians, who until the 15th century lived in Selonia, a territory in southeastern Latvia and northeastern Lithuania.
Semigallian, or Zemgalian, is an extinct language of the Baltic language sub-family of the Indo-European languages.
SMS (short message service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone, internet, and mobile-device systems.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Terra Mariana (Medieval Latin for "Land of Mary") was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (Alt-Livland, Vana-Liivimaa, Livonija), which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia.
The First Latvian National Awakening or the First Awakening (Pirmā Atmoda) was a cultural and national revival movement between 1850 and 1880 among a group of well-educated Latvians, Jaunlatvieši (Young Latvians), who, opposed to the Baltic German dominance in Livonia and Courland Governorates, created the basis for the modern Latvian nation state.
Tillicoultry (Scottish Gaelic: Tulach Cultraidh, perhaps from older Gaelic Tullich-cul-tir, or "the mount/hill at the back of the country") is a town in Clackmannanshire, Scotland.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
Vidzeme (Vidžemė, Vidūmō) is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia.
The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
Windows-1252 or CP-1252 (code page 1252) is a 1 byte character encoding of the Latin alphabet, used by default in the legacy components of Microsoft Windows in English and some other Western languages (other languages use different default encodings).
X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th and antepenultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
New Latvians (jaunlatvieši) is the term most often applied to the intellectuals of the First Latvian National Awakening (Tautas atmoda), active from the 1850s to the 1880s.
Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.