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Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. [1]

531 relations: Absolute monarchy, Abstraction principle (law), Actus reus, Adam Smith, Admiralty law, Admission to practice law, Age of Enlightenment, Alexis de Tocqueville, Alternative dispute resolution, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek law, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient Rome, Anglican Communion, Armory v Delamirie, Arthashastra, Assault (tort), Assizes, Assyriology, Athenian democracy, Authority, Émile Durkheim, Babylonian law, Bachelor of Civil Law, Bachelor of Laws, Bank regulation, Bankruptcy, Bar association, Bar council, Bar Professional Training Course, Bargaining, Barrister, Basic norm, Battery (tort), Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, Behavior, Bicameralism, Bill (law), Bill of rights, Blackstone Press, Body politic, Breach of duty in English law, Brief (law), British Empire, British Museum, Brocard (law), Brown v. 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Parrish, Western culture, Will and testament, Will to power, William and Mary Quarterly, William Blackstone, William Graham Sumner, Winston Churchill, World Politics, World Trade Organization. Expand index (481 more) »

Absolute monarchy

Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.

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Abstraction principle (law)

The abstract system of title transfer (German Abstraktionsprinzip) is a legal term in German law relating to the law of obligations (Schuldrecht) and property law (Eigentumsrecht).

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Actus reus

Actus reus, sometimes called the external element or the objective element of a crime, is the Latin term for the "guilty act" which, when proved beyond a reasonable doubt in combination with the mens rea, "guilty mind", produces criminal liability in the common law-based criminal law jurisdictions of England and Wales, Canada, Australia, India, Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa, New Zealand, Scotland, Nigeria, Ghana, Ireland, Israel and the United States of America.

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Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

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Admiralty law

Admiralty law or maritime law is a body of law that governs nautical issues and private maritime disputes.

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Admission to practice law

An admission to practice law is acquired when a lawyer receives a license to practice law.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Alexis de Tocqueville

Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.

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Alternative dispute resolution

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR; known in some countries, such as India, as external dispute resolution) includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Greek law

Ancient Greek law consists of the laws and legal institutions of Ancient Greece.

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Ancient Greek philosophy

Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Anglican Communion

The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.

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Armory v Delamirie

, (1722) 1 Strange 505, is a famous English case on personal property law and finder's rights.

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Arthashastra

The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit.

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Assault (tort)

In common law, assault is the tort of acting intentionally, that is with either general or specific intent, causing the reasonable apprehension of an immediate harmful or offensive contact.

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Assizes

The courts of assize, or assizes, were periodic courts held around England and Wales until 1972, when together with the quarter sessions they were abolished by the Courts Act 1971 and replaced by a single permanent Crown Court.

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Assyriology

Assyriology (from Greek Ἀσσυρίᾱ, Assyriā; and -λογία, -logia) is the archaeological, historical, and linguistic study of not just Assyria, but the entirety of ancient Mesopotamia (a region encompassing what is today modern Iraq, north eastern Syria, south eastern Turkey, and north western and south western Iran) and of related cultures that used cuneiform writing.

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Athenian democracy

Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world.

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Authority

Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).

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Émile Durkheim

David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.

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Babylonian law

Babylonian law is a subset of cuneiform law that has received particular study, owing to the singular extent of the associated archaeological material that has been found for it.

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Bachelor of Civil Law

Bachelor of Civil Law (abbreviated BCL or B.C.L.; Baccalaureus Civilis Legis) is the name of various degrees in law conferred by English-language universities.

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Bachelor of Laws

The Bachelor of Laws (Legum Baccalaureus; LL.B. or B.L.) is an undergraduate degree in law (or a first professional degree in law, depending on jurisdiction) originating in England and offered in Japan and most common law jurisdictionsexcept the United States and Canadaas the degree which allows a person to become a lawyer.

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Bank regulation

Bank regulation is a form of government regulation which subjects banks to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, designed to create market transparency between banking institutions and the individuals and corporations with whom they conduct business, among other things.

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Bankruptcy

Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors.

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Bar association

A bar association is a professional association of lawyers.

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Bar council

A bar council (Comhairle an Bharra) or bar association, in a common law jurisdiction with a legal profession split between solicitors and barristers or advocates, is a professional body that regulates the profession of barristers.

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Bar Professional Training Course

The Bar Professional Training Course or BPTC (previously known as Bar Vocational Course, or BVC) is a postgraduate course which allows law graduates to be named and practise as barristers in England and Wales.

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Bargaining

Bargaining or haggling is a type of negotiation in which the buyer and seller of a good or service debate the price and exact nature of a transaction.

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Barrister

A barrister (also known as barrister-at-law or bar-at-law) is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdictions.

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Basic norm

Basic norm (Grundnorm) is a concept in the Pure Theory of Law created by Hans Kelsen, a jurist and legal philosopher.

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Battery (tort)

At common law, battery is the tort of intentionally (or, in Australia, negligently) and voluntarily bringing about an unconsented harmful or offensive contact with a person or to something closely associated with them (e.g. a hat, a purse).

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Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch

The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, abbreviated BGB, is the civil code of Germany.

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Behavior

Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.

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Bicameralism

A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.

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Bill (law)

A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature.

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Bill of rights

A bill of rights, sometimes called a declaration of rights or a charter of rights, is a list of the most important rights to the citizens of a country.

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Blackstone Press

Blackstone Press Limited is now a subsidiary of Oxford University Press.

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Body politic

The body politic is a medieval metaphor that likens a nation to a corporation which had serious historical repercussions throughout recent history and therefore giving the Crown: "As a legal entity today the Crown as executive is regarded as a corporation sole or aggregate", a corporate entity.

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Breach of duty in English law

In English tort law, there can be no liability in negligence unless the claimant establishes both that they were owed a duty of care by the defendant, and that there has been a breach of that duty.

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Brief (law)

A brief (Old French from Latin "brevis", short) is a written legal document used in various legal adversarial systems that is presented to a court arguing why one party to a particular case should prevail.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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British Museum

The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.

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Brocard (law)

A brocard is a legal maxim in Latin that is, in a strict sense, derived from traditional legal authorities, even from ancient Rome.

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Brown v. Board of Education

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.

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Bundestag

The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.

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Burden of proof (law)

The burden of proof (onus probandi) is the obligation of a party in a trial to produce the evidence that will prove the claims they have made against the other party.

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Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Canon law

Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.

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Canon law of the Catholic Church

The canon law of the Catholic Church is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the Catholic Church to regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the Church.

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Capital (economics)

In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.

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Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Carl Schmitt

Carl Schmitt (11 July 1888 – 7 April 1985) was a conservative German jurist and political theorist.

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Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co

Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company is an English contract law decision by the Court of Appeal, which held an advertisement containing certain terms to get a reward constituted a binding unilateral offer that could be accepted by anyone who performed its terms.

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Case citation

Case citation is a system used by legal professionals to identify past court case decisions, either in series of books called reporters or law reports, or in a neutral style that identifies a decision regardless of where it is reported.

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Case law

Case law is a set of past rulings by tribunals that meet their respective jurisdictions' rules to be cited as precedent.

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Casuistry

Casuistry is a method in applied ethics and jurisprudence, often characterised as a critique of principle - or rule-based reasoning.

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Causation (law)

Causation is the "causal relationship between conduct and result".

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Central America

Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Cesare Beccaria

Cesare Bonesana-Beccaria, Marquis of Gualdrasco and Villareggio (15 March 173828 November 1794) was an Italian criminologist, jurist, philosopher, and politician, who is widely considered as the most talented jurist and one of the greatest thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment.

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Chambers (law)

In law, a chambers is a room or office used by barristers or a judge.

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Charitable trust

A charitable trust is an irrevocable trust established for charitable purposes and, in some jurisdictions, a more specific term than "charitable organization".

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Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden

Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden, PC (baptised 21 March 1714 – 18 April 1794) was an English lawyer, judge and Whig politician who was first to hold the title of Earl Camden.

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Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrines certain political, social, and economic rights for European Union (EU) citizens and residents into EU law.

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Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.

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Chicago school of economics

The Chicago school of economics is a neoclassical school of economic thought associated with the work of the faculty at the University of Chicago, some of whom have constructed and popularized its principles.

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Chimney sweep

A chimney sweep is a person who clears ash and soot from chimneys.

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Chinese law

Chinese law is one of the oldest legal traditions in the world.

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Citizenship

Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.

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Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.

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Civil law (common law)

Civil law is a branch of the law.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Civil liberties

Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.

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Civil procedure

Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the rules and standards that courts follow when adjudicating civil lawsuits (as opposed to procedures in criminal law matters).

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Civil society

Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".

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Civilization

A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.

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Classical republicanism

Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.

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Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914

The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 (codified at), was a part of United States antitrust law with the goal of adding further substance to the U.S. antitrust law regime; the Clayton Act sought to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Code of Hammurabi

The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).

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Code of Ur-Nammu

The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known law code surviving today.

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Codex Theodosianus

The Codex Theodosianus (Eng. Theodosian Code) was a compilation of the laws of the Roman Empire under the Christian emperors since 312.

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Codification (law)

In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.

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Cogers

The Society of Cogers (pronounced KOE-jers) is a free speech society, established in 1755 in the City of London.

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Collective bargaining

Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries, working conditions, benefits, and other aspects of workers' compensation and rights for workers.

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Commercial law

Commercial law, also known as trade law, is the body of law that applies to the rights, relations, and conduct of persons and businesses engaged in commerce, merchandising, trade, and sales.

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Commercial use of space

Commercial use of space is the provision of goods or services of commercial value by using equipment sent into Earth orbit or outer space.

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Common law

Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.

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Communist state

A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.

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Community service

Community service is a non-paying job performed by one person or a group of people for the benefit of the community or its institutions.

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Company

A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.

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Competition law

Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.

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Conflict of interest

A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another.

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Conflict of laws

Conflict of laws concerns relations across different legal jurisdictions between natural persons, companies, corporations and other legal entities, their legal obligations and the appropriate forum and procedure for resolving disputes between them.

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Conseil d'État (France)

In France, the Council of State (Conseil d'État) is a body of the French national government that acts both as legal adviser of the executive branch and as the supreme court for administrative justice.

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Consideration

Consideration is a concept of English common law and is a necessity for simple contracts but not for special contracts (contracts by deed).

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Constitution

A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.

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Constitutional convention (political custom)

A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state.

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Constitutional law

Constitutional law is a body of law which defines the role, powers, and structure of different entities within a state, namely, the executive, the parliament or legislature, and the judiciary; as well as the basic rights of citizens and, in federal countries such as the United States and Canada, the relationship between the central government and state, provincial, or territorial governments.

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Constitutionality

Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.

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Consumer protection

In regulatory jurisdictions that provide for this (a list including most or all developed countries with free market economies) consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers, as well as fair trade, competition, and accurate information in the marketplace.

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Contract

A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.

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Contractual term

A contractual term is "Any provision forming part of a contract".

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Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards

The Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, also known as the New York Convention, was adopted by a United Nations diplomatic conference on 10 June 1958 and entered into force on 7 June 1959.

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Copyright

Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.

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Corporate law

Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses.

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Corporate tax

A corporate tax, also called corporation tax or company tax, is a direct tax imposed by a jurisdiction on the income or capital of corporations or analogous legal entities.

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Corpus Juris Civilis

The Corpus Juris (or Iuris) Civilis ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Eastern Roman Emperor.

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Council of Europe

The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

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Counsel

A counsel or a counsellor at law is a person who gives advice and deals with various issues, particularly in legal matters.

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Court

A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.

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Court of Cassation (France)

The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation) founded in 1804 is one of France's courts of last resort having jurisdiction over all matters triable in the judicial stream with scope of certifying questions of law and review in determining miscarriages of justice.

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Court of Chancery

The Court of Chancery was a court of equity in England and Wales that followed a set of loose rules to avoid the slow pace of change and possible harshness (or "inequity") of the common law.

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Court of Common Pleas (England)

The Court of Common Pleas, or Common Bench, was a common law court in the English legal system that covered "common pleas"; actions between subject and subject, which did not concern the king.

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Covenant (law)

A covenant in its most general sense and historical sense, is a solemn promise to engage in or refrain from a specified action.

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Crimes against humanity

Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.

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Criminal justice

Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes.

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Criminal law

Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.

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Criminal procedure

Criminal procedure is the adjudication process of the criminal law.

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Criminology

Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.

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Custom (law)

Custom in law is the established pattern of behavior that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting.

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Damages

In law, damages are an award, typically of money, to be paid to a person as compensation for loss or injury.

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Dark Ages (historiography)

The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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Decree

A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution).

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Defamation

Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that, depending on the law of the country, harms the reputation of an individual, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.

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Defence minister

The title Defence Minister, Minister for Defence, Minister of National Defense, Secretary of Defence, Secretary of State for Defense or some similar variation, is assigned to the person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defence, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states.

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Deliberative democracy

Deliberative democracy or discursive democracy is a form of democracy in which deliberation is central to decision-making.

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Delict

Delict (from Latin dēlictum, past participle of dēlinquere ‘to be at fault, offend’) is a term in civil law jurisdictions for a civil wrong consisting of an intentional or negligent breach of duty of care that inflicts loss or harm and which triggers legal liability for the wrongdoer; however, its meaning varies from one jurisdiction to another.

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Deregulation

Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.

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Dispute resolution

Dispute resolution is the process of resolving disputes between parties.

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Doctor of Law

Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law.

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Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.

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Donoghue v Stevenson

was a landmark court decision in Scots delict law and English tort law by the House of Lords.

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Duma

A duma (дума) is a Russian assembly with advisory or legislative functions.

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Duty of care

In tort law, a duty of care is a legal obligation which is imposed on an individual requiring adherence to a standard of reasonable care while performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others.

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Easement

An easement is a nonpossessory right to use and/or enter onto the real property of another without possessing it.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Economic efficiency

Economic efficiency is, roughly speaking, a situation in which nothing can be improved without something else being hurt.

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Economics

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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Electoral district

An electoral district, (election) precinct, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area, or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.

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Elements of the Philosophy of Right

Elements of the Philosophy of Right (Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts) is a work by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel published in 1820, though the book's original title page dates it to 1821.

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Energy policy

Energy policy is the manner in which a given entity (often governmental) has decided to address issues of energy development including energy production, distribution and consumption.

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England in the Middle Ages

England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the medieval period, from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early Modern period in 1485.

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Entick v Carrington

Entick v Carrington, is a leading case in English law and UK constitutional law establishing the civil liberties of individuals and limiting the scope of executive power.

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Environmental law

Environmental law, also known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment.

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Esquire

Esquire (abbreviated Esq.) is usually a courtesy title.

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Estoppel

Estoppel is a judicial device in common law legal systems whereby a court may prevent, or "estop" (a person who performs this is estopped) a person from making assertions or from going back on his or her word.

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Eugen Ehrlich

Eugen Ehrlich (14 September 1862 – 2 May 1922) was an Austrian legal scholar and sociologist of law.

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European Convention on Human Rights

The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.

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European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.

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European Court of Justice

The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.

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European Economic and Social Committee

The European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) is a consultative body of the European Union (EU) established in 1958.

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European Parliament

The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).

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European Union law

European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European Union.

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Everything which is not forbidden is allowed

"Everything which is not forbidden is allowed" is a constitutional principle of English law—an essential freedom of the ordinary citizen or subject.

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Evidence (law)

The law of evidence, also known as the rules of evidence, encompasses the rules and legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding.

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Executive (government)

The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.

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Failed state

A failed state is a political body that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government no longer function properly (see also fragile state and state collapse).

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Family law

Family law (also called matrimonial law or the law of domestic relations) is an area of the law that deals with family matters and domestic relations.

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Federal Constitutional Court

The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: BVerfG) is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany, established by the constitution or Basic Law of Germany.

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Federal Convention (Germany)

The Federal Convention, also known as the Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung), is a special constitutional body in the political and federal institutional system of Germany, convened solely for the purpose of electing the President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident), either every five years or within 30 days of the premature termination of a presidential term.

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Federal republic

A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.

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Financial regulation

Financial regulation is a form of regulation or supervision, which subjects financial institutions to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, aiming to maintain the integrity of the financial system.

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Fine (penalty)

A fine or mulct is money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence.

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Fiqh

Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.

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Fordham University

Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.

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Foreign minister

A foreign minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations.

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Foreign policy

A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.

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Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.

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Frederic G. Kenyon

Sir Frederic George Kenyon (15 January 1863 – 23 August 1952) was a British palaeographer and biblical and classical scholar.

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Free market

In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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Freedom of association

Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

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Friedrich Carl von Savigny

Friedrich Carl von Savigny (21 February 1779 – 25 October 1861) was a German jurist and historian.

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Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm

Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm (26 December 172319 December 1807) was a German-born French-language journalist, art critic, diplomat and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.

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Fritz Berolzheimer

Fritz Berolzheimer, Juris Doctor (3 January 1869 – 30 September 1920) was a German philosopher of law.

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Gary Becker

Gary Stanley Becker (December 2, 1930 – May 3, 2014) was an American economist and empiricist.

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Gee v Pritchard

Ann Paxton Gee v William Pritchard and William Anderson is a landmark judgment of the UK Chancery court.

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Geneva Conventions

Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.

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Geoffrey Robertson

Geoffrey Ronald Robertson (born 30 September 1946) is a human rights barrister, academic, author and broadcaster.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax

George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, (6 October 1716 – 8 June 1771) was a British statesman of the Georgian era.

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Georges Gurvitch

Georges Gurvitch (Гео́ргий Дави́дович Гу́рвич; November 11, 1894, Novorossiysk – December 12, 1965, Paris) was a Russian-born French sociologist and jurist.

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Ginger beer

Traditional ginger beer is a naturally sweetened and carbonated, usually non-alcoholic beverage.

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Glanville Williams

Glanville Llewelyn Williams QC, FBA (15 February 1911 – 10 April 1997) was a Welsh legal scholar who was the Rouse Ball Professor of English Law at the University of Cambridge from 1968 to 1978 and the Quain Professor of Jurisprudence at University College London from 1945 to 1955.

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Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals

Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten; 1785; also known as the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals and the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals) is the first of Immanuel Kant's mature works on moral philosophy and remains one of the most influential in the field.

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Guardian Council

The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی, Shūra-ye negahbān-e qānūn-e āsāsī) is an appointed and constitutionally mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Guilt (law)

In criminal law, guilt is the state of being responsible for the commission of an offense.

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H. L. A. Hart

Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart, FBA (18 July 1907 – 19 December 1992), usually cited as H. L. A. Hart, was a British legal philosopher, and a major figure in political and legal philosophy.

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Hague Trust Convention

The Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to Trusts and on their Recognition, or Hague Trust Convention is a multilateral treaty developed by the Hague Conference on Private International Law on the Law Applicable to Trusts.

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Halakha

Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.

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Halfpenny (British pre-decimal coin)

The British pre-decimal halfpenny (d) coin, usually simply known as a halfpenny (pronounced), historically occasionally also as the obol, was a unit of currency that equalled half of a penny or of a pound sterling.

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Hammurabi

Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC (according to the Middle Chronology).

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Hanging

Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose or ligature around the neck.

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Hans Kelsen

Hans Kelsen (October 11, 1881 – April 19, 1973) was an Austrian jurist, legal philosopher and political philosopher.

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Head of government

A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Henry II of England

Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.

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Hereditary monarchy

A hereditary monarchy is a form of government and succession of power in which the throne passes from one member of a royal family to another member of the same family.

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High Court of Australia

The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia.

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Hinduism

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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History

History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.

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History of Athens

Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.

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Homo economicus

The term homo economicus, or economic man, is a caricature of economic theory framed as a "mythical species" or word play on homo sapiens, and used in pedagogy.

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House of Lords

The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Hugo Grotius

Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.

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Hugo Sinzheimer

Hugo Sinzheimer (12 April 1875 – 16 September 1945) was a German legal scholar, and author of the Weimar Constitution.

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Hunter v Canary Wharf Ltd

Hunter v Canary Wharf Ltd is an English tort law case on the subject of private nuisance.

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Ijma

Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic term referring to the consensus or agreement of the Muslim scholars basically on religious issues.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Immigration law

Immigration law refers to the national statutes, regulations, and legal precedents governing immigration into and deportation from a country.

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In personam

In personam is a Latin phrase meaning "directed toward a particular person".

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In rem jurisdiction

In rem jurisdiction ("power about or against 'the thing) is a legal term describing the power a court may exercise over property (either real or personal) or a "status" against a person over whom the court does not have in personam jurisdiction.

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Income tax

An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).

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Insanity defense

The insanity defense, also known as the mental disorder defense, is a defense by excuse in a criminal case, arguing that the defendant is not responsible for his or her actions due to an episodic or persistent psychiatric disease at the time of the criminal act.

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Insolvency

Insolvency is the state of being unable to pay the money owed, by a person or company, on time; those in a state of insolvency are said to be insolvent.

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Insurance law

Insurance law is the practice of law surrounding insurance, including insurance policies and claims.

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Intellectual property

Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.

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Intention (criminal law)

In criminal law, intent is one of three general classes of mens rea necessary to constitute a conventional, as opposed to strict liability, crime.

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International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).

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International Criminal Court

The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.

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International human rights law

International human rights law (IHRL) is the body of international law designed to promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels.

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International Labour Organization

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.

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International law

International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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International organization

An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.

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Interpretivism (legal)

Interpretivism is a school of thought in contemporary jurisprudence and the philosophy of law.

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Invitation to treat

An invitation to treat (or invitation to bargain in the United States) is a concept within contract law.

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Is–ought problem

The is–ought problem, as articulated by Scottish philosopher and historian David Hume (1711–76), states that many writers make claims about what ought to be, based on statements about what is.

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Islamic revival

Islamic revival (تجديد, lit. "regeneration, renewal"; also الصحوة الإسلامية, "Islamic awakening") refers to a revival of the Islamic religion.

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Israeli law

Israeli law is based mostly on a common law legal system, though it also reflects the diverse history of the territory of the State of Israel throughout the last hundred years (which was at various times prior to independence under Ottoman, then British sovereignty), as well as the legal systems of its major religious communities.

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Italian Parliament

The Italian Parliament (Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of the Italian Republic.

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James Atkin, Baron Atkin

James Richard Atkin, Baron Atkin, PC, FBA (28 November 1867 – 25 June 1944), known as Dick Atkin, was a lawyer and judge of Irish, Welsh and Australian origin, who practised in England and Wales.

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.

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Jeremy Bentham

Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.

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Job security

Job security is the probability that an individual will keep their job; a job with a high level of job security is such that a person with the job would have a small chance of becoming unemployed.

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John Austin (legal philosopher)

John Austin (3 March 1790 – 1 December 1859) was a noted English legal theorist who strongly influenced British and American law with his analytical approach to jurisprudence and his theory of legal positivism.

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John Coleridge, 1st Baron Coleridge

John Duke Coleridge, 1st Baron Coleridge, PC (3 December 1820 – 14 June 1894) was an English lawyer, judge and Liberal politician.

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John Pratt (judge)

Sir John Pratt (1657–1725) was an English judge and politician.

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John Scott, 1st Earl of Eldon

John Scott, 1st Earl of Eldon, (4 June 1751 – 13 January 1838) was a British barrister and politician.

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John Selden

John Selden (16 December 1584 – 30 November 1654) was an English jurist, a scholar of England's ancient laws and constitution and scholar of Jewish law.

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John, King of England

John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.

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Joint Stock Companies Act 1856

The Joint Stock Companies Act 1856 (19 & 20 Vict. c.47) was a consolidating statute, recognised as the founding piece of modern United Kingdom company law legislation.

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Joseph Raz

Joseph Raz (יוסף רז; born 21 March 1939) is an Israeli legal, moral and political philosopher.

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Judicial review

Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.

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Juridical person

A juridical person is a non-human legal entity, in other words any organization that is not a single natural person but is authorized by law with duties and rights and is recognized as a legal person and as having a distinct identity.

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Juris Doctor

The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree (J.D., JD, D.Jur. or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees.

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Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.

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Jurisdiction (area)

A jurisdiction is an area with a set of laws under the control of a system of courts or government entity which are different from neighbouring areas.

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JURIST

JURIST is an online legal news service hosted by the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, powered by a staff of more than 60 law students working in Pittsburgh and other US locations under the direction of founding Publisher & Editor-in-Chief Professor Bernard Hibbitts, Acting Executive Director Andrew Morgan, Research Director Jaclyn Belczyk, Technical Director Jeremiah Lee, Managing Editor Dave Rodkey and Chief of Staff Ram Eachambadi.

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Jury

A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.

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Justice

Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.

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Justinian I

Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Keech v Sandford

is a foundational case, deriving from English trusts law, on the fiduciary duty of loyalty.

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Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.

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Labor theory of property

The labor theory of property (also called the labor theory of appropriation, labor theory of ownership, labor theory of entitlement, or principle of first appropriation) is a theory of natural law that holds that property originally comes about by the exertion of labor upon natural resources.

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Labour economics

Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.

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Labour law

Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government.

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Law and economics

Law and economics or economic analysis of law is the application of economic theory (specifically microeconomic theory) to the analysis of law that began mostly with scholars from the Chicago school of economics.

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Law dictionary

A law dictionary is a dictionary that is designed and compiled to give information about terms used in the field of law.

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Law enforcement

Law enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterring, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society.

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Law firm

A law firm or a law company is a business entity formed by one or more lawyers to engage in the practice of law.

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Law in South America

The law of South America is one of the most unified in the world.

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Law of agency

The law of agency is an area of commercial law dealing with a set of contractual, quasi-contractual and non-contractual fiduciary relationships that involve a person, called the agent, that is authorized to act on behalf of another (called the principal) to create legal relations with a third party.

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Law of France

In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law ("droit privé") and public law ("droit public").

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Law of Germany

The Law of Germany (Recht Deutschlands), that being the modern German legal system (Deutsches Rechtssystem), is a system of civil law which is founded on the principles laid out by the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, though many of the most important laws, for example most regulations of the civil code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, or BGB) were developed prior to the 1949 constitution.

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Law of Hong Kong

The law of Hong Kong is based on the rule of law and the independence of the judiciary.

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Law of India

Law of India refers to the system of law in modern India.

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Law of Japan

The Law of Japan refers to the entirety of the legally achieved norms in Japan.

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Law of Louisiana

Law in the state of Louisiana is based on a more diverse set of sources than the laws of the other forty-nine states of the United States.

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Law of obligations

The law of obligations is one branch of private law under the civil law legal system and so-called "mixed" legal systems.

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Law of Russia

The primary and fundamental statement of laws in the Russian Federation is the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

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Law of Singapore

The legal system of Singapore is based on the English common law system.

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Law of Taiwan

The Law of the Republic of China, which is commonly known as Taiwan, is mainly based on the civil law system.

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Law of the People's Republic of China

Law of the People's Republic of China, officially referred to as the Socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics, is the legal regime of China, with the separate legal traditions and systems of Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau.

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Law of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has three legal systems, each of which applies to a particular geographical area.

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Law of the United States

The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States.

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Law report

Law reports or reporters are series of books that contain judicial opinions from a selection of case law decided by courts.

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Law society

A law society is an association of lawyers with a regulatory role that included the right to supervise the training, qualifications and conduct of lawyers.

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Law's Empire

Law's Empire is a 1986 text in legal philosophy by the late Oxford scholar Ronald Dworkin which continues his criticism of the philosophy of legal positivism as promoted by H.L.A. Hart during the middle to late 20th century.

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Lawsuit

A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.

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Lawyer

A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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Lease

A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the lessee (user) to pay the lessor (owner) for use of an asset.

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Leasehold estate

A leasehold estate is an ownership of a temporary right to hold land or property in which a lessee or a tenant holds rights of real property by some form of title from a lessor or landlord.

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Legal culture

Legal cultures are described as being temporary outcomes of interactions and occur pursuant to a challenge and response paradigm.

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Legal history

Legal history or the history of law is the study of how law has evolved and why it changed.

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Legal maxim

A legal maxim is an established principle or proposition of law in Western civilization, and a species of aphorism and general maxim.

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Legal periodical

A legal periodical is a periodical about law.

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Legal positivism

Legal positivism is a school of thought of analytical jurisprudence, largely developed by eighteenth- and nineteenth-century legal thinkers such as Jeremy Bentham and John Austin.

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Legal profession

Legal profession is a profession, and legal professionals study, develop and apply law.

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Legal research

Legal research is "the process of identifying and retrieving information necessary to support legal decision-making.

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Legal research in the United States

Legal research is the process of identifying and retrieving information to support legal arguments and decisions.

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Legal transplant

The term legal transplant was coined in the 1970s by the Scottish-American legal scholar W.A.J. 'Alan' Watson to indicate the moving of a rule or a system of law from one country to another (A. Watson, Legal Transplants: An Approach to Comparative Law, Edinburgh, 1974).

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Legal treatise

A legal treatise is a scholarly legal publication containing all the law relating to a particular area, such as criminal law or trusts and estates.

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Legitimacy (political)

In political science, legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.

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Leon Petrazycki

Leon Petrazycki (Polish: Leon Petrażycki; Russian: Лев Иосифович Петражицкий Lev Iosifovich Petrazhitsky; 13 April 1867 in Vitebsk Governorate15 May 1931 in Warsaw) was a Polish philosopher, legal scholar and sociologist.

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Leviathan (Hobbes book)

Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil—commonly referred to as Leviathan—is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651 (revised Latin edition 1668). Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Leviathan ranks as a classic western work on statecraft comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince. Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Hobbes wrote that civil war and the brute situation of a state of nature ("the war of all against all") could only be avoided by strong, undivided government.

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Lex mercatoria

Lex mercatoria (from the Latin for "merchant law"), often referred to as "the Law Merchant" in English, is the body of commercial law used by merchants throughout Europe during the medieval period.

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License

A license (American English) or licence (British English) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit).

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Limited liability

Limited liability is where a person's financial liability is limited to a fixed sum, most commonly the value of a person's investment in a company or partnership.

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List of British monarchs

There have been 12 monarchs of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see Monarchy of the United Kingdom) since the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707.

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Lord Chancellor

The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister.

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Maat

Maat or Ma'at (Egyptian '''mꜣꜥt''' /ˈmuʀʕat/) refers to the ancient Egyptian concepts of truth, balance, order, harmony, law, morality, and justice.

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Magistrate

The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.

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Magna Carta

Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.

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Manusmriti

The Manusmṛti (Sanskrit: मनुस्मृति), also spelled as Manusmriti, is an ancient legal text among the many of Hinduism.

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Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.

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Marine salvage

Marine salvage is the process of recovering a ship and its cargo after a shipwreck or other maritime casualty.

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Master of Laws

The Master of Laws (M.L. or LL.M.; Latin Magister Legum or Legum Magister) is a postgraduate academic degree, pursued by those either holding an undergraduate academic law degree, a professional law degree, or an undergraduate degree in a related subject.

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Master of Studies in Law

A Master of Studies in Law (M.S.L.), also Master of Science of Law or Master of Legal Studies (M.L.S.) or Juris Master (J.M.), or Masters of Jurisprudence (M.J.) is a master's degree offered by some law schools to students who wish to study the law but do not want to become attorneys.

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Max Weber

Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.

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Maxims of equity

Maxims of equity are legal maxims that serve as a set of general principles or rules which are said to govern the way in which equity operates.

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Mecelle

The Mecelle (also transliterated Mejelle, Majalla, Medjelle, or Meğelle, from the Ottoman Turkish, Mecelle-ʾi Aḥkām-ı ʿAdlīye - from Arabic, مجلة الأحكام العدلية Majallah el-Ahkam-i-Adliya) was the civil code of the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Mens rea

Mens rea (Law Latin for "guilty mind") is the mental element of a person's intention to commit a crime; or knowledge that one's action or lack of action would cause a crime to be committed.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.

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Minimum wage

A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.

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Minister (government)

A minister is a politician who heads a government department, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers.

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Monarchy

A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.

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Monopoly on violence

The monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force, also known as the monopoly on violence (Gewaltmonopol des Staates), is a core concept of modern public law, which goes back to Jean Bodin's 1576 work Les Six livres de la République and Thomas Hobbes' 1651 book Leviathan.

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Montesquieu

Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.

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Mortgage law

A mortgage is a security interest in real property held by a lender as a security for a debt, usually a loan of money.

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Mothew v Bristol & West Building Society

Bristol and West Building Society v Mothew is a leading English fiduciary law and professional negligence case, concerning a solicitor's duty of care and skill, and the nature of fiduciary duties.

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Motion of no confidence

A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.

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Municipal law

Municipal law is the national, domestic, or internal law of a sovereign state defined in opposition to international law.

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Muslim world

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.

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Napoleon

Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Napoleonic Code

The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.

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Nathaniel Lindley, Baron Lindley

Nathaniel Lindley, Baron Lindley, (29 November 1828 – 9 December 1921) was an English judge.

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National Assembly (France)

The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).

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National Labor Relations Act of 1935

The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (49 Stat. 449) (also known as the Wagner Act after New York Senator Robert F. Wagner) is a foundational statute of United States labor law which guarantees basic rights of private sector employees to organize into trade unions, engage in collective bargaining for better terms and conditions at work, and take collective action including strike if necessary.

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Nationality law

Nationality law (or citizenship law) is the law in each country and in each jurisdiction within each country which defines the rights and obligations of citizenship within the jurisdiction and the manner in which citizenship is acquired as well as how citizenship may be lost.

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Natural law

Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.

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Necessity (criminal law)

In the criminal law of many nations, necessity may be either a possible justification or an exculpation for breaking the law.

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Negligence

Negligence (Lat. negligentia) is a failure to exercise appropriate and or ethical ruled care expected to be exercised amongst specified circumstances.

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Negotiable instrument

A negotiable instrument is a document guaranteeing the payment of a specific amount of money, either on demand, or at a set time, with the payer usually named on the document.

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Nestle v National Westminster Bank plc

Nestle v National Westminster Bank plc is an English trusts law case concerning the duty of care when a trustee is making an investment.

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Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.

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Norman conquest of England

The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.

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Nuisance

Nuisance (from archaic nocence, through Fr. noisance, nuisance, from Lat. nocere, "to hurt") is a common law tort.

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Occupational safety and health

Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS), occupational health, or workplace health and safety (WHS), is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work.

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Offer and acceptance

Offer and acceptance analysis is a traditional approach in contract law.

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Office of Gas and Electricity Markets

The Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (Ofgem), supporting the Gas and Electricity Markets Authority (GEMA), is the government regulator for the electricity and downstream natural gas markets in Great Britain.

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Old Testament

The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.

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Oliver E. Williamson

Oliver Eaton Williamson (born September 27, 1932) is an American economist, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and recipient of the 2009 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, which he shared with Elinor Ostrom.

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On Crimes and Punishments

On Crimes and Punishments (Dei delitti e delle pene), is a treatise written by Cesare Beccaria in 1764.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Pacta sunt servanda

Pacta sunt servanda (Latin for "agreements must be kept"), a brocard, is a basic principle of civil law, canon law, and international law.

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Paisley, Renfrewshire

Paisley (Pàislig, Paisley) is the largest town in the historic county of Renfrewshire in the west central Lowlands of Scotland and serves as the administrative centre for the Renfrewshire council area.

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Palace of Westminster

The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Paradigm

In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.

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Parliamentary sovereignty

Parliamentary sovereignty (also called parliamentary supremacy or legislative supremacy) is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies.

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Personal property

Personal property is generally considered property that is movable, as opposed to real property or real estate.

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Peter Birks

Peter Brian Herrenden Birks (3 October 1941 – 6 July 2004) was the Regius Professor of Civil Law at the University of Oxford from 1989 until his death.

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Peter King, 1st Baron King

Peter King, 1st Baron King (c. 1669 – 22 July 1734) was an English lawyer and politician, who became Lord Chancellor of England.

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Philosophy

Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Pleading

In law as practiced in countries that follow the English models, a pleading is a formal written statement of a party's claims or defenses to another party's claims in a civil action.

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Pluralism (political philosophy)

Pluralism as a political philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles.

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Political science

Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.

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Politics

Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.

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Pollution

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.

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Positivism

Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.

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Possession (law)

In law, possession is the control a person's intentional exercises toward a thing.

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Pound sterling

The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

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Powell v. Texas

Powell v. Texas,, was a United States Supreme Court case which ruled that a Texas statute criminalizing public intoxication did not violate the Eighth Amendment protection against cruel and unusual punishment.

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Practice of law

In its most general sense, the practice of law involves giving legal advice to clients, drafting legal documents for clients, and representing clients in legal negotiations and court proceedings such as lawsuits, and is applied to the professional services of a lawyer or attorney at law, barrister, solicitor, or civil law notary.

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Precedent

In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.

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President of Austria

The President of Austria, officially the Federal President of the Republic of Austria (Bundespräsident der Republik Österreich) is the head of state of the Austrian Republic.

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President of Brazil

The President of Brazil, officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil.

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President of Germany

The President of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is Bundespräsident, with der Bundesrepublik Deutschland being added in international correspondence; the official English title is President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the head of state of Germany.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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Presidential system

A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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Price fixing

Price fixing is an agreement between participants on the same side in a market to buy or sell a product, service, or commodity only at a fixed price, or maintain the market conditions such that the price is maintained at a given level by controlling supply and demand.

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Primary and secondary legislation

In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legislation, the latter also called delegated legislation or subordinate legislation, are two forms of law, created respectively by the legislative and executive branches of government.

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Prison

A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.

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Private law

Private law is that part of a civil law legal system which is part of the jus commune that involves relationships between individuals, such as the law of contracts or torts (as it is called in the common law), and the law of obligations (as it is called in civil legal systems).

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Privately held company

A privately held company, private company, or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately.

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Privatization

Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.

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Property

Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.

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Proximate cause

In the law, a proximate cause is an event sufficiently related to an injury that the courts deem the event to be the cause of that injury.

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Public interest law

Public interest law loosely, refers to legal practices undertaken to help poor or marginalized people, or to effect change in social policies in the public interest, on 'not for profit' terms (''pro bono publico'').

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Public law

Public law is that part of law which governs relationships between individuals and the government, and those relationships between individuals which are of direct concern to society.

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Public service

Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.

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Pure Theory of Law

Pure Theory of Law (Reine Rechtslehre) is a book by legal theorist Hans Kelsen, first published in 1934 and in a greatly expanded "second edition" (effectively a new book) in 1960.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Qiyas

In Islamic jurisprudence, qiyās (قياس) is the process of deductive analogy in which the teachings of the Hadith are compared and contrasted with those of the Qur'an, in order to apply a known injunction (nass) to a new circumstance and create a new injunction.

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Quebec law

Quebec law is unique in Canada because Quebec is the only province in Canada to have a juridical legal system (pertaining to the administration of justice) under which civil matters are regulated by French-heritage civil law.

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Queen regnant

A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead.

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Quran

The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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R v Dudley and Stephens

R v Dudley and Stephens (1884) 14 QBD 273 DC is a leading English criminal case which established a precedent throughout the common law world that necessity is not a defence to a charge of murder.

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Racial segregation in the United States

Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, includes the segregation or separation of access to facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines.

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Real property

In English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called improvements or fixtures) integrated with or affixed to the land, including crops, buildings, machinery, wells, dams, ponds, mines, canals, and roads, among other things.

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Reasonable person

In law, a reasonable person, reasonable man, or the man on the Clapham omnibus is a hypothetical person of legal fiction crafted by the courts and communicated through case law and jury instructions.

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Red tape

Red tape is an idiom that refers to excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision-making.

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Regulation

Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.

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Rehabilitation (penology)

Rehabilitation is the re-integration into society of a convicted person and the main objective of modern penal policy, to counter habitual offending, also known as criminal recidivism.

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Related rights

In copyright law, related rights (or neighbouring rights) are the rights of a creative work not connected with the work's actual author.

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Religious law

Religious law refers to ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions.

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Religious text

Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.

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Restitution

The law of restitution is the law of gains-based recovery.

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Restraint of trade

Restraint of trade is a common law doctrine relating to the enforceability of contractual restrictions on freedom to conduct business.

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Rhetoric

Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

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Richard Posner

Richard Allen Posner (born January 11, 1939) is an American jurist and economist who was a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit in Chicago from 1981 until 2017, and is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Chicago Law School.

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Right of asylum

The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.

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Right of self-defense

The right of self-defense (also called, when it applies to the defense of another, alter ego defense, defense of others, defense of a third person) is the right for people to use reasonable force or defensive force, for the purpose of defending one's own life or the lives of others, including, in certain circumstances, the use of deadly force.

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Right to a fair trial

A trial which is observed by trial judge or by jury without being partial is a fair trial.

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Rights

Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.

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Robinson v. California

Robinson v. California,, is the first decision of the United States Supreme Court in which the Eighth Amendment of the Constitution was interpreted to prohibit criminalization of particular acts or conduct, as contrasted with prohibiting the use of a particular form of punishment for a crime.

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Rockefeller Foundation

The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman law

Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Romford

Romford is a large town in East London and the administrative centre of the London Borough of Havering.

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Romford Market

Romford Market is a large open market with 270 stalls, – Romford Market located in Romford, London Borough of Havering, Greater London, England.

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Ronald Coase

Ronald Harry Coase (29 December 1910 – 2 September 2013) was a British economist and author.

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Ronald Dworkin

Ronald Myles Dworkin, FBA (December 11, 1931 – February 14, 2013) was an American philosopher, jurist, and scholar of United States constitutional law.

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Royal prerogative

The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.

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Rule according to higher law

The rule according to a higher law means that no law may be enforced by the government unless it conforms with certain universal principles (written or unwritten) of fairness, morality, and justice.

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".

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Sale of Goods Act 1979

The Sale of Goods Act 1979 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which regulated English contract law and UK commercial law in respect of goods that are sold and bought.

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Sanctions (law)

Sanctions, in law and legal definition, are penalties or other means of enforcement used to provide incentives for obedience with the law, or with rules and regulations.

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Scots law

Scots law is the legal system of Scotland.

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Sentence (law)

A sentence is a decree of punishment of the court in criminal procedure.

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Separation of church and state

The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.

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Separation of powers

The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.

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Share (finance)

In financial markets, a share is a unit used as mutual funds, limited partnerships, and real estate investment trusts.

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Sharia

Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.

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Sherman Antitrust Act

The Sherman Antitrust Act (Sherman Act) is a landmark federal statute in the history of United States antitrust law (or "competition law") passed by Congress in 1890 under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison.

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Show trial

A show trial is a public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the defendant.

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Slavery

Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Social constructionism

Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.

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Social law

Social law is a unified concept of law, which replaces the classical division of public law and private law.

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Social norm

From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.

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Social order

The term social order can be used in two senses.

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Social security

Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

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Socialist law

Socialist law or Soviet law denotes a general type of legal system which has been used in communist and formerly communist states.

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Society

A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

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Sociology

Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Sociology of law

The sociology of law (or legal sociology) is often described as a sub-discipline of sociology or an interdisciplinary approach within legal studies.

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Solonian Constitution

The Solonian Constitution was created by Solon in the early 6th century BC.

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Sources of international law

International law is the name of a body of rules which regulate the conduct of sovereign states in their relations with one another.

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Sources of law

Sources of law are the origins of laws, the binding rules that enable any state to govern its territory.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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South Sea Company

The South Sea Company (officially The Governor and Company of the merchants of Great Britain, trading to the South Seas and other parts of America, and for the encouragement of fishing) was a British joint-stock company founded in 1711, created as a public-private partnership to consolidate and reduce the cost of national debt.

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Southampton

Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Space law

Space law encompasses national and international law governing activities in outer space.

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

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State (polity)

A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.

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State of emergency

A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.

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Statelessness

In International law a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law".

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States parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

The states parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court are those sovereign states that have ratified, or have otherwise become party to, the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.

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Statute

A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.

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Statutory law

Statutory law or statute law is written law set down by a body of legislature or by a singular legislator (in the case of absolute monarchy).

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Stele

A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.

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Strict liability (criminal)

In criminal law, strict liability is liability for which mens rea (Latin for "guilty mind") does not have to be proven in relation to one or more elements comprising the actus reus (Latin for "guilty act") although intention, recklessness or knowledge may be required in relation to other elements of the offense.

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Sturges v Bridgman

Sturges v Bridgman (1879) LR 11 Ch D 852 is a landmark case in nuisance.

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Sumer

SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Supranational law

Supranational law is a form of international law, based on the limitation of the rights of sovereign nations between one another.

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Supreme Constitutional Court (Egypt)

The Supreme Constitutional Court (المحكمة الدستورية العليا, El Mahkama El Dustūrīya El ‘Ulyā) is an independent judicial body in Egypt, located in the Cairo suburb of Maadi.

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Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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System

A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.

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Taff Vale Rly Co v Amalgamated Society of Rly Servants

Taff Vale Railway Co v Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, commonly known as the Taff Vale case, is a formative case in UK labour law.

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Tax law

Tax law is an area of legal study dealing with the constitutional, common-law, statutory, tax treaty, and regulatory rules that constitute the law applicable to taxation.

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The Concept of Law

The Concept of Law is the most famous work of the legal philosopher H. L. A. Hart.

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The Constitution of Liberty

The Constitution of Liberty is a book by Austrian economist and Nobel Prize recipient Friedrich A. Hayek.

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The Nature of the Firm

“The Nature of the Firm” (1937), is an article by Ronald Coase.

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The Problem of Social Cost

"The Problem of Social Cost" (1960) by Ronald Coase, then a faculty member at the University of Virginia, is an article dealing with the economic problem of externalities.

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The Social Contract

The Social Contract, originally published as On the Social Contract; or, Principles of Political Rights (Du contrat social; ou Principes du droit politique) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is a 1762 book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society, which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality (1754).

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The Spirit of the Laws

The Spirit of the Laws (French: De l'esprit des lois, originally spelled De l'esprit des loix; also sometimes translated The Spirit of Laws) is a treatise on political theory, as well as a pioneering work in comparative law, published in 1748 by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu.

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Theodor Geiger

Theodor Julius Geiger (9 November 1891 in Munich, Germany - 16 June 1952) was a German socialist, lawyer and sociologist who studied Sociology of Law, social stratification and social mobility, methodology, and intelligentsia, among other things.

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Theodosius II

Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius Junior Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Βʹ; 10 April 401 – 28 July 450),"Theodosius II" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 2051.

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Thomas Aquinas

Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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Thomas More

Sir Thomas More (7 February 14786 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist.

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Thurman Arnold

Thurman Wesley Arnold (June 2, 1891 – November 7, 1969) was an iconoclastic Washington, D.C. lawyer.

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Torah

Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.

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Tort

A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.

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Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992

The Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 is a UK Act of Parliament which regulates British labour law.

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Traditional Chinese law

Traditional Chinese law refers to the laws, regulations and rules used in China up to 1911, when the last imperial dynasty fell.

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Transaction cost

In economics and related disciplines, a transaction cost is a cost in making any economic trade when participating in a market.

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Transactional law

Transactional law refers to the practice of private law relating to money, business, and commerce.

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Translating "law" to other European languages

The translation of "law" to other European languages faces several difficulties.

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Transliteration

Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).

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Treatise on Law

Treatise on Law is St. Thomas Aquinas' major work of legal philosophy.

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Treaty of Lisbon

The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).

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Trespass

Trespass is an area of criminal law or tort law broadly divided into three groups: trespass to the person, trespass to chattels and trespass to land.

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Trust law

A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.

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Two Treatises of Government

Two Treatises of Government (or Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, The False Principles, and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, and His Followers, Are Detected and Overthrown. The Latter Is an Essay Concerning The True Original, Extent, and End of Civil Government) is a work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke.

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Unicameralism

In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

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Uniform Commercial Code

The Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), first published in 1952, is one of a number of uniform acts that have been put into law with the goal of harmonizing the law of sales and other commercial transactions across the United States of America (U.S.) through UCC adoption by all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. territories.

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Union of South American Nations

The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising twelve South American countries.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982.

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United States Bill of Rights

The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States Constitution

The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.

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University of Bologna

The University of Bologna (Università di Bologna, UNIBO), founded in 1088, is the oldest university in continuous operation, as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe.

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Unjust enrichment

In contract law, unjust enrichment occurs when one person is enriched at the expense of another in circumstances that the law sees as unjust.

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Ur-Nammu

Ur-Nammu (or Ur-Namma, Ur-Engur, Ur-Gur, Sumerian:, ca. 2047-2030 BC short chronology) founded the Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur, in southern Mesopotamia, following several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian rule.

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Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.

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Value-added tax

A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution.

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Voting

Voting is a method for a group, such as, a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion, usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns.

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Wall Street Crash of 1929

The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29), the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday"), and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects.

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Water resources law

Water resources law (in some jurisdictions, shortened to "water law") is the field of law dealing with the ownership, control, and use of water as a resource.

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Welfare economics

Welfare economics is a branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to evaluate well-being (welfare) at the aggregate (economy-wide) level.

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West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish

West Coast Hotel Co.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.

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Will and testament

A will or testament is a legal document by which a person, the testator, expresses their wishes as to how their property is to be distributed at death, and names one or more persons, the executor, to manage the estate until its final distribution.

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Will to power

The will to power (der Wille zur Macht) is a prominent concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.

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William and Mary Quarterly

The William and Mary Quarterly is a quarterly history journal published by the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture.

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William Blackstone

Sir William Blackstone (10 July 1723 – 14 February 1780) was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century.

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William Graham Sumner

William Graham Sumner (October 30, 1840 – April 12, 1910) was a classical liberal American social scientist.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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World Politics

World Politics is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering political science and international relations.

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.

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Branch of law, Fiscal law, Illegality, Irreligious law, Just law, Law making, Law-abiding, Law-making, Lawful, Lawfully, Lawfulness, Laws, Legal, Legal activity, Legal concept, Legal institutions, Legal prescription, Legal rule, Legal theory, Legally, Legislative system, Principles of law, Secular laws, Temporal law, Unjust law.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law

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