233 relations: Act of Congress, Administrative Procedure Act (United States), Admission to the bar in the United States, Alex Kozinski, American Revolutionary War, American rule (attorney's fees), Annotated Code of Maryland, Anton-Hermann Chroust, Antonin Scalia, Arbitration, Arizona Revised Statutes, Arkansas, Article Three of the United States Constitution, Attorneys in the United States, Aviation, Bill of attainder, Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents, Black's Law Dictionary, Capital punishment in the United States, Case law, Case or Controversy Clause, Certiorari, Chevron U.S.A., Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., City, Civil law (legal system), Civil procedure, Class action, Code of Federal Regulations, Codification (law), Columbia University Press, Commerce Clause, Common carrier, Common law, Commonwealth of Nations, Constitution of California, Constitutionality, Contract, Cooper v. Aaron, Copyright, County (United States), Crime, Criminal law, Criminal procedure, David Dudley Field II, Delaware Court of Chancery, Deposition (law), Dickerson v. United States, Discovery (law), Disneyland, Diversity jurisdiction, ..., Drunk drivers, Dudgeon v United Kingdom, England, English law, English rule (attorney's fees), Equity (law), Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins, Exclusionary rule, Executive (government), Family law, Federal Arbitration Act, Federal government of the United States, Federal judiciary of the United States, Federal Register, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Federalism in the United States, Felony, Fine (penalty), First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Florida State University Law Review, Force (law), Foreign relations, Founding Fathers of the United States, Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fraud, Fraudulent Conveyances Act 1571, Frederick Schauer, Government agency, Government of Mississippi, Government of Missouri, Greenwood Publishing Group, Gridlock (politics), Habeas corpus, Head Money Cases, Herbert Hovenkamp, Idaho, Imprisonment, Indian reservation, Indiana Code, Insurance, Intellectual property, Iowa, Judiciary Act, Jury, Kansas, Kentucky Revised Statutes, Kermit L. Hall, Klaxon Co. v. Stentor Electric Manufacturing Co., Labour law, Law, Law of California, Law of Colorado, Law of Connecticut, Law of Florida, Law of Georgia (U.S. state), Law of Illinois, Law of Louisiana, Law of Massachusetts, Law of Michigan, Law of New Jersey, Law of New York (state), Law of North Carolina, Law of Ohio, Law of Oklahoma, Law of Pennsylvania, Law of Texas, Law of Virginia, Law of Washington (state), Law school in the United States, Lawrence v. Texas, Legal education in the United States, Legal fiction, Legal research in the United States, List of courts of the United States, List of federal agencies in the United States, List of metropolitan statistical areas, List of national legal systems, List of sources of law in the United States, List of Uniform Acts (United States), List of United States federal legislation, Lists of United States Supreme Court cases, Los Angeles, Louisiana, Majority opinion, Marbury v. Madison, McCarran–Ferguson Act, Medication, Michigan Territory, Minnesota Statutes, Miranda warning, Misdemeanor, Murder, My Life in Court, National Archives and Records Administration, National Center for State Courts, National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, Natural law, Negligent infliction of emotional distress, Nevada Revised Statutes, North Dakota Century Code, Office of the Federal Register, Office of the Law Revision Counsel, Oregon Revised Statutes, Originalism, Oxford University Press, Patent, Planned Parenthood v. Casey, Pleading, Plenary power, Precedent, Princeton University Press, Prison, Privacy laws of the United States, Probation, Product liability, Property law, Prosecutor, Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins, Public policy, Public policy doctrine, Rail transport, Rape, Reception statute, Recreational drug use, Regulation, Restatement (Second) of Contracts, Restitution, Roger J. Traynor, Rule of law, Rulemaking, Session laws, Skidmore v. Swift & Co., Slip law, Sovereign, Sovereignty, Special district (United States), State constitution (United States), State court (United States), State government, State law (United States), State supreme court, Statute, Statute of Frauds, Statutory law, Stephen Breyer, Strict liability, Substantive due process, Summary judgment, Summary offence, Supreme Court of California, Supreme Court of Georgia (U.S. state), Tariff, Taxing and Spending Clause, Telecommunication, Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Third Enforcement Act, Three-strikes law, Tort, Township, Trademark, Treaty, U.S. state, Unconscionability, United States, United States administrative law, United States antitrust law, United States Armed Forces, United States Code, United States Constitution, United States constitutional law, United States dollar, United States Government Publishing Office, United States House of Representatives, United States Postal Service, United States Senate, United States Statutes at Large, United States v. Lopez, United States v. Virginia, Vermont Statutes Annotated, Warranty, West (publisher), William Blackstone, Yale University Press. Expand index (183 more) » « Shrink index
An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress.
The Administrative Procedure Act (APA),, is the United States federal statute that governs the way in which administrative agencies of the federal government of the United States may propose and establish regulations.
Admission to the bar in the United States is the granting of permission by a particular court system to a lawyer to practice law in that system.
Alex Kozinski (born July 23, 1950) is a former United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, where he served from 1985 until announcing his retirement on December 18, 2017, after a growing number of allegations of improper sexual conduct.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
The American rule (capitalized as American Rule in some jurisdictions) is a legal rule controlling assessment of attorneys' fees arising out of litigation.
The Annotated Code of Maryland, published by The Michie Company, is the official codification of the statutory laws of Maryland.
Anton-Hermann Chroust (29 January 1907 – January 1982) was a German-American jurist, philosopher and historian.
Antonin Gregory Scalia (March 11, 1936 – February 13, 2016) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016.
Arbitration, a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), is a way to resolve disputes outside the courts.
The Arizona Revised Statutes (ARS) is the name given to the statutory laws in the state of Arizona.
Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.
Article Three of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government.
An attorney at law (or attorney-at-law) in the United States is a practitioner in a court of law who is legally qualified to prosecute and defend actions in such court on the retainer of clients.
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry.
A bill of attainder (also known as an act of attainder or writ of attainder or bill of pains and penalties) is an act of a legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime and punishing them, often without a trial.
Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents, 403 U.S. 388 (1971), was a case in which the US Supreme Court ruled that an implied cause of action existed for an individual whose Fourth Amendment freedom from unreasonable search and seizures had been violated by the Federal Bureau of Narcotics.
Black's Law is the most widely used law dictionary in the United States.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the United States, currently used by 31 states, the federal government, and the military.
Case law is a set of past rulings by tribunals that meet their respective jurisdictions' rules to be cited as precedent.
The Supreme Court of the United States has interpreted the Case or Controversy Clause of Article III of the United States Constitution (found in Art. III, Section 2, Clause 1) as embodying two distinct limitations on exercise of judicial review.
Certiorari, often abbreviated cert. in the United States, is a process for seeking judicial review and a writ issued by a court that agrees to review.
Chevron U.S.A., Inc.
A city is a large human settlement.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the rules and standards that courts follow when adjudicating civil lawsuits (as opposed to procedures in criminal law matters).
A class action, class suit, or representative action is a type of lawsuit where one of the parties is a group of people who are represented collectively by a member of that group.
The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States.
In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The Commerce Clause describes an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3).
A common carrier in common law countries (corresponding to a public carrier in civil law systems,Encyclopædia Britannica CD 2000 "Civil-law public carrier" from "carriage of goods" usually called simply a carrier) is a person or company that transports goods or people for any person or company and that is responsible for any possible loss of the goods during transport.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Constitution of the State of California is the constitution of California, describing the duties, powers, structure and function of the government of California.
Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
Cooper v. Aaron,, was a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of the United States, which held that the states are bound by the Court's decisions and must enforce them even if the states disagreed with them.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
Criminal procedure is the adjudication process of the criminal law.
David Dudley Field II (February 13, 1805April 13, 1894) was an American lawyer and law reformer who made major contributions to the development of American civil procedure.
The Delaware Court of Chancery is a court of equity in the American state of Delaware.
A deposition in the law of the United States, or examination for discovery in the law of Canada, involves the taking of sworn, out-of-court oral testimony of a witness that may be reduced to a written transcript for later use in court or for discovery purposes.
Dickerson v. United States, 530 U.S. 428 (2000), upheld the requirement that the Miranda warning be read to criminal suspects and struck down a federal statute that purported to overrule Miranda v. Arizona (1966).
Discovery, in the law of the United States and other countries, is a pre-trial procedure in a lawsuit in which each party, through the law of civil procedure, can obtain evidence from the other party or parties by means of discovery devices such as a request for answers to interrogatories, request for production of documents, request for admissions and depositions.
Disneyland Park, originally Disneyland, is the first of two theme parks built at the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, California, opened on July 17, 1955.
In the law of the United States, diversity jurisdiction is a form of subject-matter jurisdiction in civil procedure in which a United States district court in the federal judiciary has the power to hear a civil case when the amount in controversy exceeds $75,000 and where the persons that are parties are "diverse" in citizenship or state of incorporation (for corporations being legal persons), which generally indicates that they differ in state and/or nationality.
People driving under the influence of alcohol are commonly referred to as drunk drivers, or drink-drivers.
Dudgeon v the United Kingdom (1981) was a European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) case, which held that Section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885 which criminalised male homosexual acts in England, Wales and Northern Ireland violated the European Convention on Human Rights.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
In the field of law and economics, the English rule (capitalized as English Rule in some jurisdictions) is a rule controlling assessment of lawyers' fees arising out of litigation.
In jurisdictions following the English common law system, equity is the body of law which was developed in the English Court of Chancery and which is now administered concurrently with the common law.
Erie Railroad Co.
In the United States, the exclusionary rule is a legal rule, based on constitutional law.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Family law (also called matrimonial law or the law of domestic relations) is an area of the law that deals with family matters and domestic relations.
The United States Arbitration Act (codified at), more commonly referred to as the Federal Arbitration Act or FAA, is an act of Congress that provides for judicial facilitation of private dispute resolution through arbitration.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The federal judiciary of the United States is one of the three co-equal branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.
The Federal Register (FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, and public notices.
The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (officially abbreviated Fed. R. Civ. P.; colloquially FRCP) govern civil procedure (i.e. for civil lawsuits) in United States district (federal) courts.
Federalism in the United States is the constitutional relationship between U.S. state governments and the federal government of the United States.
The term felony, in some common law countries, is defined as a serious crime.
A fine or mulct is money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence.
The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or to petition for a governmental redress of grievances.
The Florida State University Law Review is the flagship law review at the Florida State University College of Law.
In law, force means unlawful violence, or lawful compulsion.
Foreign relations or foreign affairs is the management of relationships and dealings between two countries.
The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Fourth Amendment (Amendment IV) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights that prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures.
In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.
The Fraudulent Conveyances Act 1571 (13 Eliz 1, c 5), also known as the Statute of 13 Elizabeth, was an Act of Parliament in England, which laid the foundations for fraudulent transactions to be unwound when a person had gone insolvent or bankrupt.
Frederick Schauer (born 15 January 1946) is the David and Mary Harrison Distinguished Professor of Law at the University of Virginia and Frank Stanton Professor (Emeritus) of the First Amendment at the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.
A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an intelligence agency.
The Government of Mississippi is the government of the U.S. state of Mississippi.
The government of the U.S. state of Missouri is organized into the state government and local government, including county government, and city and municipal government.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
In politics, gridlock or deadlock or political stalemate refers to a situation when there is difficulty passing laws that satisfy the needs of the people.
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
The Head Money Cases,, also referred to as Edye v. Robertson, were a group of cases decided together by the United States Supreme Court.
Herbert Hovenkamp (born 1948) is the James G. Dinan University Professor at the University of Pennsylvania Law School and the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.
Imprisonment (from imprison Old French, French emprisonner, from en in + prison prison, from Latin prensio, arrest, from prehendere, prendere, to seize) is the restraint of a person's liberty, for any cause whatsoever, whether by authority of the government, or by a person acting without such authority.
An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located.
The Indiana Code is the code of laws for the U.S. state of Indiana.
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
Iowa is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers to the west.
The term Judiciary Act may refer to any of several statutes relating to the organization of national court systems.
A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.
Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.
Kentucky Revised Statutes (KRS) is the name given to the body of laws which govern the Commonwealth of Kentucky, United States.
Kermit Lance Hall (August 31, 1944 – August 13, 2006) was a noted legal historian and university president.
Klaxon Company v. Stentor Electric Manufacturing Company,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court applied the choice-of-law principles of Erie Railroad v. Tompkins to conflicts between laws of different states for cases sitting in federal court on diversity jurisdiction.
Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
The law of California consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, and regulatory law, as well as case law.
The law of Colorado consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, regulatory, local, and case law.
The law of Connecticut is the system of law and legal precedent of the U.S. state of Connecticut.
The law of Florida consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, and regulatory law, as well as case law and local law.
The law of Georgia consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, and regulatory law, as well as case law and local law.
The law of Illinois consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, and regulatory law, as well as case law and local law.
Law in the state of Louisiana is based on a more diverse set of sources than the laws of the other forty-nine states of the United States.
The law of Massachusetts consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, regulatory, case law, and local ordinances.
The law of Michigan consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, regulatory and case law.
The law of New Jersey consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, regulatory, case law, and local law.
The law of New York consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, regulatory and case law, and also includes local laws, ordinances, and regulations.
The law of North Carolina consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, regulatory, case law, and local law.
The law of Ohio consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, and regulatory, local and common law.
Oklahoma law is the state law of Oklahoma.
The law of Pennsylvania consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, regulatory and case law.
The law of Texas is derived from the Constitution of Texas and consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, and regulatory law, as well as case law and local laws and regulations.
The law of Virginia consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, regulatory, case law, and local law.
The law of Washington consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, regulatory and case law, as well as local ordinances.
In the United States, a law school is an institution where students obtain a professional education in law after first obtaining an undergraduate degree.
Lawrence v. Texas,.
Legal education in the United States generally refers to a graduate degree, the completion of which makes a graduate eligible to sit for an examination for a license to practice as a Lawyer.
A legal fiction is a fact assumed or created by courts which is then used in order to help reach a decision or to apply a legal rule.
Legal research is the process of identifying and retrieving information to support legal arguments and decisions.
The courts of the United States are closely linked hierarchical systems of courts at the federal and state levels.
This is a list of agencies of the United States federal government.
The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has defined 383 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for the United States and seven for Puerto Rico.
The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law or combinations of these.
This is a list of Uniform Acts.
This is a chronological, but still incomplete, list of United States federal legislation.
This page serves as an index of lists of United States Supreme Court cases.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
In law, a majority opinion is a judicial opinion agreed to by more than half of the members of a court.
Marbury v. Madison,, was a U.S. Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review in the United States, so that American courts have the power to strike down laws, statutes, and executive actions that contravene the U.S. Constitution.
The McCarran–Ferguson Act, 15 U.S.C. §§ 1011-1015, is a United States federal law that exempts the business of insurance from most federal regulation, including federal antitrust laws to a limited extent.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
The Territory of Michigan was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from June 30, 1805, until January 26, 1837, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Michigan.
The Minnesota Statutes are the official state laws of the state of Minnesota.
The Miranda warning, which also can be referred to as a person's Miranda rights, is a right to silence warning given by police in the United States to criminal suspects in police custody (or in a custodial interrogation) before they are interrogated to preserve the admissibility of their statements against them in criminal proceedings.
A misdemeanor (American English, spelled misdemeanour in British English) is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems.
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.
My Life in Court is a 1961 memoir by American trial lawyer Louis Nizer documenting his career in law.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Center for State Courts (NCSC) is a non-profit organization charged with improving judicial administration in the United States and around the world.
National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision in which the Court upheld Congress' power to enact most provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), commonly called Obamacare, and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (HCERA), including a requirement for most Americans to have health insurance by 2014.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
The tort of negligent infliction of emotional distress (NIED) is a controversial cause of action, which is available in nearly all U.S. states but is severely constrained and limited in the majority of them.
The Nevada Revised Statutes (NRS) are all the current codified laws of the State of Nevada.
The North Dakota Century Code is the collection of all the statutes passed by the North Dakota Legislative Assembly since the state's admission to the Union.
The Office of the Federal Register is an office of the United States government within the National Archives and Records Administration.
The Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the United States House of Representatives prepares and publishes the United States Code, which is a consolidation and codification by subject matter of the general and permanent laws of the United States.
The Oregon Revised Statutes (ORS) is the codified body of statutory law governing the U.S. state of Oregon, as enacted by the Oregon Legislative Assembly, and occasionally by citizen initiative.
In the context of United States constitutional interpretation, originalism is a way to interpret the Constitution's meaning as stable from the time of enactment, which can be changed only by the steps set out in Article Five.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833 (1992), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the constitutionality of several Pennsylvania state statutory provisions regarding abortion was challenged.
In law as practiced in countries that follow the English models, a pleading is a formal written statement of a party's claims or defenses to another party's claims in a civil action.
A plenary power or plenary authority is a complete and absolute power to take action on a particular issue, with no limitations.
In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.
The privacy laws of the United States deal with several different legal concepts.
Probation in criminal law is a period of supervision over an offender, ordered by the court instead of serving time in prison.
Product liability is the area of law in which manufacturers, distributors, suppliers, retailers, and others who make products available to the public are held responsible for the injuries those products cause.
Property law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal property, within the common law legal system.
A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.
Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins,, was a U.S. Supreme Court decision issued on June 9, 1980 which affirmed the decision of the California Supreme Court in a case that arose out of a free speech dispute between the Pruneyard Shopping Center in Campbell, California, and several local high school students (who wished to solicit signatures for a petition against United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379).
Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.
In private international law, the public policy doctrine or ordre public (lit. Fr. "public order") concerns the body of principles that underpin the operation of legal systems in each state.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
A reception statute is a statutory law adopted as a former British colony becomes independent, by which the new nation adopts (i.e. receives) pre-independence English common law, to the extent not explicitly rejected by the legislative body or constitution of the new nation.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
The Restatement (Second) of the Law of Contracts is a legal treatise from the second series of the Restatements of the Law, and seeks to inform judges and lawyers about general principles of contract common law.
The law of restitution is the law of gains-based recovery.
Roger John Traynor (February 12, 1900 – May 14, 1983) served as the 23rd Chief Justice of California from 1964 to 1970, and as an Associate Justice from 1940 to 1964.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
In administrative law, rule-making is the process that executive and independent agencies use to create, or promulgate, regulations.
Session laws are the collection of statutes enacted by a legislature during a single session of that legislature, often published following the end of the session as a bound volume.
Skidmore v. Swift & Co., 323 U.S. 134 (1944), is a United States Supreme Court decision holding that an administrative agency's interpretative rules deserve deference according to their persuasiveness.
In the United States, a slip law is an individual Act of Congress which is either a public law (Pub.L.) or a private law (Pvt.L.). They are part of a three-part model for publication of Federal statutes consisting of slip laws, session laws, and codification.
The word Sovereign comes through Old French soverain from the Latin superānus and means "above".
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Special districts (also known as special service districts, special district governments, limited purpose entities, or special-purpose districts in the United States) are independent, special-purpose governmental units that exist separately from local governments such as county, municipal, and township governments, with substantial administrative and fiscal independence.
In the United States, each state has its own constitution.
In the United States, a state court has jurisdiction over disputes with some connection to a U.S. state, as opposed to the federal government.
A state government is the government of a country subdivision in a federal form of government, which shares political power with the federal or national government.
In the United States, state law refers to the law of each separate U.S. state.
In the United States, a state supreme court (known by other names in some states) is the ultimate judicial tribunal in the court system of a particular state (i.e., that state's court of last resort).
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
The Statute of Frauds (29 Car 2 c 3) (1677) is an Act of the Parliament of England.
Statutory law or statute law is written law set down by a body of legislature or by a singular legislator (in the case of absolute monarchy).
Stephen Gerald Breyer (born August 15, 1938) is an American lawyer, professor, and jurist who serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
In criminal and civil law, strict liability is a standard of liability under which a person is legally responsible for the consequences flowing from an activity even in the absence of fault or criminal intent on the part of the defendant.
Substantive due process, in United States constitutional law, is a principle allowing courts to protect certain fundamental rights from government interference, even if procedural protections are present or the rights are not specifically mentioned elsewhere in the US Constitution.
In law, a summary judgment (also judgment as a matter of law) is a judgment entered by a court for one party and against another party summarily, i.e., without a full trial.
A summary offence is a crime in some common law jurisdictions that can be proceeded against summarily, without the right to a jury trial and/or indictment (required for an indictable offence).
The Supreme Court of California is the court of last resort in the courts of the State of California.
The Supreme Court of Georgia is the highest judicial authority of the US state of Georgia.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
The Taxing and Spending Clause (which contains provisions known as the General Welfare Clause) and the Uniformity Clause, Article I, Section 8, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution, grants the federal government of the United States its power of taxation.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
The Tenth Amendment (Amendment X) to the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified on December 15, 1791.
The Enforcement Act of 1871, also known as the Civil Rights Act of 1871, Force Act of 1871, Ku Klux Klan Act, Third Enforcement Act, or Third Ku Klux Klan Act, is an Act of the United States Congress which empowered the President to suspend the writ of habeas corpus to combat the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and other white supremacy organizations.
In the United States, habitual offender laws (commonly referred to as three-strikes laws) were first implemented on March 7, 1994 and are part of the United States Justice Department's Anti-Violence Strategy.
A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.
Township refers to various kinds of settlements in different countries.
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
Unconscionability (sometimes known as unconscionable dealing/conduct in Australia) is a doctrine in contract law that describes terms that are so extremely unjust, or overwhelmingly one-sided in favor of the party who has the superior bargaining power, that they are contrary to good conscience.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
United States administrative law encompasses statutes, common law, and directives issued by the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs in the Executive Office of the President, that together define the extent of powers and responsibilities held by administrative agencies of the United States Government (both executive branch agencies and independent agencies).
United States antitrust law is a collection of federal and state government laws that regulates the conduct and organization of business corporations, generally to promote fair competition for the benefit of consumers.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The Code of Laws of the United States of America (variously abbreviated to Code of Laws of the United States, United States Code, U.S. Code, U.S.C., or USC) is the official compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal statutes of the United States.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
United States constitutional law is the body of law governing the interpretation and implementation of the United States Constitution.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The United States Statutes at Large, commonly referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat., are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress.
United States v. Alfonso D. Lopez, Jr., was the first United States Supreme Court case since the New Deal to set limits to Congress' power under the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution.
United States v. Virginia,, is a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down the long-standing male-only admission policy of the Virginia Military Institute (VMI) in a 7–1 decision. (Justice Clarence Thomas, whose son was enrolled at VMI at the time, recused himself.).
The Vermont Statutes Annotated is the official codification of the laws enacted by the General Assembly of the U.S. state of Vermont.
In contract law, a warranty has various meanings but generally means a guarantee or promise which provides assurance by one party to the other party that specific facts or conditions are true or will happen.
West (also known by its original name, West Publishing) is a business owned by Thomson Reuters that publishes legal, business, and regulatory information in print, and on electronic services such as Westlaw.
Sir William Blackstone (10 July 1723 – 14 February 1780) was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
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