122 relations: Acid–base imbalance, Aloe vera, Aloin, Alternative medicine, Anorexia nervosa, Anthraquinone, Apple, ATC code A06, Banana, Bean, Bisacodyl, Bowel management, Bran, Broccoli, Bulimia nervosa, Castor oil, Cathartic, Cholecystokinin, Colocasia esculenta, Colon cleansing, Colonoscopy, Constipation, Defecation, Diarrhea, Dietary fiber, Distal renal tubular acidosis, Diuretic, Docusate, Electrolyte, Electrolyte imbalance, Enema, Enteric nervous system, Evidence-based medicine, Factitious diarrhea, Food and Drug Administration, Fruit, Gastrointestinal tract, Glycerol, Green bean, Haustrum (anatomy), Hepatic encephalopathy, History of medicine, Human feces, Hydrophile, Hypokalemia, Hypotension, Inflammation, Kale, Kidney failure, Kiwifruit, ..., Lactulose, Large intestine, Legume, Lentil, Lubiprostone, Lubricant, Macrogol, Magnesium citrate, Magnesium hydroxide, Magnesium sulfate, Mayo Clinic, Melanosis coli, Metabolic alkalosis, Methyl cellulose, Mineral oil, Mucoid plaque, Mucous membrane, Nerve plexus, Nut (fruit), Oral administration, Osmosis, Over-the-counter drug, Pancreatitis, Pea, Pear, Peristalsis, PH, Phenolphthalein, Poi (food), Poison, Polycarbophil calcium, Polyethylene glycol, Potassium chloride, Potato, Prucalopride, Prune, Pseudoscience, Psyllium, Randomized controlled trial, Raspberry, Rectum, Rhabdomyolysis, Rhamnus (genus), Rhamnus purshiana, Ricinoleic acid, Saline water, Senna (plant), Senna glycoside, Serotonin, Shire (pharmaceutical company), Small intestine, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium chloride, Sodium phosphates, Sodium stearate, Sodium sulfate, Sorbitol, Spinach, Steatorrhea, Stimulant, Suppository, Syncope (medicine), Tachycardia, Tegaserod, Tonicity, Transanal irrigation, Triphenylmethane, Ulcer, Vegetable, Whole bowel irrigation, Whole grain, Winter squash. Expand index (72 more) » « Shrink index
Acid–base imbalance is an abnormality of the human body's normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to deviate out of the normal range (7.35 to 7.45).
Aloe vera is a succulent plant species of the genus Aloe.
Aloin, also known as barbaloin, is a bitter, yellow-brown colored compound noted in the exudate of at least 68 Aloe species at levels from 0.1 to 6.6% of leaf dry weight (making between 3% and 35% of the total exudate) (Groom & Reynolds, 1987), and in another 17 species at indeterminate levels.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
Anthraquinone, also called anthracenedione or dioxoanthracene, is an aromatic organic compound with formula.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
Bisacodyl (INN) is an organic compound that is used as a stimulant laxative drug.
Bowel management is the process which a person with a bowel disability uses to manage fecal incontinence or constipation.
Bran, also known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain.
Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family whose large flowering head is eaten as a vegetable.
Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seeds of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis).
In medicine, a cathartic is a substance that accelerates defecation.
Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.
Colocasia esculenta is a tropical plant grown primarily for its edible corms, the root vegetables most commonly known as taro.
Colon cleansing (also known as colon therapy) encompasses a number of alternative medical therapies claimed to remove nonspecific toxins from the colon and intestinal tract by removing any accumulations of feces.
Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) or Type 1 renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is the classical form of RTA, being the first described.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
Docusate, also known as docusate salts or dioctyl sulfosuccinate, is a laxative of the stool softener type used to treat constipation.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Electrolyte imbalance is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolytes in the body.
An enema is the injection of fluid into the lower bowel by way of the rectum.
The enteric nervous system (ENS) or intrinsic nervous system is one of the main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal tract.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.
Factitious diarrhea is a condition in which a person deliberately produces diarrhea, most commonly by surreptitious laxative abuse.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Green beans are the unripe, young fruit and protective pods of various cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).
The haustra (singular haustrum) of the colon are the small pouches caused by sacculation (sac formation), which give the colon its segmented appearance.
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an altered level of consciousness as a result of liver failure.
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.
Human feces (or faeces in British English; fæx) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, but has been rotted down by bacteria in the large intestine.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Kale or leaf cabbage are certain cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) grown for their edible leaves.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Kiwifruit (often abbreviated as kiwi), or Chinese gooseberry is the edible berry of several species of woody vines in the genus Actinidia.
Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
The lentil (Lens culinaris or Lens esculenta) is an edible pulse.
Lubiprostone (rINN, marketed under the trade name Amitiza among others) is a medication used in the management of chronic idiopathic constipation, predominantly irritable bowel syndrome-associated constipation in women and opioid-induced constipation.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
Macrogol is the international nonproprietary name for polyethylene glycol (PEG) used in medicine.
Magnesium citrate is a magnesium preparation in salt form with citric acid in a 1:1 ratio (1 magnesium atom per citrate molecule).
Magnesium hydroxide is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2.
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4(H2O)x where 0≤x≤7.
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.
Melanosis coli, also pseudomelanosis coli, is a disorder of pigmentation of the wall of the colon, often identified at the time of colonoscopy.
Metabolic alkalosis is a metabolic condition in which the pH of tissue is elevated beyond the normal range (7.35–7.45).
Methyl cellulose (or methylcellulose) is a chemical compound derived from cellulose.
Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum.
Mucoid plaque (or mucoid cap or rope) is a pseudoscientific term used by some alternative medicine advocates to describe what is claimed to be a combination of harmful mucus-like material and food residue that they say coats the gastrointestinal tract of most people.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
A nerve plexus is a plexus (branching network) of intersecting nerves.
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phenolphthalein is a chemical compound with the formula C20H14O4 and is often written as "HIn" or "phph" in shorthand notation.
Poi is primarily the traditional staple food in native cuisine of Hawaii, made from the underground plant stem or corm of the taro plant (known in Hawaiian as kalo).
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Polycarbophil calcium (INN) is a drug used as a stool stabilizer.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Prucalopride, brand name Resolor among others, is a drug acting as a selective, high affinity 5-HT4 receptor agonist which targets the impaired motility associated with chronic constipation, thus normalizing bowel movements.
A prune is a dried plum of any cultivar, mostly Prunus domestica or European Plum.
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
Psyllium, or ispaghula, is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used commercially for the production of mucilage.
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.
The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
Rhamnus is a genus of about 110 accepted species of shrubs or small trees, commonly known as buckthorns in the family Rhamnaceae.
Rhamnus purshiana (cascara buckthorn, cascara, bearberry, and in the Chinook Jargon, chittem and chitticum; syn. Frangula purshiana, Rhamnus purshianus) is a species of buckthorn native to western North America from southern British Columbia south to central California, and eastward to northwestern Montana.
Ricinoleic acid, formally called 12-hydroxy-9-cis-octadecenoic acid is a fatty acid.
Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a high concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl).
Senna (from Arabic sanā), the sennas, is a large genus of flowering plants in the legume family Fabaceae, and the subfamily Caesalpinioideae.
Senna glycoside, also known as sennoside or senna, is a medication used to treat constipation and empty the large intestine before surgery.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Shire Plc is a Jersey-registered, Irish-headquartered global specialty biopharmaceutical company.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium phosphate is a generic term for a variety of salts of sodium (Na+) and phosphate (PO43−).
Sodium stearate is the sodium salt of stearic acid.
Sodium sulfate, also known as sulfate of soda, is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.
Sorbitol, less commonly known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol with a sweet taste which the human body metabolizes slowly.
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia.
Steatorrhea (or steatorrhoea) is the presence of excess fat in feces.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
A suppository is a solid dosage form that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository), or urethra (urethral suppository), where it dissolves or melts and exerts local or systemic effects.
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Tegaserod is a 5-HT4 agonist manufactured by Novartis and sold under the names Zelnorm and Zelmac for the management of irritable bowel syndrome and constipation.
Tonicity is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient, as defined by the water potential of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.
Transanal irrigation (TAI, also termed retrograde irrigation)The term retrograde irrigation distinguishes this procedure from the Malone antegrade continence enema, where irrigation fluid is introduced into the colon proximal to the anus via a surgically created irrigation port of the rectum and colon is designed to assist the evacuation of feces from the bowel by introducing water into these compartments via the anus.
Triphenylmethane, or triphenyl methane, is the hydrocarbon with the formula (C6H5)3CH.
An ulcer is a discontinuity or break in a bodily membrane that impedes the organ of which that membrane is a part from continuing its normal functions.
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) is a medical process involving the rapid administration of large volumes of an osmotically balanced macrogol solution (GoLYTELY, CoLyte), either orally or via a nasogastric tube, to flush out the entire gastrointestinal tract.
A whole grain is a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.
Winter squash is an annual fruit representing several squash species within the genus Cucurbita.
Alviduca, Alviducous, Aperient, Bulk forming agent, Bulk-forming agent, Ex-Lax, Ex-lax, Exlax, Laxative abuse, Laxatives, Opening medicine, Osmotic laxative, Purgative, Purgatives, Saline laxative, Stimulant laxative, Stimulant laxatives, Stool softener, Stool softeners.