154 relations: Albert I, Duke of Bavaria, Alderman, Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, Alice of Namur, Appanage, Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, Écaillon, Baldwin I, Latin Emperor, Baldwin IV, Count of Hainaut, Baldwin of Avesnes, Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, Bastion, Battle of France, Battle of Le Quesnoy 1568, Battle of Nancy, Battle of the Golden Spurs, Beatrice of Portugal, Beaudignies, Belgium, Bell tower, Blazon, Bouchard IV of Avesnes, Brussels, Burgundian Netherlands, Cambrai, Cambridge, New Zealand, Capture of Le Quesnoy (1918), Carolingian dynasty, Charles de Gaulle, Charles the Bald, Charles the Bold, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Claude Chappe, Communes of France, Communes of the Nord department, Condé-sur-l'Escaut, Congress of Vienna, Count of Flanders, Count of Hainaut, County of Hainaut, Dej, Departments of France, Duke of Burgundy, Edward III of England, Edward IV of England, Eugène Thomas, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, France, Francis I of France, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, ..., Freehold (law), French Hainaut, Fronde, Fulling, Gallipoli, Ghent, Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Viscount of Turenne, Henry II of France, Hundred Years' War, Industrial Revolution, Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, Intermarché, Isabella of Bourbon, Isabella of Hainault, Italy, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, James Allen (New Zealand politician), Jean Froissart, Joan of Valois, Countess of Hainaut, Joan, Countess of Flanders, Joanna of Castile, John I, Count of Hainaut, John I, Duke of Brabant, John IV, Duke of Brabant, John, Duke of Touraine, Joret line, Julius Caesar, Langues d'oïl, Lawyer, Leprosy, Leslie Averill, Lotharingia, Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Louis IX of France, Louis XI of France, Louis XIV of France, Ludovic Leroy, Margaret I, Countess of Flanders, Margaret II, Countess of Flanders, Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut, Margaret of Burgundy, Duchess of Bavaria, Margaret of York, Mary of Burgundy, Maubeuge, Max von Hartlieb-Walsporn, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Mayor, Memorial, Merovingian dynasty, Mesen, Middle Ages, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (New Zealand), Mons, Morlanwelz, Neauphle-le-Château, New Zealand, Nord (French department), Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Olivier Bonnaire, Philip I of Castile, Philip I of Namur, Philip II of France, Philip II of Spain, Philip III of Spain, Philip IV of Spain, Philip of Cleves, Lord of Ravenstein, Philip the Bold, Philip the Good, Philip VI of France, Philippa of Hainault, Picard language, Pierre-Yves Lambert, Pierrot, Ponthieu, Putting-out system, Raymond Poincaré, Reims, Richard III of England, Romania, Sablon (Brussels), Sambre, Samuel Hurst Seager, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Scheldt, Sculpture, Sluice, Theodore Roosevelt, Treaty of Delft, Treaty of the Pyrenees, Umbrage, Valenciennes, Viesly, Vikings, Villarosa, Walther von Wartburg, William I, Count of Hainaut, William I, Duke of Bavaria, William II of Dampierre, William II, Count of Hainaut, William II, Duke of Bavaria, World War I, World War II, York, 5th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht). Expand index (104 more) » « Shrink index
Albert I, Duke of Bavaria (Albrecht; 25 July 1336, Munich – 13 December 1404, The Hague) KG, was a feudal ruler of the counties of Holland, Hainaut, and Zeeland in the Low Countries.
An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions founded upon English law.
Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, (23 March 185413 May 1925) was a British statesman and colonial administrator who played an influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign and domestic policy between the mid-1890s and early 1920s.
Alice of Namur (died July 1169 at Valenciennes) was the daughter of Godfrey I, Count of Namur and Ermesinde the daughter of Conrad I of Luxembourg.
An appanage or apanage (pronounced) or apanage is the grant of an estate, title, office, or other thing of value to a younger male child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture.
The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) was a First World War army corps of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force.
Écaillon is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Baldwin I (Boudewijn; Baudouin; July 1172 –) was the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople.
Baldwin IV (1108 – 8 November 1171) was count of Hainaut from 1120 to his death.
Baldwin of Avesnes (September 1219 in Oizy – 10 April 1295 in Avesnes) was a son of Bouchard IV of Avesnes and his wife, Margaret II of Flanders.
Baldwin V of Hainaut (1150 – 17 December 1195) was count of Hainaut (1171–1195), margrave of Namur as Baldwin I (1189–1195) and count of Flanders as Baldwin VIII (1191–1195).
A bastion or bulwark is a structure projecting outward from the curtain wall of a fortification, most commonly angular in shape and positioned at the corners.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
Not to be confused with the later battles: 1st Siege of Le Quesnoy (1712) 2nd Siege of Le Quesnoy (1712) Capture of Le Quesnoy (1918) The Battle of Le Quesnoy (Le Quesnoy, Hainault, November 12th, 1568) was fought between a mostly German army supporting the Dutch rebels and the Spanish Habsburg army.
The Battle of Nancy was the final and decisive battle of the Burgundian Wars, fought outside the walls of Nancy on 5 January 1477 by Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, against René II, Duke of Lorraine, and the Swiss Confederacy.
The Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag, Bataille des éperons d'or), also known as the Battle of Courtrai, was a battle fought between the Kingdom of France and the County of Flanders at Kortrijk (Courtrai in French) in modern-day Belgium on 11 July 1302.
Beatrice (Beatriz;; Coimbra, 7–13 February 1373 – Castile, c. 1420), was the only surviving child of King Ferdinand I of Portugal and his wife, Leonor Teles, and would become Queen consort of Castile.
Beaudignies is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none.
In heraldry and heraldic vexillology, a blazon is a formal description of a coat of arms, flag or similar emblem, from which the reader can reconstruct the appropriate image.
Burchard IV or Bouchard IV (1182–1244) was the lord of Avesnes and Étrœungt.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands (Pays-Bas Bourguignons., Bourgondische Nederlanden, Burgundeschen Nidderlanden, Bas Payis borguignons) were a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy and their Habsburg heirs in the period from 1384 to 1482.
Cambrai (Kimbré; Kamerijk; historically in English Camerick and Camericke) is a commune in the Nord department and in the Hauts-de-France region of France on the Scheldt river, which is known locally as the Escaut river.
Cambridge (Māori: Kemureti) is a town in the Waipa District of the Waikato Region of the North Island of New Zealand.
The Capture of Le Quesnoy was an engagement of the First World War that took place on 4 November 1918 as part of the Battle of the Sambre.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).
Charles the Bold (also translated as Charles the Reckless).
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Claude Chappe (December 25, 1763 – January 23, 1805) was a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that eventually spanned all of France.
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.
The following is a list of the 648 communes of the Nord department of the French Republic.
Condé-sur-l'Escaut is a commune of the Nord department in northern France.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Count of Flanders was the ruler or sub-ruler of the county of Flanders, beginning in the 9th century.
The Count of Hainaut was the ruler of the county of Hainaut, a historical region in the Low Countries (including the modern countries of Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and parts of northern France and western Germany).
The County of Hainaut (Comté de Hainaut, Graafschap Henegouwen; Grafschaft Hennegau), sometimes given the archaic spellings Hainault and Heynowes, was a historical lordship within the medieval Holy Roman Empire, with its capital at Mons (Bergen).
Dej (Dés; Desch, Burglos; דעעש Desh) is a city in northwestern Romania, 60 km north of Cluj-Napoca, in Cluj County.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
Duke of Burgundy (duc de Bourgogne) was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was the King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death.
Eugène Thomas (23 July 1903 – 29 January 1969) was a French socialist teacher, trade unionist and politician.
Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
Frederick I (Friedrich I, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Federico Barbarossa), was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death.
In common law jurisdictions (e.g. England and Wales, United States, Australia, Canada and Ireland), a freehold is the common ownership of real property, or land, and all immovable structures attached to such land, as opposed to a leasehold, in which the property reverts to the owner of the land after the lease period has expired.
French Hainaut is one of two areas in France that form the département du Nord, the easterly area.
The Fronde was a series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635.
Fulling, also known as tucking or walking (spelt waulking in Scotland), is a step in woollen clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth (particularly wool) to eliminate oils, dirt, and other impurities, and making it thicker.
The Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası; Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.
Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne, often called simply Turenne (11 September 161127 July 1675) was a French Marshal General and the most illustrious member of the La Tour d'Auvergne family.
Henry II (Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), abbreviated INSEE, is the national statistics bureau of France.
Intermarché (English translation: Intermarket) is the brand of a general commercial French supermarket, part of the large retail group 'Les Mousquetaires' founded in 1969 under the name EX Offices, by Jean-Pierre Le Roch.
Isabella of Bourbon, Countess of Charolais (1434 – 25 September 1465) was the second wife of Charles the Bold, Count of Charolais and future Duke of Burgundy.
Isabella of Hainault (5 April 1170 in Valenciennes – 15 March 1190 in Paris) was Queen of France as the first spouse of King Philip II.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jacqueline (Jacoba van Beieren; Jacqueline de Bavière; 15 July 1401 – 8 October 1436), was a Duchess of Bavaria-Straubing, Countess of Holland and Zeeland and Countess of Hainaut from 1417 to 1433.
Sir James Allen (10 February 1855 – 28 July 1942) was a prominent New Zealand politician and diplomat.
Jean Froissart (Old French, Middle French Jehan, –) was a French-speaking medieval author and court historian from the Low Countries, who wrote several works, including Chronicles and Meliador, a long Arthurian romance, and a large body of poetry, both short lyrical forms, as well as longer narrative poems.
Joan of Valois (c. 1294 – 7 March 1342) was the second eldest daughter of the French prince Charles of Valois and his first wife, Margaret, Countess of Anjou.
Joan, often called Joan of Constantinople (1200? – 5 December 1244), ruled as Countess of Flanders and Hainaut from 1205 until her death.
Joanna (6 November 1479 – 12 April 1555), known historically as Joanna the Mad (Juana la Loca), was Queen of Castile from 1504, and of Aragon from 1516.
John of Avesnes (1 May 1218 – 24 December 1257) was the count of Hainaut from 1246 to his death.
John I of Brabant, also called John the Victorious (1252/12533 May 1294) was Duke of Brabant (1267–1294), Lothier and Limburg (1288–1294).
John IV, Duke of Brabant (11 June 1403 – 17 April 1427) was the son of Antoine of Burgundy, Duke of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg and his first wife Jeanne of Saint-Pol.
John, Dauphin of France and Duke of Touraine (31 August 1398 – 5 April 1417) was the fourth son and ninth child of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria.
The Joret line (ligne Joret) is an isogloss used in the linguistics of the langues d'oïl.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The langues d'oïl (French) or oïl languages (also in langues d'oui) are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives historically spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands.
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
Leslie Cecil Lloyd Averill (25 March 1897 – 4 June 1981) was a New Zealand soldier who served during the First World War on the Western Front.
Lotharingia (Latin: Lotharii regnum) was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France).
Louis IV (Ludwig; 1 April 1282 – 11 October 1347), called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was King of the Romans from 1314, King of Italy from 1327, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1328.
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.
Louis XI (3 July 1423 – 30 August 1483), called "Louis the Prudent" (le Prudent), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1461 to 1483.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Ludovic Leroy (born September 20, 1975 in Le Quesnoy) is a French professional footballer.
Margaret I of Flanders (circa 1145 - died 15 November 1194) was ruling countess of Flanders suo jure from 1191 to her death.
Margaret, often called Margaret of Constantinople (2 June 1202 – 10 February 1280), ruled as Countess of Flanders during 1244–1278 and Countess of Hainaut during 1244–1253 and 1257–1280.
Margaret II of Avesnes (1311 – 23 June 1356) was Countess of Hainaut and Countess of Holland (as Margaret I) from 1345 to 1356.
Margaret of Burgundy (October 1374 – 8 March 1441) was Duchess of Bavaria as the wife of Duke William II.
Margaret of York (3 May 1446 – 23 November 1503)—also by marriage known as Margaret of Burgundy—was Duchess of Burgundy as the third wife of Charles the Bold and acted as a protector of the duchy after his death.
Mary (Marie; Maria; 13 February 1457 – 27 March 1482), Duchess of Burgundy, reigned over many of the territories of the Duchy of Burgundy, now mainly in France and the Low Countries, from 1477 until her death.
Maubeuge (historical Mabuse or Malbode) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Max von Hartlieb-Walsporn (20 October 1883 – 25 July 1959) was a German army officer who served as a Wehrmacht general during the Second World War.
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
A memorial is an object which serves as a focus for memory of something, usually a person (who has died) or an event.
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.
Mesen (Messines in French, historically used in English) is a city located in the Belgian province of West Flanders.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT) (Māori: Manatū Aorere) is the public service department of New Zealand charged with advising the government on foreign and trade policy, and promoting New Zealand's interests in trade and international relations.
Mons (Bergen; Mont; Mont) is a Walloon city and municipality, and the capital of the Belgian province of Hainaut.
Morlanwelz is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut.
Neauphle-le-Château is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nord (North; Noorderdepartement) is a department in the far north of France.
Nord-Pas-de-Calais (is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Hauts-de-France. It consisted of the departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais borders the English Channel (west), the North Sea (northwest), Belgium (north and east) and Picardy (south). The majority of the region was once part of the historical (Southern) Netherlands, but gradually became part of France between 1477 and 1678, particularly during the reign of king Louis XIV. The historical French provinces that preceded Nord-Pas-de-Calais are Artois, French Flanders, French Hainaut and (partially) Picardy. These provincial designations are still frequently used by the inhabitants. With its 330.8 people per km2 on just over 12,414 km2, it is a densely populated region, having some 4.1 million inhabitants, 7% of France's total population, making it the fourth most populous region in the country, 83% of whom live in urban communities. Its administrative centre and largest city is Lille. The second largest city is Calais, which serves as a major continental economic/transportation hub with Dover of Great Britain away; this makes Nord-Pas-de-Calais the closest continental European connection to the Great Britain. Other major towns include Valenciennes, Lens, Douai, Béthune, Dunkirk, Maubeuge, Boulogne, Arras, Cambrai and Saint-Omer. Numerous films, like Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis.
Olivier Bonnaire (born March 2, 1983 in Le Quesnoy) is a French road bicycle racer who last rode professionally for UCI Professional Continental team.
Philip I (22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506) called the Handsome or the Fair, was the first member of the house of Habsburg to be King of Castile.
Philip I (1175 – 9 October 1212), called the Noble, was the margrave of Namur from 1195 until his death.
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Philip III (Felipe; 14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621) was King of Spain.
Philip IV of Spain (Felipe IV; 8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665) was King of Spain (as Philip IV in Castille and Philip III in Aragon) and Portugal as Philip III (Filipe III).
Philip of Cleves (1459 in Le Quesnoy – 28 January 1528 in Wijnendale Castle), Lord of Ravenstein, Wijnendale and Enghien, was a nobleman from the Low Countries and army commander, first for Maximilian of Austria, then for Flemish rebels and the kingdom of France.
Philip the Bold (17 January 1342 – 27 April 1404, Halle) was Duke of Burgundy (as Philip II) and jure uxoris Count of Flanders (as Philip II), Artois and Burgundy (as Philip IV).
Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon, Filips de Goede; 31 July 1396 – 15 June 1467) was Duke of Burgundy as Philip III from 1419 until his death.
Philip VI (Philippe VI) (1293 – 22 August 1350), called the Fortunate (le Fortuné) and of Valois, was the first King of France from the House of Valois.
Philippa of Hainault (Middle French: Philippe de Hainaut; 24 June c.1310/15 – 15 August 1369) was Queen of England as the wife of King Edward III.
Picard is a langues d'oïl dialect spoken in the northernmost part of France and southern Belgium.
Pierre-Yves Lambert, former student of the École Normale Supérieure, is a French teacher and linguist.
Pierrot is a stock character of pantomime and commedia dell'arte whose origins are in the late seventeenth-century Italian troupe of players performing in Paris and known as the Comédie-Italienne; the name is a diminutive of Pierre (Peter), via the suffix -ot. His character in contemporary popular culture—in poetry, fiction, and the visual arts, as well as works for the stage, screen, and concert hall—is that of the sad clown, pining for love of Columbine, who usually breaks his heart and leaves him for Harlequin.
Ponthieu was one of six feudal counties that eventually merged to become part of the Province of Picardy, in northern France.
The putting-out system is a means of subcontracting work.
Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré (20 August 1860 – 15 October 1934) was a French statesman who served three times as 58th Prime Minister of France, and as President of France from 1913 to 1920.
Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death at the Battle of Bosworth Field.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Sablon (French) or Zavel (Dutch) is a neighbourhood and hill in the historic upper town of Brussels.
The Sambre is a river in northern France and in Wallonia, Belgium.
Samuel Hurst Seager (26 June 1855 – 5 October 1933) was a notable New Zealand builder, draftsman, architect and town planner.
Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (1 May 163330 March 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a French military engineer who rose in the service to the king and was commissioned as a Marshal of France.
The Scheldt (l'Escaut, Escô, Schelde) is a long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
A sluice (from the Dutch "sluis") is a water channel controlled at its head by a gate.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
The Treaty of Delft, also called the Reconciliation of Delft, was signed on 3 July 1428 between Jacqueline of Bavaria and Philip the Good, Count of Flanders and Duke of Burgundy.
The Treaty of the Pyrenees (Traité des Pyrénées, Tratado de los Pirineos, Tractat dels Pirineus, Tratado dos Pirenéus) was signed on 7 November 1659 to end the 1635–1659 war between France and Spain, a war that was initially a part of the wider Thirty Years' War.
Valenciennes (Dutch: Valencijn, Latin: Valentianae, Valincyinne) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Viesly is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Villarosa is a town and comune in the province of Enna, in the region of Sicily in southern Italy.
Walther von Wartburg (-Boos) (18 May 1888; Riedholz – 15 August 1971; Basel) was a Swiss philologist and lexicographer.
William I, Count of Hainaut (– 7 June 1337), was Count William III of Avesnes, Count William III of Holland and Count William II of Zeeland from 1304 to his death.
William I, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing (Frankfurt am Main, 12 May 1330 – 15 April 1389, Le Quesnoy), was the second son of the emperor Louis IV the Bavarian from his second wife Margaret of Holland and Hainaut.
William II (1196 – 3 September 1231) was the lord of Dampierre from 1216 until his death.
William II, Count of Hainaut (1307 – 26 September 1345) was William IV of Avesnes, William IV of Holland and William III of Zeeland from 1337 to his death, succeeding his father, William I. He married Joanna, Duchess of Brabant and Limburg in 1334, but had no issue.
Duke William II of Bavaria-Straubing KG (5 April 1365—31 May 1417) was also count William IV of Holland, count William VI of Hainaut and count William V of Zeeland.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 5th Panzer Division (5th Tank Division) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II, established in 1938.