491 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Abundances of the elements (data page), Academic Press, Acetic acid, Acid, Adulterant, Aegean Islands, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Al-Andalus, Alchemy, Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam, Alfred Baring Garrod, Alkali, Allotropy, Alpha decay, AMBIO, American Geophysical Union, American Institute of Physics, American Journal of Archaeology, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, American Journal of Public Health, American Physical Society, American Society for Clinical Pathology, Ammonia, Amphoterism, Anatolia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Anemia, Anglesite, Anode, Antiknock agent, Antimony, Architectural metals, Armature (sculpture), Arsenic, Aspera European Astroparticle network, Aspergillus versicolor, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Atomic radius, Atomic spectroscopy, Attenuation coefficient, Augustus, Balkans, Base (chemistry), Base metal, ..., BBC News, Bearing (mechanical), Becquerel, Benue Trough, Beta decay, Betterton–Kroll process, Betts electrolytic process, Bicarbonate, Bioaccumulation, Bioremediation, Birth control, Blast furnace, Blood lead level, Blood–brain barrier, Boiling point, Bond energy, Boulangerite, Brass, Bridging ligand, Brill Publishers, British English, British Museum, Bronze, Bulk modulus, Bullet, Butterworth-Heinemann, Calcium, Calcium bicarbonate, Calcium sulfate, California, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, Cambridge University Press, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon group, Carbon monoxide, Catenation, Cato the Elder, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central Europe, Ceramic glaze, Cerebral cortex, Cerussite, Chalcogen, Chelation, Chelation therapy, ChemComm, Chemical bond, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical Reviews, Chemistry World, Chlorine, Classical antiquity, Cluster decay, Coal, Coal gas, Cofactor (biochemistry), Cognate, Coke (fuel), Colic, Colony of Virginia, Columella, Compacted oxide layer glaze, Congener (chemistry), Congo Basin, Constable & Robinson, Coolant, Coordination complex, Copper, Corrosion, Covalent bond, CRC Press, Critical point (thermodynamics), Crust (geology), Cubic crystal system, Cyprus, Czech language, Decay chain, Decay product, Density, Desulfotomaculum, Desulfovibrio, Diamond cubic, Dimercaprol, Dimercaptosuccinic acid, Dithiocarbamate, Divalent, Diving weighting system, Dorling Kindersley, Dover Publications, Dross, Ductility, Eastern Bloc, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrochemistry, Electrolyte, Electron, Electron capture, Electron configuration, Electronegativity, Elsevier, Engine knocking, Environmental hazard, Environmental Health Perspectives, Enzyme, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, European Physical Journal A, European Union, Even and odd atomic nuclei, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Ferrochelatase, Fertile Crescent, Fluorine, Fluorite, Flux (metallurgy), Food and Drug Administration, Fossil fuel power station, French Revolution, Froth flotation, Fusible alloy, Galena, Gasoline, Geisha, Glass, Goddard Space Flight Center, Gold, Goldschmidt classification, Gout, Grain boundary, Grape syrup, Graphite, Gravimetry, Greece, Grinding (abrasive cutting), Hachette Book Group, Hafnium, Halide, Haloalkane, Hard water, Heavy metals, Heme, Hexafluorosilicic acid, Hispania, History of China, Homology (chemistry), Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen atom, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrometallurgy, Hydroxy group, Iberian Peninsula, Icosahedron, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Indium, Indus Valley Civilisation, Industrial Revolution, Inert pair effect, Infrared, Inorganic Chemistry (journal), Internal combustion engine, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Resource Panel, Ion, Ion channel, Ion selective electrode, Ionization energy, Ionizing radiation, Iridium, Iron, ISASMELT, Isotope, Isotopes of lead, J. 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The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An adulterant is a pejorative term for a substance found within other substances such as food, fuels or chemicals even though it is not allowed for legal or other reasons.
The Aegean Islands (Νησιά Αιγαίου, transliterated: Nisiá Aigaíou; Ege Adaları) are the group of islands in the Aegean Sea, with mainland Greece to the west and north and Turkey to the east; the island of Crete delimits the sea to the south, those of Rhodes, Karpathos and Kasos to the southeast.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alchemy and chemistry in Islam refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry (the early chemical investigation of nature in general) by scholars in the medieval Islamic world.
Sir Alfred Baring Garrod FRS (3 May 1819 – 28 December 1907) was an English physician.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published eight times a year by Springer Science+Business Media on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries.
The American Institute of Physics (AIP) promotes science, the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies.
The American Journal of Archaeology (AJA), the peer-reviewed journal of the Archaeological Institute of America, has been published since 1897 (continuing the American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts founded by the institute in 1885).
The American Journal of Industrial Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering occupational safety and health, as well as environmental health.
The American Journal of Public Health is a monthly peer-reviewed public health journal published by the American Public Health Association covering health policy and public health.
The American Physical Society (APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists.
The American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) is a professional association based in Chicago, Illinois encompassing 130,000 pathologists and laboratory professionals.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Anglesite is a lead sulfate mineral with the chemical formula PbSO4.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
An antiknock agent is a gasoline additive used to reduce engine knocking and increase the fuel's octane rating by raising the temperature and pressure at which auto-ignition occurs.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Metals used for architectural purposes include lead, for water pipes, roofing, and windows; tin, formed into tinplate; zinc, copper and aluminium, in a range of applications including roofing and decoration; and iron, which has structural and other uses in the form of cast iron or wrought iron, or made into steel.
In sculpture, an armature is a framework around which the sculpture is built.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
ASPERA (or AStroParticle European Research Area) is a network of national government agencies responsible for coordinating and funding national research efforts in Astroparticle Physics.
Aspergillus versicolor is a slow-growing filamentous fungus commonly found in damp indoor environments and on food products.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
Atomic spectroscopy is the study of the electromagnetic radiation absorbed and emitted by atoms.
Attenuation coefficient or narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
A base metal is a common and inexpensive metal, as opposed to a precious metal such as gold or silver.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts.
The becquerel (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity.
The Benue Trough is a major geological structure underlying a large part of Nigeria and extending about 1,000 km northeast from the Bight of Benin to Lake Chad.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
The Betterton–Kroll process is an industrial process for removing bismuth from lead.
The Betts electrolytic process is an industrial process for purification of lead from bullion.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
Blood lead level (BLL), is a measure of the amount of lead in the blood.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
In chemistry, bond energy (E) or bond enthalpy (H) is the measure of bond strength in a chemical bond.
Boulangerite is a sulfosalt mineral, lead antimony sulfide, formula Pb5Sb4S11.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
In coordination chemistry, a bridging ligand is a ligand that connects two or more atoms, usually metal ions.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The bulk modulus (K or B) of a substance is a measure of how resistant to compressibility that substance is.
A bullet is a kinetic projectile and the component of firearm ammunition that is expelled from the gun barrel during shooting.
Butterworth–Heinemann is a British publishing company specialized in professional information and learning materials for higher education and professional training, in printed and electronic forms.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium bicarbonate, also called calcium hydrogen carbonate, has a chemical formula Ca(HCO3)2.
Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW), formerly known as the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), is a state agency under the California Natural Resources Agency.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
In chemistry, catenation is the bonding of atoms of the same element into a series, called a chain.
Cato the Elder (Cato Major; 234–149 BC), born and also known as (Cato Censorius), (Cato Sapiens), and (Cato Priscus), was a Roman senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Ceramic glaze is an impervious layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused to a ceramic body through firing.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Cerussite (also known as lead carbonate or white lead ore) is a mineral consisting of lead carbonate (PbCO3), and an important ore of lead.
The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
Chelation therapy is a medical procedure that involves the administration of chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body.
ChemComm (or Chemical Communications), formerly known as Journal of the Chemical Society D: Chemical Communications (1969–1971), Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications (1972–1995), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemical Reviews is peer-reviewed scientific journal published twice per month by the American Chemical Society.
Chemistry World is a monthly chemistry news magazine published by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Cluster decay, also named heavy particle radioactivity or heavy ion radioactivity, is a type of nuclear decay in which an atomic nucleus emits a small "cluster" of neutrons and protons, more than in an alpha particle, but less than a typical binary fission fragment.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
Colic or cholic (pronounced,, from Greek κολικός kolikos, "relative to the colon") is a form of pain that starts and stops abruptly.
The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and settled in 1607, was the first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey GilbertGILBERT (Saunders Family), SIR HUMPHREY" (history), Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto, May 2, 2005 in 1583, and the subsequent further south Roanoke Island (modern eastern North Carolina) by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 1580s. The founder of the new colony was the Virginia Company, with the first two settlements in Jamestown on the north bank of the James River and Popham Colony on the Kennebec River in modern-day Maine, both in 1607. The Popham colony quickly failed due to a famine, disease, and conflict with local Native American tribes in the first two years. Jamestown occupied land belonging to the Powhatan Confederacy, and was also at the brink of failure before the arrival of a new group of settlers and supplies by ship in 1610. Tobacco became Virginia's first profitable export, the production of which had a significant impact on the society and settlement patterns. In 1624, the Virginia Company's charter was revoked by King James I, and the Virginia colony was transferred to royal authority as a crown colony. After the English Civil War in the 1640s and 50s, the Virginia colony was nicknamed "The Old Dominion" by King Charles II for its perceived loyalty to the English monarchy during the era of the Protectorate and Commonwealth of England.. From 1619 to 1775/1776, the colonial legislature of Virginia was the House of Burgesses, which governed in conjunction with a colonial governor. Jamestown on the James River remained the capital of the Virginia colony until 1699; from 1699 until its dissolution the capital was in Williamsburg. The colony experienced its first major political turmoil with Bacon's Rebellion of 1676. After declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1775, before the Declaration of Independence was officially adopted, the Virginia colony became the Commonwealth of Virginia, one of the original thirteen states of the United States, adopting as its official slogan "The Old Dominion". The entire modern states of West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, and portions of Ohio and Western Pennsylvania were later created from the territory encompassed, or claimed by, the colony of Virginia at the time of further American independence in July 1776.
Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella (4 – c. 70 AD) was a prominent writer on agriculture in the Roman empire.
Compacted oxide layer glaze describes the often shiny, wear-protective layer of oxide formed when two metals (or a metal and ceramic) are slid against each other at high temperature in an oxygen-containing atmosphere.
In chemistry, congeners are related chemical substances "related to each other by origin, structure, or function".
The Congo Basin is the sedimentary basin of the Congo River.
Constable & Robinson Ltd. is an imprint of Little, Brown which publishes fiction and non-fiction books and ebooks.
A coolant is a substance, typically liquid or gas, that is used to reduce or regulate the temperature of a system.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Desulfotomaculum is a genus of Gram-positive, obligately anaerobic soil bacteria.
Desulfovibrio is a genus of Gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacteria.
The diamond cubic crystal structure is a repeating pattern of 8 atoms that certain materials may adopt as they solidify.
Dimercaprol, also called British anti-Lewisite (BAL), is a medication used to treat acute poisoning by arsenic, mercury, gold, and lead.
Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), also called succimer, is a medication used to treat lead, mercury, and arsenic poisoning.
A dithiocarbamate is a functional group in organic chemistry.
In chemistry, a divalent (sometimes bivalent) element, ion, functional group, or molecule has a valence of two.
Divers wear weighting systems, weight belts or weights to counteract the buoyancy of other diving equipment, such as diving suits and aluminium diving cylinders.
Dorling Kindersley (DK) is a British multinational publishing company specializing in illustrated reference books for adults and children in 62 languages.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
Dross is a mass of solid impurities floating on a molten metal or dispersed in the metal, such as in wrought iron.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Knocking (also knock,, spark knock, pinging or pinking) in spark-ignition internal combustion engines occurs when combustion of some of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder does not result from propagation of the flame front ignited by the spark plug, but one or more pockets of air/fuel mixture explode outside the envelope of the normal combustion front.
An environmental hazard is a substance, a state or an event which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment / or adversely affect people's health, including pollution and natural disasters such as storms and earthquakes Any single or combination of toxic chemical, biological, or physical agents in the environment, resulting from human activities or natural processes, that may impact the health of exposed subjects, including pollutants such as heavy metals, pesticides, biological contaminants, toxic waste, industrial and home chemicals.
Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is a peer-reviewed journal published monthly with support from the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is a chemical originating in multiseasonal plants with dormancy stages as a lipidopreservative which helps to develop the stem, currently used for both industrial and medical purposes.
The European Physical Journal A: Hadrons and Nuclei is an academic journal, recognized by the European Physical Society, presenting new and original research results in a variety of formats, including Regular Articles, Reviews, Tools for Experiment and Theory/Scientific Notes and Letters.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
In nuclear physics, properties of a nucleus depend on evenness or oddness of its atomic number Z, neutron number N and, consequently, of their sum, the mass number A. Most notably, oddness of both Z and N tends to lower the nuclear binding energy, making odd nuclei, generally, less stable.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Ferrochelatase (or protoporphyrin ferrochelatase) is an enzyme that is encoded by the FECH gene in humans.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.
In metallurgy, a flux (derived from Latin fluxus meaning “flow”) is a chemical cleaning agent, flowing agent, or purifying agent.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Froth flotation is a process for selectively separating hydrophobic materials from hydrophilic.
A fusible alloy is a metal alloy capable of being easily fused, i.e. easily meltable, at relatively low temperatures.
Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
(),, or are Japanese women who study the ancient tradition of art, dance and singing, and are distinctively characterized by traditional costumes and makeup.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The Goldschmidt classification, developed by Victor Goldschmidt (1888-1947), is a geochemical classification which groups the chemical elements within the Earth according to their preferred host phases into lithophile (rock-loving), siderophile (iron-loving), chalcophile (ore-loving or chalcogen-loving), and atmophile (gas-loving) or volatile (the element, or a compound in which it occurs, is liquid or gaseous at ambient surface conditions).
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
A grain boundary is the interface between two grains, or crystallites, in a polycrystalline material.
Grape syrup is a condiment made with concentrated grape juice.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Gravimetry is the measurement of the strength of a gravitational field.
Grinding is an abrasive machining process that uses a grinding wheel as the cutting tool.
Hachette Book Group (HBG) is a publishing company owned by Hachette Livre, the largest publishing company in France, and the third largest trade and educational publisher in the world.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water").
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Hexafluorosilicic acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written as). It is a colorless liquid rarely encountered undiluted.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
In chemistry, homology is the appearance of homologues.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element hydrogen.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydrometallurgy is a method for obtaining metals from their ores.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
In geometry, an icosahedron is a polyhedron with 20 faces.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The inert pair effect is the tendency of the two electrons in the outermost atomic ''s'' orbital to remain unionized or unshared in compounds of post-transition metals.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Inorganic Chemistry is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society since 1962.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Resource Panel is a scientific panel of experts that aims to help nations use natural resources sustainably without compromising economic growth and human needs.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
An ion-selective electrode (ISE), also known as a specific ion electrode (SIE), is a transducer (or sensor) that converts the activity of a specific ion dissolved in a solution into an electrical potential.
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
The ISASMELT process is an energy-efficient smelting process that was jointly developed from the 1970s to the 1990s by Mount Isa Mines Limited (a subsidiary of MIM Holdings Limited and now part of Glencore Xstrata plc) and the Australian government’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation ("CSIRO").
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Lead (82Pb) has four stable isotopes: 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The Journal of Chemical Education is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal available in both print and electronic versions.
The Journal of Roman Archaeology is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the archaeology of the Roman empire.
The Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that was originally published by the Department of the History of Medicine at Yale University and now is continued by Oxford University Press.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
The lanthanide contraction is the greater-than-expected decrease in ionic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series from atomic number 57, lanthanum, to 71, lutetium, which results in smaller than otherwise expected ionic radii for the subsequent elements starting with 72, hafnium.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Laurium or Lavrio or Lavrion (Λαύριο; Λαύριον; before early 11th century BC: Θορικός Thorikos; from Middle Ages until 1908: Εργαστήρια - Ergastiria) is a town in southeastern part of Attica, Greece.
Lead abatement is an activity to reduce levels of lead, particularly in the home environment, generally to permanently eliminate lead-based paint hazards, in order to reduce or eliminate incidents of lead poisoning.
Lead(II) carbonate is the chemical compound PbCO3.
Lead(IV) oxide, commonly called lead dioxide or plumbic oxide or anhydrous plumbic acid (sometimes wrongly called lead peroxide) is a chemical compound with the formula PbO2.
Lead glass, commonly called crystal, is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass.
Lead oxides are a group of inorganic compounds with formulas including lead (Pb) and oxygen (O).
Lead paint or lead-based paint is paint containing lead.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
Lead selenide (PbSe), or lead(II) selenide, a selenide of lead, is a semiconductor material.
Lead shielding refers to the use of lead as a form of radiation protection to shield people or objects from radiation so as to reduce the effective dose.
Lead telluride is a compound of lead and tellurium (PbTe).
Lead tetrachloride, also known as lead(IV) chloride, has the molecular formula PbCl4.
Lead tetrafluoride is a compound of lead and fluorine.
Lead(II) acetate (Pb(CH3COO)2), also known as lead acetate, lead diacetate, plumbous acetate, sugar of lead, lead sugar, salt of Saturn, or Goulard's powder, is a white crystalline chemical compound with a sweetish taste.
Lead(II) chloride (PbCl2) is an inorganic compound which is a white solid under ambient conditions.
Lead(II) chromate (PbCrO4) is a chemical compound, a chromate of lead.
Lead(II) fluoride (PbF2) is a chemical compound that is an odorless white solid.
Lead(II) hydroxide, Pb(OH)2, is a hydroxide of lead, with lead in oxidation state +2.
Lead(II) oxide, also called lead monoxide, is the inorganic compound with the molecular formula PbO.
Lead(II) sulfate (PbSO4) is a white solid, which appears white in microcrystalline form.
Lead(II,IV) oxide, also called minium, red lead or triplumbic tetroxide, is a bright red or orange crystalline or amorphous pigment.
Lead(IV) acetate or lead tetraacetate is a chemical compound with chemical formula Pb(C2H3O2)4.
Lead(IV) sulfide is a chemical compound with the formula PbS2.
The lead-cooled fast reactor is a nuclear reactor design that features a fast neutron spectrum and molten lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant.
The lead-crime hypothesis is the proposed link between elevated blood lead levels in children and later increases in crime.
The lead–acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery.
Lead–lead dating is a method for dating geological samples, normally based on 'whole-rock' samples of material such as granite.
The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its unintended tilt.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW) is an imprint of the publishing conglomerate Wolters Kluwer.
A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.
The term machinability refers to the ease with which a metal can be cut (machined) permitting the removal of the material with a satisfactory finish at low cost.
A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.
In nuclear physics, a magic number is a number of nucleons (either protons or neutrons, separately) such that they are arranged into complete shells within the atomic nucleus.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
Medieval stained glass is the coloured and painted glass of medieval Europe from the 10th century to the 16th century.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Merck & Company, Inc., d.b.a. Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD) outside the United States and Canada, is an American pharmaceutical company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.
The Merck Index is an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals with over 10,000 monographs on single substances or groups of related compounds.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The report Metal Stocks in Society: Scientific Synthesis was the first of six scientific assessments on global metals to be published by the International Resource Panel (IRP) of the United Nations Environment Programme.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
The metals of antiquity are the seven metals which humans had identified and found use for in prehistoric times: gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, iron, and mercury.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
Microcytic anaemia is any of several types of anaemia characterized by small red blood cells (called microcytes).
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), formerly the National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements, and before that the Advisory Committee on X-Ray and Radium Protection (ACXRP), is a U.S. organization.
A native metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form, either pure in nature.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nauka (Наука, lit. trans.: Science) is a Russian publisher of academic books and journals.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek (TNO; Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) is an independent research organisation in the Netherlands that focuses on applied science.
A neurochemical is a small organic molecule or peptide that participates in neural activity.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
In chemistry, a nitride is a compound of nitrogen where nitrogen has a formal oxidation state of 3-.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, the nuclear shell model is a model of the atomic nucleus which uses the Pauli exclusion principle to describe the structure of the nucleus in terms of energy levels.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
The Oddy test is a procedure created at the British Museum by conservation scientist William Andrew Oddy in 1973, in order to test materials for safety in and around art objects.
The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
An organ pipe is a sound-producing element of the pipe organ that resonates at a specific pitch when pressurized air (commonly referred to as wind) is driven through it.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organolead compounds are chemical compounds containing a chemical bond between carbon and lead.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Parkes process is a pyrometallurgical industrial process for removing silver from lead during the production of bullion.
In experimental and applied particle physics, nuclear physics, and nuclear engineering, a particle detector, also known as a radiation detector, is a device used to detect, track, and/or identify ionizing particles, such as those produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Periodic trends are specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its radius and its electronic properties.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Pewter is a malleable metal alloy.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
Photoconductivity is an optical and electrical phenomenon in which a material becomes more electrically conductive due to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation such as visible light, ultraviolet light, infrared light, or gamma radiation.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders and masses of small solids.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Plumbane, PbH4, is a metal hydride and group 14 hydride composed of lead and hydrogen.
In chemistry, a plumbate is a salt having one of the several lead-containing oxoanions.
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.
In chemistry, plumbite is the oxyanion or hydrated forms, or any salt containing this anion.
Plumbosolvency is the ability of a solvent, notably water, to dissolve lead.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Porphobilinogen (PBG) is a pyrrole-containing intermediate in the biosynthesis of porphyrins (such as hemes).
Porphobilinogen synthase (or ALA dehydratase, or aminolevulinate dehydratase) synthesizes porphobilinogen through the asymmetric condensation of two molecules of aminolevulinic acid.
Post-transition metals are a set of metallic elements in the periodic table located between the transition metals to their left, and the metalloids to their right.
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Protoporphyrin IX is an organic compound, which is one of the most common porphyrins in nature.
The pseudohalogens are polyatomic analogues of halogens, whose chemistry, resembling that of the true halogens, allows them to substitute for halogens in several classes of chemical compounds.
Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F).
Classical qualitative inorganic analysis is a method of analytical chemistry which seeks to find the elemental composition of inorganic compounds.
A quasiperiodic crystal, or quasicrystal, is a structure that is ordered but not periodic.
The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Red Wheel Weiser Conari, also known in different periods in its history as RedWheel/Weiser, LLC and Samuel Weiser, Inc., is a book publisher with three imprints: Red Wheel, Weiser Books and Conari Books.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table.
The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive 2002/95/EC, (RoHS 1), short for Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, was adopted in February 2003 by the European Union.
A reverberatory furnace is a metallurgical or process furnace that isolates the material being processed from contact with the fuel, but not from contact with combustion gases.
Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.
Roasting is a process of heating of sulfide ore to a high temperature in presence of air.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Metals and metal working had been known to the people of modern Italy since the Bronze Age.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.
Ballast is used in sailboats to provide moment to resist the lateral forces on the sail.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Saturn (Saturnus) is a god in ancient Roman religion, and a character in myth as a god of generation, dissolution, plenty, wealth, agriculture, periodic renewal and liberation.
ScholarlyEditions is a publishing imprint of ScholarlyMedia, LLC.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in materials science that was established in 2000.
Science of the Total Environment is a leading international peer-reviewed scientific journal covering environmental science.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
A sesquioxide is an oxide containing three atoms of oxygen with two atoms (or radicals) of another element.
The shielding effect describes the attraction between an electron and the nucleus in any atom with more than one electron.
Shot is a collective term for small balls or pellets, often made of lead.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Sleep is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on sleep.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium calcium edetate (sodium calcium EDTA), also known as edetate calcium disodium among other names, is a medication primarily used to treat lead poisoning.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Stable nuclides are nuclides that are not radioactive and so (unlike radionuclides) do not spontaneously undergo radioactive decay.
Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. is a publisher of a broad range of subject areas, with multiple imprints and more than 5,000 titles in print.
Stibnite, sometimes called antimonite, is a sulfide mineral with the formula Sb2S3.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) or sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) are a group composed of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfate-reducing archaea (SRA), both of which can perform anaerobic respiration utilizing sulfate (SO42–) as terminal electron acceptor, reducing it to hydrogen sulfide (H2S).
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
A supercapacitor (SC) (also called a supercap, ultracapacitor or Goldcap) is a high-capacity capacitor with capacitance values much higher than other capacitors (but lower voltage limits) that bridge the gap between electrolytic capacitors and rechargeable batteries.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Swarf, also known as chips or by other process-specific names (such as turnings, filings, or shavings), are pieces of metal, wood, or plastic that are the debris or waste resulting from machining, woodworking, or similar subtractive (material-removing) manufacturing processes.
In relation to the chemical elements, a symbol is a code for a chemical element.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Tarnish is a thin layer of corrosion that forms over copper, brass, silver, aluminum, magnesium, neodymium and other similar metals as their outermost layer undergoes a chemical reaction.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Tetraethyllead (commonly styled tetraethyl lead), abbreviated TEL, is an organolead compound with the formula (CH3CH2)4Pb.
Tetramethyllead, also called tetra methyllead and lead tetramethyl, is a chemical compound used as an antiknock additive for gasoline.
In chemistry, tetravalence is the state of an atom with four valence electrons available for covalent chemical bonding in its outermost electron shell, giving the atom a chemical valence of four.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
The Northern Echo is a regional daily morning newspaper, based in the town of Darlington in North East England; serving County Durham and Teesside.
A thin film is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer (monolayer) to several micrometers in thickness.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
Thomas Midgley Jr. (May 18, 1889 – November 2, 1944) was an American mechanical and chemical engineer.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tire balance, also referred to as tire unbalance or imbalance, describes the distribution of mass within an automobile tire or the entire wheel (including the rim) to which it is attached.
Cigarette smoke is an aerosol produced by the incomplete combustion of tobacco during the smoking of cigarettes.
A trace radioisotope is a radioisotope that occurs naturally in trace amounts (i.e. extremely small).
Transactions of the Philological Society is a linguistics journal published three times a year by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Philological Society.
In chemistry a trigonal bipyramid formation is a molecular geometry with one atom at the center and 5 more atoms at the corners of a triangular dipyramid.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
The interior of a bulk superconductor cannot be penetrated by a weak magnetic field, a phenomenon known as the Meissner effect.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Fribourg (Université de Fribourg; Universität Freiburg) is a university in the city of Fribourg, Switzerland.
The University of Pennsylvania Press (or Penn Press) is a university press affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium–lead dating, abbreviated U–Pb dating, is one of the oldestBoltwood, B.B., 1907, On the ultimate disintegration products of the radio-active elements.
Venetian Ceruse, also known as Spirits of Saturn, was a 16th-century cosmetic used as a skin whitener.
Verdigris is the common name for a green pigment obtained through the application of acetic acid to copper plates or the natural patina formed when copper, brass or bronze is weathered and exposed to air or seawater over a period of time.
In chemistry, vinyl or ethenyl is the functional group with the formula −CH.
Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
Waterfowl hunting (also called wildfowling or waterfowl shooting in the UK) is the practice of hunting ducks, geese, or other waterfowl for food and sport.
West (also known by its original name, West Publishing) is a business owned by Thomson Reuters that publishes legal, business, and regulatory information in print, and on electronic services such as Westlaw.
The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
White Lead (Painting) Convention, 1921 is an International Labour Organization Convention established in 1921 to advance the prohibition of using white lead in paint.
Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.
Wire drawing is a metalworking process used to reduce the cross-section of a wire by pulling the wire through a single, or series of, drawing die(s).
Woodhead Publishing Limited was established in 1989 as an independent international publishing company of science and technical books.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The World Nuclear Association (WNA) is the international organization that promotes nuclear power and supports the companies that comprise the global nuclear industry.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
In chemistry, a Zintl phase is the product of a reaction between a group 1 (alkali metal) or group 2 (alkaline earth) and any post-transition metal or metalloid (i.e. from group 13, 14, 15 or 16).