333 relations: Abdominal pain, Adverse effect, All Things Considered, American Dairy Science Association, Aminolevulinic acid, Amnesia, Anatolia, Ancient Roman cuisine, Anemia, Animal testing, Anorexia (symptom), Anseriformes, Anti-social behaviour, Anticonvulsant, Anxiety disorder, Appendicitis, Aqueduct (water supply), Asthma, Astringent, Asymptomatic, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Aviation fuel, Axon, Ayurveda, Basophilic stippling, Benjamin Franklin, Big Bazaar, Biomonitoring, Birth weight, Bismuth, Blood, Blood cell, Blood film, Blood lead level, Blood–brain barrier, Bone remodeling, Boston, Brain, Burton line, Calcification, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Calcium in biology, California condor, Caravaggio, Carcinogen, Cardiovascular disease, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Cataract, Cathartic, ..., Cell membrane, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central nervous system, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral edema, Cerebral palsy, Chelation, Chelation therapy, Chloramine, Chlorine, Circulatory system, Clair Cameron Patterson, Classical antiquity, Cofactor (biochemistry), Cognitive deficit, Colic, Collagen, Coma, Combustion, Conagra Brands, Conflict of interest, Confounding, Constipation, Coordination complex, Copper, Coronary arteries, Corrosion, Corticosteroid, Critically endangered, Death, Delirium, Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, Developing country, Developmental disability, Devon, Devon colic, Diabetes mellitus, Diarrhea, Differential diagnosis, Dimercaprol, Dimercaptosuccinic acid, Disability-adjusted life year, Disease burden, Disinfectant, DNA, Dose–response relationship, Downregulation and upregulation, Drinking water, Dysautonomia, Earthenware, Easyday, Eberhard Louis, Duke of Württemberg, Edict, Emotional self-regulation, Encephalitis, Encephalopathy, Endoscopy, Environmental hazard, Environmental medicine, Enzyme, Epileptic seizure, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Excretion, Exhaust gas, Extracellular fluid, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Fanconi syndrome, Ferrochelatase, Fine motor skill, Flint water crisis, Folate, Food preservation, Foot drop, Foundry, Francisco Goya, Fruit press, Future Group, Gasoline, Gastroenteritis, Gastrointestinal disease, Gastrointestinal tract, Gout, Grand Canyon, Granulocyte, Grape syrup, Guillain–Barré syndrome, Gujarat, Hair, Headache, Hearing loss, Heart rate variability, Heme, Hemoglobin, Hemoglobinuria, Hemolysis, Henan, Herbalism, Herbert Needleman, Hyperkinetic disorder, Hypertension, Hypocalcaemia, Hypochromic anemia, Immune system, India, Industrial Revolution, Infertility, Inflammation, Ingestion, Inhalation, Inorganic compound, Insomnia, Intellectual disability, Intelligence quotient, Intracranial pressure, Investigative journalism, Ion channel, Iron, Iron deficiency, Iron-deficiency anemia, Jiyuan, Julius Caesar, Kidney disease, Kidney failure, Kohl (cosmetics), Lead, Lead abatement in the United States, Lead contamination in Washington, D.C. drinking water, Lead paint, Lead smelting, Lead(II) acetate, Lead-crime hypothesis, League of Nations, Learning disability, Libido, Ligand, List of gasoline additives, Litharge, Litre, Livor mortis, Lone pair, Long-term depression, Long-term potentiation, Ludwig van Beethoven, Maggi, Malabsorption, Malaise, Mannitol, Medical literature, Medical sign, Medical toxicology, Mental chronometry, Mercury (element), Metal toxicity, Metaphysis, Microcytosis, Microgram, Middle Ages, Minimally invasive procedures, Mining, Miscarriage, Morphology (biology), Mortality rate, Motility, Motor nerve, Municipal solid waste, Must, Myalgia, Myelin, National Safety Council, NDTV, Neoplasm, Nephrotoxicity, Nervous system, Neurochemical, Neurology, Neuromuscular junction, Neuron, Neuropsychiatry, Neurotoxicity, New Delhi, Nicander, Nickel, NL Industries, NMDA receptor, NPR, Occupational disease, Oil painting, Oliguria, Ore, Organic compound, Ozone, Pacific Standard, Pallor, Paralysis, Paresthesia, Paroxysmal attack, Pedanius Dioscorides, Penicillamine, Peripheral nervous system, Peripheral neuropathy, Pesticide, PH, Pica (disorder), Picher, Oklahoma, Placenta, Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase, PLOS One, Polyneuropathy, Pottery, Pre-industrial society, Preterm birth, Protoporphyrin IX, Proximal tubule, Radiation protection, Radical (chemistry), Radiodensity, Red blood cell, Renal colic, Reproductive system, Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive, Rick Nevin, Roman aqueduct, Rum, Samuel Stockhausen, Scavenger, Semen analysis, Sherwin-Williams, Shock (circulatory), Short-term memory, Shot (pellet), Shotgun shell, Sideroblastic anemia, Smelting, Social skills, Sodium calcium edetate, Soil, Solder, Steel, Still, Stroke, Subdural hematoma, Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services, Symptom, Synapse, Synovial membrane, Tap (valve), Tetraethyllead, The New England Journal of Medicine, The Times Group, The Times of India, The Washington Post, Thiol, Tin, Tommy Thompson, Tooth decay, Toxicity, Toxicology, Transcription (biology), Tremor, Tungsten, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Environmental Protection Agency, University of Maryland, College Park, Urban agriculture, Uric acid, Vincent van Gogh's health, Vitamin, Vitamin D, Vitruvius, Water supply, Weight loss, White lead, Whole bowel irrigation, World Health Organization, Wrist drop, X-ray, X-ray fluorescence, Zamfara State lead poisoning epidemic, Zinc, Zinc deficiency, Zinc protoporphyrin, 2007 Chinese export recalls, 2009 Chinese lead poisoning scandal. 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Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
All Things Considered (ATC) is the flagship news program on the American network National Public Radio (NPR).
The American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) is a non-profit professional organization for the advancement of dairy science.
δ-Aminolevulinic acid (also dALA, δ-ALA, 5ALA or 5-aminolevulinic acid), an endogenous non-protein amino acid, is the first compound in the porphyrin synthesis pathway, the pathway that leads to heme in mammals and chlorophyll in plants.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Roman cuisine changed over the long duration of the ancient Roman civilization.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Anseriformes is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans.
Anti-social behaviours are actions that harm or lack consideration for the well-being of others.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
An astringent (sometimes called adstringent) is a chemical that shrinks or constricts body tissues.
In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Aviation fuel is a specialized type of petroleum-based fuel used to power aircraft.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
Basophilic stippling, also known as punctate basophilia, is the presence of numerous basophilic granules that are dispersed through the cytoplasm of erythrocyte in a peripheral blood smear.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Big Bazaar is an Indian retail store that operates as a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, and grocery stores.
In analytical chemistry, biomonitoring is the measurement of the body burden of toxic chemical compounds, elements, or their metabolites, in biological substances.
Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.
A blood film—or peripheral blood smear—is a thin layer of blood smeared on a glass microscope slide and then stained in such a way as to allow the various blood cells to be examined microscopically.
Blood lead level (BLL), is a measure of the amount of lead in the blood.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bone remodeling (or bone metabolism) is a lifelong process where mature bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called bone resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called ossification or new bone formation).
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The Burton line or Burtonian line is a clinical sign found in patients with chronic lead poisoning.
Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.
The California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) is a New World vulture, the largest North American land bird.
Michelangelo Merisi (Michele Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily from the early 1590s to 1610.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist at the carpal tunnel.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.
In medicine, a cathartic is a substance that accelerates defecation.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
Chelation therapy is a medical procedure that involves the administration of chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body.
Chloramines are derivatives of ammonia by substitution of one, two or three hydrogen atoms with chlorine atoms: monochloramine (chloroamine, NH2Cl), dichloramine (NHCl2), and nitrogen trichloride (NCl3).
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clair Cameron Patterson (June 2, 1922 – December 5, 1995) was an American geochemist.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.
Colic or cholic (pronounced,, from Greek κολικός kolikos, "relative to the colon") is a form of pain that starts and stops abruptly.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Conagra Brands, Inc. is a North American packaged foods company headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another.
In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable, confounding factor or lurking variable) is a variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable causing a spurious association.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
The coronary arteries are the arteries of the coronary circulation that transport blood into and out of the cardiac muscle.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
A critically endangered (CR) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALAD gene.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments that arise before adulthood.
Devon, also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south.
Devon colic was a condition that affected people in the English county of Devon during parts of the 17th and 18th centuries, before it was discovered to be lead poisoning.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
Dimercaprol, also called British anti-Lewisite (BAL), is a medication used to treat acute poisoning by arsenic, mercury, gold, and lead.
Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), also called succimer, is a medication used to treat lead, mercury, and arsenic poisoning.
The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.
Disease burden is the impact of a health problem as measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
The dose–response relationship, or exposure–response relationship, describes the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a stressor (usually a chemical) after a certain exposure time, or to a food.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
Dysautonomia or autonomic dysfunction is a condition in which the autonomic nervous system (ANS) does not work properly.
Earthenware is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery that has normally been fired below 1200°C.
Easyday is an Indian retail brand that runs chains of consumer retail supermarkets and convenience stores.
Duke Eberhard Louis (18 September 1676 – 31 October 1733) was the tenth duke of Württemberg, from 1692 until 1733.
An edict is a decree or announcement of a law, often associated with monarchism, but it can be under any official authority.
Emotional self-regulation or regulation of emotion is the ability to respond to the ongoing demands of experience with the range of emotions in a manner that is socially tolerable and sufficiently flexible to permit spontaneous reactions as well as the ability to delay spontaneous reactions as needed.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
Encephalopathy (from ἐγκέφαλος "brain" + πάθος "suffering") means any disorder or disease of the brain, especially chronic degenerative conditions.
An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.
An environmental hazard is a substance, a state or an event which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment / or adversely affect people's health, including pollution and natural disasters such as storms and earthquakes Any single or combination of toxic chemical, biological, or physical agents in the environment, resulting from human activities or natural processes, that may impact the health of exposed subjects, including pollutants such as heavy metals, pesticides, biological contaminants, toxic waste, industrial and home chemicals.
Environmental medicine is a multidisciplinary field involving medicine, environmental science, chemistry and others, overlapping with environmental pathology.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is a chemical originating in multiseasonal plants with dormancy stages as a lipidopreservative which helps to develop the stem, currently used for both industrial and medical purposes.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Fanconi syndrome or Fanconi's syndrome is a syndrome of inadequate reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules of the kidney.
Ferrochelatase (or protoporphyrin ferrochelatase) is an enzyme that is encoded by the FECH gene in humans.
Fine motor skill (or dexterity) is the coordination of small muscles, in movements—usually involving the synchronization of hands and fingers—with the eyes.
The Flint water crisis began in 2014 when the drinking water source for the city of Flint, Michigan was changed from Lake Huron and the Detroit River to the cheaper Flint River.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Food preservation prevents the growth of microorganisms (such as yeasts), or other microorganisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity.
Foot drop is a gait abnormality in which the dropping of the forefoot happens due to weakness, irritation or damage to the common fibular nerve including the sciatic nerve, or paralysis of the muscles in the anterior portion of the lower leg.
A foundry is a factory that produces metal castings.
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker.
A fruit press is a device used to separate fruit solids - stems, skins, seeds, pulp, leaves, and detritus - from fruit juice.
Future Group is an Indian private conglomerate, headquartered in Mumbai.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
Gastrointestinal diseases refer to diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, namely the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum, and the accessory organs of digestion, the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
The Grand Canyon (Hopi: Ongtupqa; Wi:kaʼi:la, Navajo: Tsékooh Hatsoh, Spanish: Gran Cañón) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States.
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.
Grape syrup is a condiment made with concentrated grape juice.
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.
Heart rate variability (HRV) is the physiological phenomenon of variation in the time interval between heartbeats.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
In medicine, hemoglobinuria or haemoglobinuria is a condition in which the oxygen transport protein hemoglobin is found in abnormally high concentrations in the urine.
Hemolysis or haemolysis, also known by several other names, is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma).
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Herbert Leroy Needleman (December 13, 1927 – July 18, 2017), known for research studies on the neurodevelopmental damage caused by lead poisoning, was a pediatrician, child psychiatrist, researcher and professor at the University of Pittsburgh, an elected member of the Institute of Medicine, and the founder of the Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning (later known as the Alliance for Healthy Homes, it has since merged with the National Center for Healthy Housing).
Hyperkinetic disorder is an outdated term for a psychiatric neurodevelopmental condition emerging in early childhood.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypocalcaemia, also spelled hypocalcemia, is low calcium levels in the blood serum.
Hypochromic anemia, or Hypochromic anaemia, is a generic term for any type of anemia in which the red blood cells (erythrocytes) are paler than normal.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism.
Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Investigative journalism is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, such as serious crimes, political corruption, or corporate wrongdoing.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron deficiency, or sideropaenia, is the state in which a body has not enough (or not qualitatively enough) iron to supply its eventual needs.
Iron-deficiency anemia is anemia caused by a lack of iron.
Jiyuan is a sub-prefecture-level city in northwestern Henan province, People's Republic of China.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Kohl (كُحْل) is an ancient eye cosmetic, traditionally made by grinding stibnite (Sb2S3) for similar purposes to charcoal used in mascara.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead abatement is an activity to reduce levels of lead, particularly in the home environment, generally to permanently eliminate lead-based paint hazards, in order to reduce or eliminate incidents of lead poisoning.
Lead contamination in Washington, D.C. drinking water, first discovered in 2001, left thousands of children with lifelong health risks, and led to a re-evaluation of the use of chloramine in public drinking-water systems.
Lead paint or lead-based paint is paint containing lead.
Plants for the production of lead are generally referred to as lead smelters.
Lead(II) acetate (Pb(CH3COO)2), also known as lead acetate, lead diacetate, plumbous acetate, sugar of lead, lead sugar, salt of Saturn, or Goulard's powder, is a white crystalline chemical compound with a sweetish taste.
The lead-crime hypothesis is the proposed link between elevated blood lead levels in children and later increases in crime.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Gasoline additives increase gasoline's octane rating or act as corrosion inhibitors or lubricants, thus allowing the use of higher compression ratios for greater efficiency and power.
Litharge (from Greek lithargyros, lithos (stone) + argyros (silver) λιθάργυρος) is one of the natural mineral forms of lead(II) oxide, PbO.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
Livor mortis (Latin: livor – "bluish color", mortis – "of death"), postmortem lividity (Latin: postmortem – "after death", lividity – "black and blue"), hypostasis (Greek: hypo, meaning "under, beneath"; stasis, meaning "a standing") or suggillation, is the fourth stage and one of the signs of death.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
Long-term depression (LTD), in neurophysiology, is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus.
In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity.
Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
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Malabsorption is a state arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort, uneasiness or pain, often the first indication of an infection or other disease.
Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.
Medical literature is the scientific literature of medicine: articles in journals and texts in books devoted to the field of medicine.
A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a patient or anyone, especially a physician, before or during a physical examination of a patient.
Medical toxicology is a subspecialty of medicine focusing on toxicology and providing the diagnosis, management, and prevention of poisoning and other adverse effects due to medications, occupational and environmental toxicants, and biological agents.
Mental chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Metal toxicity or metal poisoning is the toxic effect of certain metals in certain forms and doses on life.
The metaphysis is the narrow portion of a long bone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis.
Microcytosis is a condition in which red blood cells are unusually small as measured by their mean corpuscular volume.
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Minimally invasive procedures (also known as minimally invasive surgeries) encompass surgical techniques that limit the size of incisions needed and so lessen wound healing time, associated pain and risk of infection.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.
A motor nerve is a nerve located in the central nervous system (CNS), usually the spinal cord, that sends motor signals from the CNS to the muscles of the body.This is different from the motor neuron, which includes a cell body and branching of dendrites, while the nerve is made up of a bundle of axons.
Municipal solid waste (MSW), commonly known as trash or garbage in the United States and rubbish in Britain, is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public.
Must (from the Latin vinum mustum, "young wine") is freshly crushed fruit juice (usually grape juice) that contains the skins, seeds, and stems of the fruit.
Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
The National Safety Council (NSC) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, nongovernmental public service organization promoting health and safety in the United States of America.
New Delhi Television Limited (NDTV) is an Indian television media company founded in 1988 by Radhika Roy, a journalist.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Nephrotoxicity is toxicity in the kidneys.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
A neurochemical is a small organic molecule or peptide that participates in neural activity.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropsychiatry is a branch of medicine that deals with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
Nicander of Colophon (Níkandros ho Kolophṓnios; fl. 2nd century BC), Greek poet, physician and grammarian, was born at Claros (Ahmetbeyli in modern Turkey), near Colophon, where his family held the hereditary priesthood of Apollo.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
NL Industries, formerly known as the National Lead Company, is a lead smelting company currently based in Houston, Texas.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
An occupational disease is any chronic ailment that occurs as a result of work or occupational activity.
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder.
Oliguria or hypouresis (both names from roots meaning "not enough urine") is the low output of urine.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Pacific Standard is an American magazine that reports on issues of social and environmental justice.
Pallor is a pale color of the skin that can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, stimulant use, or anemia, and is the result of a reduced amount of oxyhaemoglobin and is visible in skin conjuctivae or mucous membrane.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.
Paroxysmal attacks or paroxysms (from Greek παροξυσμός) are a sudden recurrence or intensification of symptoms, such as a spasm or seizure.
Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
Penicillamine, sold under the trade names of Cuprimine among others, is a medication primarily used for the treatment of Wilson's disease.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Pica is a psychological disorder characterized by an appetite for substances that are largely non-nutritive, such as ice (pagophagia); hair (trichophagia); paper (xylophagia); drywall or paint; metal (metallophagia); stones (lithophagia) or soil (geophagia); glass (hyalophagia); or feces (coprophagia); and chalk.
Picher is a ghost town and former city in Ottawa County, Oklahoma, United States.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and functions to remove calcium (Ca2+) from the cell.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Polyneuropathy (poly- + neuro- + -pathy) is damage or disease affecting peripheral nerves (peripheral neuropathy) in roughly the same areas on both sides of the body, featuring weakness, numbness, and burning pain.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from 1750 to 1850.
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
Protoporphyrin IX is an organic compound, which is one of the most common porphyrins in nature.
The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Radiodensity (or radiopacity) is opacity to the radio wave and X-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum: that is, the relative inability of those kinds of electromagnetic radiation to pass through a particular material.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Renal colic is a type of abdominal pain commonly caused by kidney stones.
The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive 2002/95/EC, (RoHS 1), short for Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, was adopted in February 2003 by the European Union.
Rick Nevin is an economic consultant who acts as an adviser to the National Center for Healthy Housing and has worked on the Federal Strategy to eliminate childhood lead poisoning.
The Romans constructed aqueducts throughout their Empire, to bring water from outside sources into cities and towns.
Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses or honeys, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation.
Samuel Stockhausen was a German physician in the mining town of Goslar.
Scavenging is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.
A semen analysis (plural: semen analyses), also called "seminogram" evaluates certain characteristics of a male's semen and the sperm contained therein.
The Sherwin-Williams Company is an American Fortune 500 company in the general building materials industry.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
Short-term memory (or "primary" or "active memory") is the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time.
Shot is a collective term for small balls or pellets, often made of lead.
A shotgun shell is a self-contained cartridge typically loaded with multiple metallic "shot", which are small, generally spherical projectiles.
Sideroblastic anemia or sideroachrestic anemia is a form of anemia in which the bone marrow produces ringed sideroblasts rather than healthy red blood cells (erythrocytes).
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
A social skill is any competence facilitating interaction and communication with others where social rules and relations are created, communicated, and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways.
Sodium calcium edetate (sodium calcium EDTA), also known as edetate calcium disodium among other names, is a medication primarily used to treat lead poisoning.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
A still is an apparatus used to distill liquid mixtures by heating to selectively boil and then cooling to condense the vapor.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
A subdural hematoma (SDH), is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury.
The Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services (SBU – Statens beredning för medicinsk och social utvärdering in Swedish) previously the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment is an independent Swedish governmental agency tasked with assessing and evaluating methods in use in healthcare och social services.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
The synovial membrane (also known as synovium or stratum synoviale) is a specialized connective tissue that lines the inner surface of capsules of synovial joints and tendon sheath.
A tap (also spigot or faucet: see usage variations) is a valve controlling the release of a liquid or gas.
Tetraethyllead (commonly styled tetraethyl lead), abbreviated TEL, is an organolead compound with the formula (CH3CH2)4Pb.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
The Times Group is India’s largest media conglomerate, according to Financial Times as of March 2015.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tommy George Thompson (born November 19, 1941) is an American Republican politician who was a state legislator in Wisconsin, and 42nd Governor of Wisconsin from 1987 to 2001, and is the longest serving governor in the state's history.
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The University of Maryland, College Park (commonly referred to as the University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.
Urban agriculture, urban farming, or urban gardening is the practice of cultivating, processing and distributing food in or around a village, town, or city.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
There is no consensus on Vincent van Gogh's health.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
White lead is the basic lead carbonate, 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2.
Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) is a medical process involving the rapid administration of large volumes of an osmotically balanced macrogol solution (GoLYTELY, CoLyte), either orally or via a nasogastric tube, to flush out the entire gastrointestinal tract.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Wrist drop, (radial nerve or musculospiral nerve palsy, and colloquially as crutch paralysis, Saturday night palsy or honeymoon palsy), is a medical condition in which the wrist and the fingers cannot extend at the metacarpophalangeal joints.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.
A series of lead poisonings in Zamfara State, Nigeria, led to the deaths of at least 163 people between March and June 2010, including 111 children.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc deficiency is defined either as insufficient zinc to meet the needs of the body, or as a serum zinc level below the normal range.
Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) is a compound found in red blood cells when heme production is inhibited by lead and/or by lack of iron.
In 2007 a series of product recalls and import bans were imposed by the product safety institutions of the United States, Canada, the European Union, Australia and New Zealand against products manufactured in and exported from the mainland of the People's Republic of China (PRC) because of numerous alleged consumer safety issues.
The 2009 Chinese lead poisoning scandal occurred in the Shaanxi province of China when pollution from a lead plant poisoned children in the surrounding area.
Azarcon, Chronic lead exposure, Lead Poisoning, Lead and brain damage, Lead contamination, Lead exposure, Lead intoxication, Lead neuropathy, Lead neurotoxicity, Lead poisoning, nervous system, Lead pollution, Lead toxicity, Painter's colic, Plumbism, Poisoning from lead, Saturnism.