324 relations: Abscission, Absorption (chemistry), Acacia, Acacia koa, Academic Press, Aesculus, Agnes Arber, Albizia, American Journal of Botany, Animal, Annals of Botany, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Anthocyanin, Aphid, Araceae, Archaeopteris, Arisaema, Assimilation (biology), Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Attelabidae, Autapomorphy, Autotroph, Autumn leaf color, Bambusa bambos, Banksia marginata, Baragwanathia, Bean, Berberis gagnepainii, Borassus, Boreal ecosystem, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Boundary layer, Bract, Bryophyte, Bud, Bulb, Bulbine, Cactus, Calophyllum, Cambridge University Press, Cannabis, Carbon dioxide, Carnivorous plant, Carotenoid, Cataphyll, Ceanothus, Ceanothus leucodermis, Ceanothus tomentosus, Cell (biology), ..., Cellulose, Celtis, Celtis occidentalis, Chemical synthesis, Chlorophyll, Chloroplast, Christen C. Raunkiær, Cinnamomum, Clidemia hirta, Clockwise, Clover, Coccothrinax argentea, Colocasia, Cornus, Cornus mas, Cornus officinalis, Crassulacean acid metabolism, Crown (botany), Crypsis, Cucurbita, Deciduous, Decurrent, Decussation, Dendrocnide moroides, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Devonian, Dichotomy, Dicotyledon, Diet (nutrition), Dioscorea, Divergence, Dorsiventral, Drag (physics), Eichhornia, Encelia farinosa, Encyclopedia Americana, Endlicheria, Energy, Environment (biophysical), Epicuticular wax, Epidermis (botany), Equisetopsida, Equisetum, Eucalypt, Eucalyptus, Eudicots, Eupatorium perfoliatum, Euphorbia, European Physical Journal B, Evolution, Evolutionary history of plants, Fabaceae, Fan palm, Fenestraria, Fern, Fibonacci number, Ficus religiosa, Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, Flowering plant, Foliose lichen, Folivore, Food, Fraction (mathematics), Fragrance oil, Fraxinus, Frond, Georgia Institute of Technology, Ginkgo biloba, Glaucous, Glossary of leaf morphology, Glucose, Golden angle, Gossypium, Gossypium tomentosum, Green, Ground tissue, Guard cell, Guttation, Gymnosperm, Haworthia, Haworthia truncata, Helix, Heteroblasty (botany), Hibiscus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hildegardia (plant), Hydathode, Hydrostatics, Hymenaea, International Association for Plant Taxonomy, Iris (plant), Irradiance, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Jujube, Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, Laburnum, Leaf, Leaf area index, Leaf protein concentrate, Leaf sensor, Leaf window, Leaflet (botany), Light, Lignin, Liquidambar styraciflua, Lotus effect, Lycopodiophyta, Lycopodiopsida, Magnoliaceae, Magnoliids, Maianthemum, Maianthemum bifolium, Malpighiaceae, Mangifera, Maple, Maranta leuconeura, Marchantiophyta, McGraw-Hill Education, Melanthiaceae, Melastomataceae, Menispermaceae, Miconia, Miconia calvescens, Microorganism, Microphyll, Mimicry, Mineral, Monocotyledon, Moraceae, Moss, Musa (genus), National Park Service, Nepenthes, New Phytologist, Ochrea, Onion, Orange (colour), Organ (anatomy), Organelle, Ostrya, Ostrya virginiana, Oxygen, Palisade cell, Pamphiliidae, Papaya, Papillate, Parallel (geometry), Paranomus, Parenchyma, Paris quadrifolia, Pattern formation, Pea, Pendent, Permian, Petal, Petiole (botany), Pheromone, Phloem, Photosynthesis, Phylloclade, Phyllosphere, Phyllotaxis, Phytolith, Phytotaxa, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Pimenta racemosa, Pinnation, Pinophyta, Plant, Plant cuticle, Plant physiology, Plant stem, Platanus, Platanus orientalis, PLOS Computational Biology, Poaceae, Poison, Polygonaceae, Polymorphism (biology), Polypodium, Primordium, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Progymnosperm, Prostanthera lasianthos, Protein, Pseudanthium, Psidium guajava, Rachis, Radiant flux, Raffia palm, Ramification (botany), Raphide, Red, Reticulate, Rhubarb, Rhus ovata, Ricinodendreae, Ricinus, Root, Rose, Rosette (botany), Rubiaceae, Rytigynia, Salix alba, San Diego State University, Sap, Secondary metabolite, Selaginella, Sessility (botany), Shoot, Silicon dioxide, Silurian, Smilax, Smithsonian Institution, Sorbus, Spathiphyllum, Species, Spermatophyte, Stinging plant, Stipule, Stoma, Succulent plant, Sucrose, Suffix, Sugar, Sumac, Sunlight, Swietenia, Symmetry in biology, Symplesiomorphy, Tannin, Temperate climate, Tendril, Tensor field, Terminology, Tettigoniidae, The Plant Cell, Thermal radiation, Thistle, Thorns, spines, and prickles, Tissue (biology), Torsion (mechanics), Tortricidae, Trade-off, Transpiration, Transpiration stream, Triassic, Trichome, Turbulence, Turgor pressure, Ultraviolet, United States Department of the Interior, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urtica dioica, Urticaceae, Vaccinieae, Vascular bundle, Vascular plant, Vascular tissue, Vernation, Viburnum plicatum, Vitis vinifera, Water, Water vapor, Wax, Welwitschia, Willow, Xanthophyll, Xerophyte, Xylem, Yellow, Zingiberales, Ziziphus. Expand index (274 more) » « Shrink index
Abscission (from Latin ab, "away", and scindere, "to cut'") is the shedding of various parts of an organism, such as a plant dropping a leaf, fruit, flower, or seed.
In chemistry, absorption is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in which atoms, molecules or ions enter some bulk phase – liquid or solid material.
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
Acacia koa is a species of flowering tree in the pea family, Fabaceae.
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
The genus Aesculus, with varieties called buckeye and horse chestnut, comprises 13–19 species of flowering plants in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae.
Agnes Robertson Arber FRS (23 February 1879 – 22 March 1960) was a British plant morphologist and anatomist, historian of botany and philosopher of biology.
Albizia is a genus of about 150 species of mostly fast-growing subtropical and tropical trees and shrubs in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae.
The American Journal of Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers all aspects of plant biology.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Annals of Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal, founded in 1887, that publishes research articles, brief communications, and reviews in all areas of botany.
The Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden is a long-established major peer-reviewed journal of botany, established in 1914 by the Missouri Botanical Garden, under the directorship of botanist and phycologist, George Thomas Moore, and still published quarterly by the Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue.
Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.
The Araceae are a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants in which flowers are borne on a type of inflorescence called a spadix.
Archaeopteris is an extinct genus of tree-like plants with fern-like leaves.
Arisaema is a large and diverse genus of the flowering plant family Araceae.
Biological assimilation, or bio-assimilation, is the combination of two processes to supply cells with nutrients.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The Attelabidae is a widespread family of weevils.
In phylogenetics, an autapomorphy is a distinctive feature, known as a derived trait, that is unique to a given taxon.
An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).
Autumn leaf color is a phenomenon that affects the normally green leaves of many deciduous trees and shrubs by which they take on, during a few weeks in the autumn season, various shades of red, yellow, purple, black, orange, pink, magenta, blue and brown.
Bambusa bambos, the giant thorny bamboo, Indian thorny bamboo, spiny bamboo, or thorny bamboo, is a species of clumping bamboo native to southern Asia (India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Assam, and Indochina).
Banksia marginata, commonly known as the silver banksia, is a species of tree or woody shrub in the plant genus Banksia found throughout much of southeastern Australia.
Baragwanathia is a genus of extinct plants of the division Lycopodiophyta of Late Silurian to Early Devonian age, fossils of which have been found in Australia, Canada, China and Czechia.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
Berberis gagnepainii, or Gagnepain's barberry, is a species of flowering plant in the family Berberidaceae, first described in 1908.
Borassus (Palmyra palm) is a genus of five species of fan palms, native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia and New Guinea.
A boreal ecosystem is an ecosystem with a subarctic climate in the Northern Hemisphere, roughly between latitude 50° to 70°N.
The Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society is a scientific journal publishing original papers relating to the taxonomy of all plant groups and fungi, including anatomy, biosystematics, cytology, ecology, ethnobotany, electron microscopy, morphogenesis, palaeobotany, palynology and phytochemistry.
In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is an important concept and refers to the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant.
In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf, especially one associated with a reproductive structure such as a flower, inflorescence axis or cone scale.
Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes): the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.
In botany, a bud is an undeveloped or embryonic shoot and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of a stem.
In botany, a bulb is structurally a short stem with fleshy leaves or leaf bases that function as food storage organs during dormancy.
Bulbine is a genus of plants in the family Asphodelaceae and subfamily Asphodeloideae, named for the bulb-shaped tuber of many species.
A cactus (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus) is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,Although the spellings of botanical families have been largely standardized, there is little agreement among botanists as to how these names are to be pronounced.
Calophyllum is a genus of tropical flowering plants in the family Calophyllaceae.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
In plant morphology, a cataphyll (sometimes also called a cataphyllum, or cataphyll leafJackson, Benjamin, Daydon; A Glossary of Botanic Terms with their Derivation and Accent; Published by Gerald Duckworth & Co. London, 4th ed 1928) is a reduced, small leaf.
Ceanothus L. is a genus of about 50–60 species of nitrogen-fixing shrubs or small trees in the family Rhamnaceae.
Ceanothus leucodermis, with the common name chaparral whitethorn or chaparral white thorn, is a species of shrub in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae.
Ceanothus tomentosus, with the common name woollyleaf ceanothus, is a species of shrub in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Celtis, commonly known as hackberries or nettle trees, is a genus of about 60–70 species of deciduous trees widespread in warm temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, in southern Europe, southern and eastern Asia, and southern and central North America, south to central Africa, and northern and central South America.
Celtis occidentalis, commonly known as the common hackberry, is a large deciduous tree native to North America.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Christen Christensen Raunkiær (29 March 1860 – 11 March 1938) was a Danish botanist, who was a pioneer of plant ecology.
Cinnamomum is a genus of evergreen aromatic trees and shrubs belonging to the laurel family, Lauraceae.
Clidemia hirta, commonly called soapbush or Koster's curse, is a perennial shrub.
Two-dimensional rotation can occur in two possible directions.
Clover or trefoil are common names for plants of the genus Trifolium (Latin, tres "three" + folium "leaf"), consisting of about 300 species of plants in the leguminous pea family Fabaceae.
Coccothrinax argentea is a palm which is endemic to Hispaniola.
Colocasia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to southeastern Asia and the Indian subcontinent.
Cornus is a genus of about 30–60 species of woody plants in the family Cornaceae, commonly known as dogwoods, which can generally be distinguished by their blossoms, berries, and distinctive bark.
Cornus mas (Cornelian cherry, European cornel or Cornelian cherry dogwood) is a species of flowering plant in the dogwood family Cornaceae native to Southern Europe and Southwestern Asia.
Cornus officinalis is a species of dogwood known also as Japanese cornel or Japanese cornelian cherry or Cornelian cherries, not to be confused with C. mas, which is also known as the "Cornelian cherry." The correct term would be Korean cornel dogwood or Chinese cornel dogwood since the flower originated from Korea and China.
Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions.
The crown of a plant refers to the totality of an individual plant's aboveground parts, including stems, leaves, and reproductive structures.
In ecology, crypsis is the ability of an animal to avoid observation or detection by other animals.
Cucurbita (Latin for gourd) is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
Decurrent is a term used in botany and mycology to describe plant or fungal parts that extend downward.
Decussation is used in biological contexts to describe a crossing (Latin: the roman numeral for ten, deca, is an uppercase 'X').
Dendrocnide moroides, also known as the stinging brush, mulberry-leaved stinger, gympie gympie, gympie, gympie stinger, stinger, the suicide plant, or moonlighter, is common to rainforest areas in the north east of Australia.
The Department of Plant Sciences, at the University of Oxford, England, focusses on research and teaching in plant and fungal biology.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
A dichotomy is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets).
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world.
In vector calculus, divergence is a vector operator that produces a scalar field, giving the quantity of a vector field's source at each point.
A dorsiventral (Lat. dorsum, "the back", venter, "the belly") organ is one that has two surfaces differing from each other in appearance and structure, as an ordinary leaf.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
Eichhornia, water hyacinth, is a genus of aquatic flowering plants in the family Pontederiaceae.
Encelia farinosa (commonly known as brittlebush or brittlebrush), is a common desert shrub of northern Mexico (Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, Sinaloa, and Hidalgo) and the southwestern United States (California, Arizona, Utah, and Nevada).
Encyclopedia Americana is one of the largest general encyclopedias in the English language.
Endlicheria is a neotropical plant genus consisting of approximately 60 species, occurring mostly in northern South America and the Amazon region.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Epicuticular wax is a coating of wax covering the outer surface of the plant cuticle in land plants.
The word'epidermis' is a single layer of cells that covers the leaves, flowers, roots and stems of plants.
Equisetopsida, or Sphenopsida, is a class of vascular plants with a fossil record going back to the Devonian.
Equisetum (horsetail, snake grass, puzzlegrass) is the only living genus in Equisetaceae, a family of vascular plants that reproduce by spores rather than seeds.
Eucalypt is a descriptive name for woody plants with capsule fruiting bodies belonging to seven closely related genera (of the tribe Eucalypteae) found across Australasia: Eucalyptus, Corymbia, Angophora, Stockwellia, Allosyncarpia, Eucalyptopsis and Arillastrum.
Eucalyptus L'Héritier 1789 (plural eucalypti, eucalyptuses or eucalypts) is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors.
Eupatorium perfoliatum or (common) boneset is a common North American perennial plant in the aster family.
Euphorbia is a very large and diverse genus of flowering plants, commonly called spurge, in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).
The European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers condensed matter physics, statistical and nonlinear physics, and complex systems.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolution of plants has resulted in a wide range of complexity, from the earliest algal mats, through multicellular marine and freshwater green algae, terrestrial bryophytes, lycopods and ferns, to the complex gymnosperms and angiosperms of today.
The Fabaceae or Leguminosae, Article 18.5 states: "The following names, of long usage, are treated as validly published:....Leguminosae (nom. alt.: Fabaceae; type: Faba Mill.);...
Fan palm as a descriptive term can refer to any of several different kinds of palms (Arecaceae) in various genera with leaves that are palmately lobed (rather than pinnately compound).
Fenestraria (known as babies' toes or window plant) is a (possibly monotypic) genus of succulent plants in the family Aizoaceae, native to the Namaqualand in Namibia.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers are the numbers in the following integer sequence, called the Fibonacci sequence, and characterized by the fact that every number after the first two is the sum of the two preceding ones: Often, especially in modern usage, the sequence is extended by one more initial term: By definition, the first two numbers in the Fibonacci sequence are either 1 and 1, or 0 and 1, depending on the chosen starting point of the sequence, and each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two.
Ficus religiosa or sacred fig is a species of fig native to the Indian subcontinent, and Indochina.
The Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument is a national monument located in Teller County, Colorado.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Foliose lichen is one of a variety of lichens, which are complex organisms that arise from the symbiotic relationship between fungi and a photosynthetic partner, typically algae.
In zoology, a folivore is a herbivore that specializes in eating leaves.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
A fraction (from Latin fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.
Fragrance oil(s), also known as aroma oils, aromatic oils, and flavor oils, are blended synthetic aroma compounds or natural essential oils that are diluted with a carrier like propylene glycol, vegetable oil, or mineral oil.
Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae.
A frond is a large, divided leaf.
The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly referred to as Georgia Tech, is a public research university and institute of technology in Atlanta, Georgia.
Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko (both pronounced), also known as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct.
Glaucous (from the Latin glaucus, meaning "bluish-grey or green", from the Greek glaukós) is used to describe the pale grey or bluish-green appearance of the surfaces of some plants, as well as in the names of birds, such as the glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), glaucous macaw (Anodorhynchus glaucus), and glaucous tanager (Thraupis glaucocolpa).
The following is a defined list of terms which are used to describe leaf morphology in the description and taxonomy of plants.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
In geometry, the golden angle is the smaller of the two angles created by sectioning the circumference of a circle according to the golden ratio; that is, into two arcs such that the ratio of the length of the larger arc to the length of the smaller arc is the same as the ratio of the full circumference to the length of the larger arc.
Gossypium is a genus of flowering plants in the tribe Gossypieae of the mallow family, Malvaceae from which cotton is harvested.
Gossypium tomentosum, commonly known as Mao or Hawaiian cotton, is a species of cotton plant that is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.
Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum.
The ground tissue of plants includes all tissues that are neither dermal nor vascular.
Guard cells are specialized cells in the epidermis of leaves, stems and other organs that are used to control gas exchange.
Guttation is the exudation of drops of xylem sap on the tips or edges of leaves of some vascular plants, such as grasses.
The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.
Haworthia is a large genus of small succulent plants endemic to Southern Africa (Mozambique, Namibia, Lesotho, Swaziland and South Africa).
Haworthia truncata (locally known as "horse's teeth") is a species of succulent plant in the genus Haworthia.
A helix, plural helixes or helices, is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space.
Heteroblasty is significant and abrupt change in form and function that occurs over the lifespan of certain plants.
Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, known colloquially as Chinese hibiscus, China rose, Hawaiian hibiscus,, rose mallow and shoeblackplant, is a species of tropical hibiscus, a flowering plant in the Hibisceae tribe of the family Malvaceae, native to East Asia.
Hildegardia is a genus of trees in the family Malvaceae.
A hydathode is a type of pore, commonly found in angiosperms, that secretes water through pores in the epidermis or leaf margin, typically at the tip of a marginal tooth or serration.
Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.
Hymenaea L. is a genus in the flowering plant family Fabaceae (legume family).
The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) promotes an understanding of plant biodiversity, facilitates international communication of research between botanists, and oversees matters of uniformity and stability in plant names.
Iris is a genus of 260–300 species of flowering plants with showy flowers.
In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area.
The Journal of Theoretical Biology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical biology, as well as mathematical and computational aspects of biology.
Ziziphus jujuba (from Greek ζίζυφον, zízyphon), commonly called jujube (sometimes jujuba), red date, Chinese date, Korean date, or Indian date is a species of Ziziphus in the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae).
Kirstenbosch is an important botanical garden nestled at the eastern foot of Table Mountain in Cape Town.
Kwantlen Polytechnic University (commonly abbreviated to KPU) is a public degree-granting undergraduate polytechnic university in British Columbia with campuses in Surrey, Richmond, Cloverdale and Langley.
Laburnum, sometimes called golden chain or golden rain, is a genus of two species of small trees in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Leaf area index (LAI) is a dimensionless quantity that characterizes plant canopies.
Leaf protein concentrate (LPC) is a concentrated form of the proteins found in the leaves of plants.
A leaf sensor is a phytometric device (measurement of plant physiological processes) that measures water loss or the water deficit stress (WDS) in plants by real-time monitoring the moisture level in plant leaves.
Leaf window, also known as epidermal window, is a specialized leaf structure consisting of a translucent area where sunlight can enter into the interior surfaces of the plant's modified leaf where photosynthesis can occur.
A leaflet (occasionally called foliole) in botany is a leaf-like part of a compound leaf.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), also known as American storax, hazel pine, bilsted, redgum, satin-walnut, star-leaved gum, alligatorwood, or simply sweetgum, is a deciduous tree in the genus Liquidambar native to warm temperate areas of eastern North America and tropical montane regions of Mexico and Central America.
The lotus effect refers to self-cleaning properties that are a result of ultrahydrophobicity as exhibited by the leaves of Nelumbo or "lotus flower".
The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called lycophyta or lycopods) is a tracheophyte subgroup of the Kingdom Plantae.
Lycopodiopsida is a class of herbaceous vascular plants known as the clubmosses and firmosses.
The Magnoliaceae are a flowering plant family, the magnolia family, in the order Magnoliales.
Magnoliids (or Magnoliidae or Magnolianae) are a group of flowering plants.
Maianthemum (Latin Māia "May" and Greek ánthemon "flower"; including former Smilacina) is a genus of rhizomatous, herbaceous, perennial flowering plants, native to the understory of woodlands.
Maianthemum bifolium (false lily of the valley or May lily) is often a localized common rhizomatous flowering plant, native from western Europe (including Britain) east to Siberia, China and Japan.
Malpighiaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Malpighiales.
Mangifera is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae.
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.
Maranta leuconeura (prayer plant) is a species of flowering plant in the family Marantaceae, native to the Brazilian tropical forests.
The Marchantiophyta are a division of non-vascular land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
Melanthiaceae is a family of flowering perennial herbs native to the Northern Hemisphere.
The family Melastomataceae (alternatively Melastomaceae) is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants found mostly in the tropics (two thirds of the genera are from the New World tropics) comprising c. 165 genera and c. 5115 known species.
Menispermaceae is a family of flowering plants.
Miconia is a genus of flowering plants in the glory bush family, Melastomataceae, native to warm temperate to tropical regions of the Americas.
Miconia calvescens, the velvet tree, miconia, or bush currant, is a species of flowering plant in the family Melastomataceae.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
In plant anatomy and evolution a microphyll is a type of plant leaf with one single, unbranched leaf vein.
In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one organism, usually an animal, to another that has evolved because the resemblance is selectively favoured by the behaviour of a shared signal receiver that can respond to both.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
The Moraceae — often called the mulberry family or fig family — are a family of flowering plants comprising about 38 genera and over 1100 species.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
Musa is one of two or three genera in the family Musaceae; it includes bananas and plantains.
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
Nepenthes, also known as tropical pitcher plants, is a genus of carnivorous plants in the monotypic family Nepenthaceae.
New Phytologist is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published on behalf of the New Phytologist Trust by Wiley-Blackwell.
An ochrea (Latin ocrea, greave or protective legging), also spelled ocrea, is a plant structure formed of stipules fused into a sheath surrounding the stem, and is typically found in the Polygonaceae.
The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
Orange is the colour between yellow and red on the spectrum of visible light.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Ostrya is a genus of eight to 10 small deciduous trees belonging to the birch family Betulaceae.
Ostrya virginiana, the American hophornbeam, is a species of Ostrya native to eastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to southern Manitoba and eastern Wyoming, southeast to northern Florida and southwest to eastern Texas.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Palisade cells are plant cells located in leaves, right below the epidermis and cuticle.
Pamphiliidae (sometimes incorrectly spelled Pamphilidae) is a small wasp family within Symphyta, containing some 200 species from the temperate regions of North America and Eurasia.
The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae.
In geometry, parallel lines are lines in a plane which do not meet; that is, two lines in a plane that do not intersect or touch each other at any point are said to be parallel.
Paranomus is a genus of 18 species of plants, commonly known as "sceptres", in the protea family.
Parenchyma is the bulk of a substance.
Paris quadrifolia, the herb-paris or true lover's knot, is a Eurasian species of flowering plant in the family Melanthiaceae, although authorities formerly regarded it as part of the Liliaceae family.
The science of pattern formation deals with the visible, (statistically) orderly outcomes of self-organization and the common principles behind similar patterns in nature.
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
Pendent is an adjective that describes the condition of hanging, either literally, or figuratively, as in undecided or incomplete.
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers.
In botany, the petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where needed.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phylloclades and cladodes are flattened, photosynthetic shoots, which are usually considered to be modified branches.
The phyllosphere is a term used in microbiology to refer to the total above-ground portions of plants as habitat for microorganisms.
In botany, phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy is the arrangement of leaves on a plant stem (from Ancient Greek phýllon "leaf" and táxis "arrangement").
Phytoliths (from Greek, "plant stone") are rigid, microscopic structures made of silica, found in some plant tissues and persisting after the decay of the plant.
Phytotaxa is a peer-reviewed scientific journal for rapid publication on any aspect of systematic botany.
UPMC, formerly Pierre and Marie Curie University (Université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie) or also known as Paris VI, was a public research university in Paris, France from 1971 to 2017.
Pimenta racemosa is a species of plant in the myrtle family (Myrtaceae) that is native to the Caribbean region.
Pinnation (also called pennation) is the arrangement of feather-like or multi-divided features arising from both sides of a common axis.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
A plant cuticle is a protecting film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm.
Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
Platanus is a genus consisting of a small number of tree species native to the Northern Hemisphere.
Platanus orientalis, the Old World sycamore, or Oriental plane, is a large, deciduous tree of the Platanaceae family, growing to or more, and known for its longevity and spreading crown.
PLOS Computational Biology is a peer-reviewed computational biology journal established in 2005 and published by the nonprofit Public Library of Science in association with the International Society for Computational Biology.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
The Polygonaceae are a family of flowering plants known informally as the knotweed family or smartweed—buckwheat family in the United States.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Polypodium is a genus of between 75-100 species of true ferns, widely distributed throughout the world, with the highest species diversity in the tropics.
A primordium (plural: primordia; synonym: anlage) in embryology, is defined as an organ or tissue in its earliest recognizable stage of development.
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.
The progymnosperms are an extinct group of woody, spore-bearing plants that is presumed to have evolved from the trimerophytes, and eventually gave rise to the gymnosperms.
Prostanthera lasianthos, commonly known as the Victorian Christmas bush, is a large shrub or small tree of the mint family, Lamiaceae, which is native to Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania in Australia.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A pseudanthium (Greek for "false flower"), also called a flower head or composite flower, is a special type of inflorescence, in which anything from a small cluster to hundreds or sometimes thousands of flowers are grouped together to form a single flower-like structure.
Psidium guajava, the common guava, yellow guava, or lemon guava (known as goiaba in Portuguese and guayaba in Spanish) is an evergreen shrub or small tree native to the Caribbean, Central America and South America.
Rachis is a biological term for a main axis or "shaft" (from the Greek ράχις, backbone, spine).
In radiometry, radiant flux or radiant power is the radiant energy emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time, and spectral flux or spectral power is the radiant flux per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength.
Raffia palms (Raphia) are a genus of about twenty species of palms native to tropical regions of Africa, and especially Madagascar, with one species (R. taedigera) also occurring in Central and South America.
In botany, ramification is the divergence of the stem and limbs of a plant into smaller ones, i.e. trunk into branches, branches into increasingly smaller branches, etc.
Raphides are needle-shaped crystals of calcium oxalate as the monohydrate or calcium carbonate as aragonite, found in more than 200 families of plants.
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.
Reticulation is a net-like pattern, arrangement, or structure.
Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) is a species of plant in the family Polygonaceae.
Rhus ovata, also known as sugar sumac or sugar bush, is an evergreen shrub to small tree that grows in chaparral in dry canyons and south-facing slopes below 1300 m in Southern California, Arizona and Baja California.
Ricinodendreae is a tribe of the subfamily Crotonoideae, under the family Euphorbiaceae.
Ricinus communis, the castor bean or castor oil plant, is a species of perennial flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears.
In botany, a rosette is a circular arrangement of leaves or of structures resembling leaves.
The Rubiaceae are a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the coffee, madder, or bedstraw family.
Rytigynia is a genus of flowering plants in the Rubiaceae family.
Salix alba, the white willow, is a species of willow native to Europe and western and central Asia.
San Diego State University (SDSU) is a public research university in San Diego, California, and is the largest and oldest higher education institution in San Diego County.
Sap is a fluid transported in xylem cells (vessel elements or tracheids) or phloem sieve tube elements of a plant.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.
Selaginella is the sole genus of primitive vascular plants in the family Selaginellaceae, the spikemosses or lesser clubmosses.
In botany, sessility (meaning "sitting", used in the sense of "resting on the surface") is a characteristic of plant parts that have no stalk.
In botany, shoots consist of stems including their appendages, the leaves and lateral buds, flowering stems and flower buds.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
Smilax is a genus of about 300–350 species, found in the tropics and subtropics worldwide.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
Sorbus is a genus of about 100–200 species of trees and shrubs in the rose family, Rosaceae.
Spathiphyllum is a genus of about 40 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas and southeastern Asia.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.
A stinging plant or a plant with stinging hairs is a plant with hairs (trichomes) on its leaves or stems that are capable of injecting substances that cause pain or irritation.
In botany, stipule (Latin stipula: straw, stalk) is a term coined by LinnaeusConcise English Dictionary Wordsworth Editions Ltd.
In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomata (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.
In botany, succulent plants, also known as succulents, are plants that have some parts that are more than normally thickened and fleshy, usually to retain water in arid climates or soil conditions.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sumac (also spelled sumach, sumaq) (translation, translit), (Mishnaic Hebrew אוֹג.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Swietenia is a genus of trees in the chinaberry family, Meliaceae.
Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes within the body of an organism.
In phylogenetics, a plesiomorphy, symplesiomorphy or symplesiomorphic character is an ancestral character or trait state shared by two or more taxa.
Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenolic biomolecules that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
In botany, a tendril is a specialized stem, leaves or petiole with a threadlike shape that is used by climbing plants for support, attachment and cellular invasion by parasitic plants, generally by twining around suitable hosts found by touch.
In mathematics and physics, a tensor field assigns a tensor to each point of a mathematical space (typically a Euclidean space or manifold).
Terminology is the study of terms and their use.
Insects in the family Tettigoniidae are commonly called bush crickets (in the UK), katydids (in the USA), or long-horned grasshoppers (mostly obsolete).
The Plant Cell is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of botany, especially the areas of cell and molecular biology, genetics, development, and evolution.
Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.
Thistle is the common name of a group of flowering plants characterised by leaves with sharp prickles on the margins, mostly in the family Asteraceae.
In plant morphology, thorns, spines, and prickles, and in general spinose structures (sometimes called spinose teeth or spinose apical processes), are hard, rigid extensions or modifications of leaves, roots, stems or buds with sharp, stiff ends, and generally serve the same function: physically deterring animals from eating the plant material.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
In the field of solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque.
The Tortricidae are a family of moths, commonly known as tortrix moths or leafroller moths, in the order Lepidoptera.
A trade-off (or tradeoff) is a situational decision that involves diminishing or losing one quality, quantity or property of a set or design in return for gains in other aspects.
Transpiration is the process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers.
In plants, the transpiration stream is the uninterrupted stream of water and solutes which is taken up by the roots and transported via the xylem to the leaves where it evaporates into the air/apoplast-interface of the substomatal cavity.
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
Trichomes, from the Greek τρίχωμα (trichōma) meaning "hair", are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants, algae, lichens, and certain protists.
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.
Turgor pressure is the force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
Urtica dioica, often called common nettle, stinging nettle (although not all plants of this species sting) or nettle leaf, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Urticaceae.
The Urticaceae are a family, the nettle family, of flowering plants.
Vaccinieae is a tribe of over 1000 species in the plant Family Ericaceae.
A vascular bundle is a part of the transport system in vascular plants.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants.
Vernation (from vernal meaning spring, since that is when leaves spring forth in temperate regions) is the formation of new leaves or fronds.
Viburnum plicatum (yabudemari, oodemari), common name Japanese snowball, is a species of flowering plant in the family Adoxaceae (formerly Caprifoliaceae), native to mainland China, Korea, Japan, and Taiwan.
Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, is a species of Vitis, native to the Mediterranean region, central Europe, and southwestern Asia, from Morocco and Portugal north to southern Germany and east to northern Iran.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
Welwitschia is a monotypic gymnosperm genus, comprising solely the distinctive Welwitschia mirabilis.
Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.
Xanthophylls (originally phylloxanthins) are yellow pigments that occur widely in nature and form one of two major divisions of the carotenoid group; the other division is formed by the carotenes.
A xerophyte (from Greek ξηρός xeros dry, φυτόν phuton plant) is a species of plant that has adaptations to survive in an environment with little liquid water, such as a desert or an ice- or snow-covered region in the Alps or the Arctic.
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.
Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light.
The Zingiberales are flowering plants forming one of four orders in the commelinids clade of monocots, together with its sister order, Commelinales.
Ziziphus is a genus of about 40 species of spiny shrubs and small trees in the buckthorn family, Rhamnaceae, distributed in the warm-temperate and subtropical regions throughout the world.
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