328 relations: Abbas al-Musawi, Abu Nidal Organization, Ahron Bregman, Akkar District, Al Jazeera, Al-Mourabitoun, Al-Tanzim, Alawites, Aley, Algeria, Ali Eid, Amal Movement, Amine Gemayel, Amnesty, Amnesty law, Antoine Lahad, Arab Democratic Party (Lebanon), Arab Deterrent Force, Arab League, Arab Liberation Front, Arab nationalism, Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Lebanon Region, Arab world, Aref Rayess, Argentina, Ariel Sharon, Armenian Revolutionary Federation, Armenian Revolutionary Federation in Lebanon, Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia, Armenians in Lebanon, Army of Free Lebanon, As-Sa'iqa, Assem Qanso, At Tiri incident, Élias Sarkis, Émile Lahoud, Ba'athism, Baabda, Baalbek, Bachir Gemayel, Baghdad Pact, Battle of the Hotels, Battle of Zahleh, Beirut, Beirut Art Center, Beqaa Valley, Black Saturday (Lebanon), Black September, Bourj el-Barajneh, Bulgaria, ..., Bus massacre, Camille Chamoun, Canada, Car bomb, Cedar Revolution, Chouf District, Christianity in Lebanon, Coast, Coastal Road massacre, Cold War, Communism, Communist Action Organization in Lebanon, Confederation, Damascus, Damour massacre, Dany Chamoun, Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Dilip Hiro, Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Druze, Edgar O'Ballance, Elias Atallah, Elias Hrawi, Elie Hobeika, Emigration, Emmanuel Erskine, Endless Night (painting), Etienne Saqr, Exile, Farid Elias Khazen, Fatah, Fillip, First Intifada, Free France, Free Lebanon State, French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, Fuad Chehab, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Geagea, George Habash, George Hawi, Georges Adwan, Global Policy Forum, Great Famine of Mount Lebanon, Greater Lebanon, Green Line (Lebanon), Guardians of the Cedars, Guerrilla warfare, Gulf War, Gustav Hägglund, Hafez al-Assad, Hagop Hagopian (guerrilla), Hamra Street, Hasbaya, Hashish, Hermel, Hezbollah, Hobeika, Hundred Days' War, Hussein of Jordan, Ibrahim Kulaylat, Incendies, Iran, Iran–Iraq War, Iranian Revolution, Iraq, Islam in Lebanon, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Islamic Unification Movement, Islamism, Israel, Israel Defense Forces, Israel Prison Service, Israeli Declaration of Independence, Israeli occupation of Southern Lebanon, Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Itamar Rabinovich, January 1986 Lebanese Forces coup, Jewish Virtual Library, John Bulloch (journalist), Jordan, Jumblatt family, Jury Prize (Cannes Film Festival), Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide, Kahan Commission, Kamal Jumblatt, Kamal Salibi, Karantina massacre, Kataeb Party, Kataeb Regulatory Forces, Khalil al-Wazir, Koura District, Kurdistan Workers' Party, Kuwait, Land mine, League of Nations, Lebanese Armed Forces, Lebanese Civil War, Lebanese Communist Party, Lebanese Forces, Lebanese Forces – Executive Command, Lebanese Front, Lebanese general election, 1992, Lebanese National Movement, Lebanese National Resistance Front, Lebanese people (Maronite Christians), Lebanese people (Shia Muslims), Lebanese people (Sunni Muslims), Lebanese Renewal Party, Lebanese Youth Movement (MKG), Lebanon, Lebanon (painting), Lebanon hostage crisis, Lebanon Summer 1982, Left-wing politics, Libya, Likud, Lina Murr Nehmé, List of modern conflicts in the Middle East, Litani River, Maarouf Saad, Mafia, Mahsum Korkmaz, Malcolm H. Kerr, Mandatory Palestine, Marada Movement, March 14 Alliance, March 8 Alliance, Marjayoun, Maronite Church, Martyrs' Square, Beirut, Marxism–Leninism, Matn District, May 17 Agreement, Menachem Begin, Michel Aoun, Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah, Monte Melkonian, Moral authority, Morocco, Mount Lebanon, Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, Mountain War (Lebanon), Multinational Force in Lebanon, Musa al-Sadr, Muslim Brotherhood, Mustafa Tlass, Mutasarrıf, Nabatieh, Nabih Berri, Nabil Kanso, Narcotic, Nasserism, National Liberal Party (Lebanon), National Pact, National Reconciliation, New wave music, Noam Chomsky, Non-combatant, October 13 massacre, Omar Karami, Out of Life, Palestine Liberation Army, Palestine Liberation Organization, Palestinian Christians, Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon, Palestinian Liberation Front, Palestinian National Salvation Front, Palestinian refugees, Palestinians, Pan-Arabism, Peacekeeping, Philip Habib, Philip Khuri Hitti, Pierre Gemayel, Polarization (politics), Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command, Progressive Socialist Party, Quisling, Rafael Eitan, Rafic Hariri, Rageh Omaar, Rashaya, Rashid Karami, Refugee camp, René Moawad, Riyadh, Roadblock, Robert Fisk, Robert Munsch, Romania, Ronald Reagan, Ruhollah Khomeini, Saad Haddad, Sabra and Shatila massacre, Saddam Hussein, Safra massacre, Saleh Barakat, Samir Geagea, Saudi Arabia, Secularism, Selim Hoss, Shafik Wazzan, Shatila refugee camp, Shia Islam, Shlomo Argov, Sidon, Siege of Beirut, Siege of Tel al-Zaatar, Simon & Schuster, Sixth of February Movement, Socialist Arab Lebanon Vanguard Party, Souha Bechara, South Lebanon Army, South Lebanon conflict (1985–2000), Soviet Union, Subhi al-Tufayli, Suez Crisis, Suleiman Frangieh, Sunni Islam, Synth-pop, Syria, Syria (region), Syrian Armed Forces, Syrian Army, Syrian Civil War, Syrian occupation of Lebanon, Syrian Social Nationalist Party, Ta'if, Taif Agreement, The Fateful Triangle, The Human League, The Lebanon (song), The New York Times, The Vortices of Wrath (Lebanon 1977), The Washington Post, Tigers Militia, Tony Frangieh, Tripartite Accord (Lebanon), Tripoli, Lebanon, Tyous Team of Commandos, United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 425, United Nations Security Council Resolution 508, United Nations Security Council Resolution 509, United States Department of State, United States Marine Corps, Vichy France, Walid Jumblatt, Waltz with Bashir, War of the Camps, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, Wayne State University Press, White House, William Hawi, William O'Callaghan (Irish Army officer), World War I, World War II, Yasser Arafat, Zahlé, Zgharta, Zgharta Liberation Army, 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war, 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1948 Palestinian exodus, 1958 Lebanon crisis, 1967 Palestinian exodus, 1976 Arab League summit (Riyadh), 1978 South Lebanon conflict, 1982 Lebanon War, 1983 Beirut barracks bombings, 1983 United States embassy bombing, 1984 United States embassy annex bombing, 1991 Cannes Film Festival. 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Abbas al Moussawi عباس الموسوي; 26 October 1952 – 16 February 1992) was an influential Lebanese Shia cleric, co-founder and Secretary General of Hezbollah. He was killed by the Israel Defense Forces in 1992.
The Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) is the most common name for the Palestinian militant group Fatah – The Revolutionary Council (Fatah al-Majles al-Thawry).
Ahron "Ronnie" Bregman (אהרון ברגמן, born 1958) is a UK-based political scientist of Israeli origin, as well as a writer and journalist, specialising on the Arab–Israeli conflict.
Akkar District (قضاء عكار) is the only district in Akkar Governorate, Lebanon.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
The Independent Nasserite Movement – INM (translit) or simply Al-Murabitoun (المرابطون lit. The Steadfast), also termed variously Mouvement des Nasséristes Indépendants (MNI) in French, Independent Nasserite Organization (INO), or Movement of Independent Nasserists (MIN), is a Nasserist political party in Lebanon that is closely allied with Shia organization Hezbollah.
Al-Tanzim, Al-Tanzym or At-Tanzim (lit) was the name of an ultranationalist secret military society and militia set up by right-wing Christian activists in Lebanon at the early 1970s, and which came to play an important role in the Lebanese Civil War.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Aley (عاليه), is a city in Lebanon.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Ali Eid (14 July 1940 – 25 December 2015) was a Lebanese politician.
The Amal Movement (or Hope Movement in English, حركة أمل) is a Lebanese political party associated with Lebanon's Shia community.
Amine Pierre Gemayel (أمين بيار الجميٌل; born 22 January 1942) is a Lebanese politician who was President of Lebanon from 1982 to 1988 and was the leader of Kataeb Party.
Amnesty (from the Greek ἀμνηστία amnestia, "forgetfulness, passing over") is defined as: "A pardon extended by the government to a group or class of people, usually for a political offense; the act of a sovereign power officially forgiving certain classes of people who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted." It includes more than pardon, inasmuch as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the offense.
An amnesty law is any law that retroactively exempts a select group of people, usually military leaders and government leaders, from criminal liability for crimes committed.
Antoine Lahad (1927 – 10 September 2015) was the leader of the South Lebanon Army (SLA) from 1984 until 2000, until the army withdrew from Southern Lebanon and was dissolved.
The Arab Democratic Party – ADP (translit) or Parti Démocratique Arabe (PDA) in French, is a Lebanese party, based in Tripoli.
The Arab Deterrent Force (ADF; Arabic: قوات الردع العربية) was an international peacekeeping force created by the Arab League in the extraordinary Riyadh Summit on 17–18 October 1976, attended only by heads of state from Egypt, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
Arab Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير العربية Jabhet Al-Tahrir Al-'Arabiyah) is a minor Palestinian political party, previously controlled by the Iraqi-led Ba'ath Party, formed in 1969 by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr and then headed by Saddam Hussein.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Lebanon Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في لبنان Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-Arabi Al-Ishtiraki fi Lubnan), officially the Lebanon Regional Branch, is a political party in Lebanon.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Aref El Rayess (or Aref Rayess) (1928 in Aley, Lebanon – 2005) was a Lebanese painter.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Ariel Sharon (אריאל שרון;,, also known by his diminutive Arik, אַריק, born Ariel Scheinermann, אריאל שיינרמן‎; February 26, 1928 – January 11, 2014) was an Israeli general and politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Israel from March 2001 until April 2006.
The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (classical Հայ Յեղափոխական Դաշնակցութիւն, ՀՅԴ), also known as Dashnaktsutyun (in a short form, Dashnak), is an Armenian nationalist and socialist political party founded in 1890 in Tiflis, Russian Empire (now Tbilisi, Georgia) by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian.
The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF or ՀՅԴ) (Հայ Յեղափոխական Դաշնակցութիւն Hay Heghapokhagan Tashnagtsutiun, Դաշնակ Tashnag) (in Arabic الإتحاد الثوري الأرمني - الطاشناق), also known simply as Tashnag, is an Armenian political party active in Lebanon since the 1920s as an official political party in the country after having started with small student cells in the late 1890s and early 20th century.
The Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) (Հայաստանի Ազատագրութեան Հայ Գաղտնի Բանակ, ՀԱՀԳԲ, Hayasdani Azadakrut'ean Hay Kaghdni Panag, HAHKP) was an Armenian militant organization, that operated from 1975 to the early 1990s.
The Armenians in Lebanon (Լիբանանահայեր lipananahayer, اللبنانيون الأرمن) (Libano-Arméniens) are Lebanese citizens of Armenian descent.
The Army of Free Lebanon – AFL (Arabic: جيش لبنان الحر transliteration Jaiysh Lubnan al-Horr) or 'Colonel Barakat's Army' (Arabic: جيش بركات transliteration Jaiysh Barakat), also designated Armée du Liban Libre (ALL) and 'Armée du Colonel Barakat' in French, was a predominantly Christian splinter faction of the Lebanese Army that came to play a major role in the 1975-77 phase of the Lebanese Civil War.
For the Libyan Special Forces see: Al-Saiqa (Libya) As-Sa'iqa (also transliterated as al-Saika, Saeqa, etc., from الصاعقة (lit. storm or thunderbolt (meaning “shock troops”); also known as the Vanguard for the Popular Liberation War) is a Palestinian Ba'athist political and military faction created and controlled by Syria. It is linked to the Palestinian branch of the Syrian-led Ba'ath Party, and is a member of the broader Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), although it is no longer active in the organization. Its Secretary-General is and the president of the political wing of the organization is Dr Mohammed Qais.
Muhammad Assem Qanso (عاصم قانصوه, born 1937 in Baalbek) is a Lebanese politician.
In April 1980, three Irish Army peacekeeping soldiers serving with the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) were shot by the South Lebanon Army also known as the DFF, near At Tiri, in the South Lebanon security belt, two of whom died and one was seriously injured.
Élias Youssef Sarkis (20 July 1924 – 27 June 1985) (إلياس سركيس) was a lawyer and President of Lebanon, who served from 1976 to 1982.
Émile Jamil Lahoud (اميل جميل لحود) (born 12 January 1936) is a Lebanese politician who was President of Lebanon from 1998 to 2007.
Ba'athism (البعثية, al-Ba'athiyah, from بعث ba'ath, meaning "renaissance" or "resurrection") is an Arab nationalist ideology that promotes the development and creation of a unified Arab state through the leadership of a vanguard party over a progressive revolutionary government.
Baabda (بعبدا) is the capital city of Baabda District as well as the capital of Mount Lebanon Governorate, western Lebanon.
Baalbek, properly Baʿalbek (بعلبك) and also known as Balbec, Baalbec or Baalbeck, is a city in the Anti-Lebanon foothills east of the Litani River in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley, about northeast of Beirut and about north of Damascus.
Bachir Gemayel (Bashīr al-Jimayyel, also romanized al-Jumayyil and El Gemaiel.; 10 November 1947 – 14 September 1982), also Bashir Gemayel, was a Lebanese leader and president-elect.
The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
The Battle of the Hotels, also known as the "Hotel front", was a subconflict within the 1975–77 phase of the Lebanese Civil War which occurred in the Minet-el-Hosn hotel district of downtown Beirut.
The Battle of Zahle (Arabic: معركة زحلة) took place during the Lebanese Civil War, between December 1980 and June 1981.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
Beirut Art Center is a space for exhibiting contemporary art in Beirut, Lebanon.
The Beqaa Valley (وادي البقاع,, Lebanese; Բեքայի դաշտավայր), also transliterated as Bekaa, Biqâ and Becaa and known in Classical antiquity as Coele-Syria, is a fertile valley in eastern Lebanon.
On 6 September 1975, a Saturday, four young Phalangists were assassinated on the Fanar Road in Beirut.
Black September (أيلول الأسود; Aylūl Al-Aswad) was the conflict fought in Jordan between the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF), under the leadership of King Hussein, and the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), under the leadership of Yasser Arafat, primarily between 16 and 27 September 1970, with certain actions continuing until 17 July 1971.
Bourj el-Barajneh (برج البراجنة, "Tower of Towers") is a municipality located in the southern suburbs of Beirut, in Lebanon.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Bus Massacre, also known as the "Ain el-Rammaneh incident" (or massacre) and the "Black Sunday", was the collective name given to a short series of armed clashes involving Lebanese Christian and Palestinian elements in the streets of central Beirut, which is commonly presented as the spark that set off the Lebanese Civil War in the mid-1970s.
Camille Nimr Chamoun (Arabic: كميل نمر شمعون, Kamīl Sham'ūn) (3 April 1900 – 7 August 1987) was President of Lebanon from 1952 to 1958, and one of the country's main Christian leaders during most of the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990).
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
A car bomb, lorry bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), is an improvised explosive device placed inside a car or other vehicle and detonated.
The Cedar Revolution (Arabic: ثورة الأرز - thawrat al-arz) or Independence Intifada (Arabic: انتفاضة الاستقلال - intifāḍat al-istiqlāl) was a chain of demonstrations in Lebanon (especially in the capital Beirut) triggered by the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister, Rafik Hariri.
Chouf (also spelled Shouf, Shuf or Chuf, in Jebel ash-Shouf) is a historic region of Lebanon, as well as an administrative district in the governorate (mohafazat) of Mount Lebanon.
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
The Coastal Road massacre of 1978 was an attack involving the hijacking of a bus on Israel's Coastal Highway in which 38 Israeli civilians, including 13 children, were killed, and 71 were wounded.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist Action Organization in Lebanon – CAOL (منظمة العمل الشيوعي في لبنان | munaẓẓamah al-‘amal al-shuyū‘ī fī lubnān), also known as Organization of Communist Action in Lebanon or Organisation de l'Action Communiste du Liban (OACL) in French, is a Marxist-Leninist political party and former militia in Lebanon.
A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
The Damour massacre took place on January 20, 1976, during the 1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War.
Dany Chamoun (داني شمعون) (26 August 1934 – 21 October 1990) was a prominent Lebanese politician.
The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الديموقراطية لتحرير فلسطين, al-Jabha al-Dimuqratiya li-Tahrir Filastin) is a Palestinian Marxist–Leninist–Maoist, secular political and militant organization.
Dilip Hiro is an Indian author, journalist, and commentator who specializes on the politics of South Asia and Middle East.
The period of the defeat and end of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Major Edgar “Paddy” O'Ballance (17 July 1918, Dublin, Ireland – 8 July 2009, Wakebridge, Derbyshire, England) was a British military journalist, researcher, defence commentator and academic lecturer specialising in international relations and defence problems.
Elias G Atallah (إلياس عطا الله) (born 1947), is a Lebanese politician, and an elected member of parliament during the 2005 elections.
Elias Hrawi (الياس الهراوي, 4 September 1926 – 7 July 2006) was a President of Lebanon, whose term of office ran from 1989 to 1998.
Elie Hobeika (22 September 1956 – 24 January 2002; إيلي حبيقة.) was a Lebanese Phalangist and Lebanese Forces commander during the Lebanese Civil War, and former MP.
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.
Lieutenant General Emmanuel Alexander Erskine (born 19 January 1937) is a retired Ghanaian soldier and politician.
Endless Night is the title of a painting executed in 1983 by Nabil Kanso in oil paint on canvas measuring 2.25 X 3 meters (7.5 X 10 feet).
Etienne Saqr (born in 1937) (last name also spelt Sakr or Sacre, Arabic: إتيان صقر), also known by his nom de guerre "Abu Arz" (translate: Father of Cedars), is a far-right, Lebanese nationalist leader and founder of the Guardians of the Cedars militia and political party (حراس الأرز, Horras Al-Arz in Arabic).
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
Farid Elias Khazen (also Farid Elias el-Khazen) is a Lebanese politician and professor of political science at the American University of Beirut.
Fataḥ (فتح), formerly the Palestinian National Liberation Movement, is a Palestinian nationalist political party and the largest faction of the confederated multi-party Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the second-largest party in the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC).
Fillip is a Vancouver-based contemporary art publishing organization formed in 2004.
The First Intifada or First Palestinian Intifada (also known simply as the intifada or intifadah) was a Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
The Free Lebanon State (دولة لبنان الحر) was a de facto unrecognized state, announced by Saad Haddad, Lebanese politician and commander of the Maronite-Christian dominated South Lebanon Army on the course of the Lebanese Civil War.
The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.
Fuad Abdullah Chehab (فؤاد عبد الله شهاب; also transliterated Fouad Shihab; 19 March 1902 – 25 April 1973) was the President of the Lebanese Republic from 1958 to 1964.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Geagea is a surname, and may refer to.
George Habash (جورج حبش), also known by his laqab "al-Hakim" (الحكيم, "the wise one" or "the doctor"; 2 August 1926 – 26 January 2008) was a Palestinian Christian politician who founded the left-wing secular nationalist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).
George Hawi (جورج حاوي; born 5 November 1938 – 21 June 2005) was a Lebanese politician and former secretary general of the Lebanese Communist Party (LCP).
Georges Adwan (جورج عدوان, born 1947 in Deir el Qamar) is a lawyer and a Lebanese politician.
Global Policy Forum (GPF), founded in 1993, is an organization seeking to promote accountability of international organizations such as the United Nations and strengthen international law.
The Great Famine of Mount Lebanon (1915–1918) was a period of mass starvation during World War I. The Allies' blockade was made worse by another introduced by Jamal Pasha, the commander of the Fourth Army of the Ottoman Empire in Syria region, where crops were barred from entering from the neighboring Syrian hinterland to Mount Lebanon, and by the arrival of a swarm of locusts to the region in 1915 that, for three continuous months, devoured the remaining crops.
The State of Greater Lebanon (دولة لبنان الكبير; État du Grand Liban) was a state declared on 1 September 1920, which became the Lebanese Republic (République libanaise) in May 1926, and is the predecessor of modern Lebanon.
The Green Line was a line of demarcation in Beirut, Lebanon, during the Lebanese Civil War from 1975 to 1990.
The Guardians of the Cedars (GoC') (Arabic: حراس الأرز; Ḥurrās al-Arz; French: Gardiens du Cedre or Gardiens des Cèdres, GdC) are a far-right ultranationalist Lebanese party and former Christian militia in Lebanon.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Johan Edvin Birger Gustav Hägglund (born 6 September 1938 in Viipuri) is a retired Finnish general.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.
Hagop Hagopian (or Agop Agopian; Յակոբ Յակոբեան; 1951–28 April 1988) was an Armenian activist, guerrilla fighter and one of the founders and the main leader of the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA).
Hamra Street or Rue Hamra (شارع الحمراء) is one of the main streets of the city of Beirut, Lebanon, and one of the main economic and diplomatic hubs of Beirut.
Hasbeya or Hasbeiya (حاصبيا) is a town in Lebanon, situated at the foot of Mount Hermon, overlooking a deep amphitheatre from which a brook flows to the Hasbani.
Hashish, or hash, is a drug made from cannabis.
Hermel (الهرمل) is a town in Baalbek-Hermel Governorate, Lebanon.
Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.
Hobeika (in Arabic حبيقة) is an Arabic surname.
The Hundred Days War (Arabic: حرب المئة يوم | Harb Al-Mia'at Yaoum), also known as 'La Guerre des Cent Jours' in French was a subconflict within the 1977–82 phase of the Lebanese Civil War which occurred at the Lebanese Capital Beirut.
Hussein bin Talal (الحسين بن طلال, Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ṭalāl; 14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999) reigned as King of Jordan from 11 August 1952 until his death.
Ibrahim Kulaylat is a Lebanese politician.
Incendies ("Fires") is a 2010 Canadian mystery-drama film written and directed by Denis Villeneuve.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.
The Islamic Unification Movement – IUM (حركة التوحيد الإسلامي | Harakat al-Tawhid al-Islami), also named Islamic Unity Movement or Mouvement de Unification Islamique (MUI) in French, but best known as Al-Tawhid, At-Tawhid, or Tawheed, is a Lebanese Sunni Muslim political party.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.
The Israel Prison Service (שירות בתי הסוהר, Sherut Batei HaSohar, إدارة السجون الإسرائيلية, Idārat al-Sujūn al-Isrā’īlīyyah), commonly known in Israel by its acronym Shabas or IPS in English, is the state agency responsible for overseeing prisons in Israel.
The Israeli Declaration of Independence,Hebrew: הכרזת העצמאות, Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut/מגילת העצמאות Megilat HaAtzma'utArabic: وثيقة إعلان قيام دولة إسرائيل, Wathiqat 'iielan qiam dawlat 'iisrayiyl formally the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel (הכרזה על הקמת מדינת ישראל), was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708) by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist OrganizationThen known as the Zionist Organization.
The Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon took place after Israel invaded Lebanon during the 1982 Lebanon War and subsequently retained its forces to support the Christian South Lebanon Army in Southern Lebanon.
The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini; al-Niza'a al-Filastini-al-Israili) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.
Itamar Rabinovich (איתמר רבינוביץ; born 1942) is the president of the Israel Institute (Washington and Jerusalem).
On January 15, 1986, forces loyal to Lebanese president Amine Gemayel and Samir Geagea, intelligence chief of the Lebanese Forces (LF), ousted Elie Hobeika from his position as leader of the LF and replaced him with Geagea.
The Jewish Virtual Library ("JVL", formerly known as JSOURCE) is an online encyclopedia published by the American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE).
John Angel Bulloch (15 April 1928 – 18 November 2010) was a foreign correspondent for the Daily Telegraph.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Jumblatt family (originally Kurdish Canpolad, meaning "steel-bodied" or "soul of steel"), also transliterated as Joumblatt, Junblat and Junblatt) is a Kurdish family who settled in the Kurdistan Lebanon mountains (coming from Syria) around the 15-16th century, fleeing persecution from an Ottoman governor. Tradition holds the Jumblatt family to be the leaders of the Kaysi Arabs, who fought a bitter war with the Yemeni Druze in the Battle of Ain Darra of 1711. Although Lebanese Druze leader Walid Jumblatt is the most known and influential figure of the family in modern Lebanon, there are other Jumblatt family members from this lineage who contribute to the cultural, economic and social life in Lebanon, and not restricted to the Chouf and Mount Lebanon, but also having a visible presence in mansions and villas within the distinguished Clemenceau area of Beirut and in the north-west area of Sidon.
The Jury Prize (Prix du Jury) is an award presented at the Cannes Film Festival, chosen by the Jury from the "official section" of movies at the festival.
Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide (JCAG) (Հայկական Ցեղասպանութեան Արդարութեան Մարտիկներ, ՀՑԱՄ) was an Armenian militant organization active from 1975 to 1987.
The Kahan Commission (ועדת כהן), formally known as the Commission of Inquiry into the Events at the Refugee Camps in Beirut, was established by the Israeli government on 28 September 1982, to investigate the Sabra and Shatila massacre (16–18 September 1982).
Kamal Fouad Jumblatt (كمال فؤاد جنبلاط) (December 6, 1917 – March 16, 1977) was a prominent Lebanese politician.
Kamal Suleiman Salibi (كمال سليمان الصليبي.) (2 May 19291 September 2011) ilouban,com, 1 September 2011.
The Karantina massacre took place early in the Lebanese Civil War on January 18, 1976.
The Lebanese Phalanges Party (حزب الكتائب اللبنانية), better known in English as the Phalange (الكتائب), is a Christian Democratic political party in Lebanon.
The Kataeb Regulatory Forces – KRF or RF (Arabic: قوى الكتائب النظامية |), Forces Regulatoires du Kataeb (FRK) in French, were the military wing of the right-wing Lebanese Christian Kataeb Party, otherwise known as the 'Phalange', from 1961 to 1977.
Khalil Ibrahim al-WazirStandardized Arabic transliteration: / / (خليل إبراهيم الوزير, also known by his kunya Abu Jihad Standardized Arabic transliteration: أبو جهاد—"Jihad's Father"; 10 October 1935 – 16 April 1988) was a Palestinian leader and co-founder of the nationalist party Fatah.
Koura District (الكورة, from lit) is a district in the North Governorate, Lebanon.
The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê) is an organization based in Turkey and Iraq.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) (Arabic: القوات المسلحة اللبنانية | Al-Quwwāt al-Musallaḥa al-Lubnāniyya) or Forces Armées Libanaises (FAL) in French, also known as the Lebanese Army (Arabic: الجيش اللبناني or "Armée libanaise" in French), is the military of the Lebanese Republic.
The Lebanese Civil War (الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية – Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities.
The Lebanese Communist Party – LCP (الـحـزب الشـيـوعـي اللبـنـانـي, transliterated) or Parti communiste libanais (PCL) in French, is a communist party in Lebanon.
The Lebanese Forces (القوات اللبنانية) is a Lebanese Christian based political party and former militia during the Lebanese Civil War.
The Lebanese Forces – Executive Command, or LFEC (Arabic: Al-Quwwat al-Lubnaniyya – Al-Qiyada Al-Tanfeethiyya), was a splinter group from the Lebanese Forces led by Elie Hobeika, based in the town of Zahlé in the Beqaa valley in the late 1980s.
The Lebanese Front (الجبهة اللبنانية| al-Jabha al-Lubnaniyya) or Front libanais in French, was a coalition of mainly Christian parties formed in 1976 during the Lebanese Civil War.
General elections were held in Lebanon between 23 August and 11 October 1992, the first since 1972.
The Lebanese National Movement (LNM) (Arabic: الحركة الوطنية اللبنانية, Al-Harakat al-Wataniyya al-Lubnaniyya) or Mouvement National Libanais (MNL) in French, was a front of leftist, pan-Arabist and Syrian nationalist parties and organizations active during the early years of the Lebanese Civil War, which supported the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
The Lebanese National Resistance Front – LNRF (Jabhat al-Muqawama al-Wataniyya al-Lubnaniyya) or Front National de la Résistance Libanaise (FNRL) in French, but best known by its Arabic acronym, ‘Jammoul’ (جمول), was an underground guerrilla alliance active in Lebanon in the 1980s.
Lebanese Maronite Christians (Arabic: المسيحية المارونية في لبنان) refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Maronite Church in Lebanon, which is the largest Christian denomination in the country.
Lebanese people refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Shia branch of Islam in Lebanon, which is the largest Muslim denomination in the country tied with Sunni Muslims.
Lebanese Sunni Muslims refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Sunni branch of Islam in Lebanon, which is the largest denomination in Lebanon tied with Shia Muslims.
Lebanese Renewal Party (in Arabic حزب التجدد اللبناني) abbreviated as LRP was a Lebanese nationalist party established in 1972 by a number of staunch Lebanese nationalists including activist Etienne Saqr, poet Said Akl and writer May Murr.
The Lebanese Youth Movement – LYM (Arabic: حركة الشباب اللبنانية | Harakat al-Shabab al-Lubnaniyya), also known as the Maroun Khoury Group (MKG), was a Christian far-right militia which fought in the 1975-77 phase of the Lebanese Civil War.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Lebanon is a mural size painting by Nabil Kanso depicting the Lebanese Civil War in a scene invoking the spirit and character of the people in the midst of horror and violence gripping the country.
The Lebanon hostage crisis was the kidnapping in Lebanon of 104 foreign hostages between 1982 and 1992, when the Lebanese Civil War was at its height.
Lebanon Summer 1982 is the title and subject of a mural-scale painting made by Nabil Kanso in 1982 on the Sabra and Shatila massacre during the Lebanese Civil War.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Likud (הַלִּיכּוּד, translit. HaLikud, lit., The Consolidation), officially, the Likud-National Liberal Movement, is a centre-right to right-wing political party in Israel.
Lina Murr Nehmé (born 1955) is a French-Lebanese author and professor at the Lebanese University.
This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East.
The Litani River (نهر الليطاني, Nahr al-Līṭānī), the classical Leontes (Λέοντες, Léontes, "Lions"), is an important water resource in southern Lebanon.
Maarouf Saad (معروف سعد) (1910. Maarouf Saad Cultural Center. or 1914–6 March 1975) was a Lebanese politician and activist.
A mafia is a type of organized crime syndicate whose primary activities are protection racketeering, the arbitration of disputes between criminals, and the organizing and oversight of illegal agreements and transactions.
Mahsum Korkmaz, also known as Agit, was the first commander of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)'s military forces.
Malcolm Hooper Kerr (October 8, 1931 – January 18, 1984) was a university professor specializing in the Middle East and the Arab world.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
The Marada Movement (تيار المردة Tayyār Al-Marada) is a Lebanese political party and a former militia active during the Lebanese civil war named after the legendary Marada (also called Mardaites) warriors of the early Middle Ages that fought on the external edge of the Byzantine Empire.
The March 14 Alliance (taḥāluf 14 adhār), named after the date of the Cedar Revolution, is a coalition of political parties and independents in Lebanon formed in 2005 that are united by their anti-Syrian regime stance and their opposition to the March 8 Alliance.
The March 8 Alliance (taḥāluf 8 adhār) is a coalition of various political parties in Lebanon.
Marjayoun (مرجعيون: Lebanese pronunciation), also Marj 'Ayoun, Marjuyun or Marjeyoun - meaning "meadow of springs") is both a Lebanese town (also known as Jdeideh / Jdeida / Jdeidet Marjeyoun) and an administrative district, Marjeyoun District, in the Nabatieh Governorate in Southern Lebanon.
The Maronite Church (الكنيسة المارونية) is an Eastern Catholic sui iuris particular church in full communion with the Pope and the Catholic Church, with self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches.
Martyrs' Square is a square in the heart of downtown Beirut, Lebanon.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Matn (قضاء المتن), sometimes spelled Metn, is a district (qadaa) in the Mount Lebanon Governorate of Lebanon, east of the Lebanon's capital Beirut.
The May 17 Agreement of 1983 was an agreement signed between Lebanon and Israel during the Lebanese Civil War on May 17, 1983, after Israel invaded Lebanon and besieged Beirut in 1982.
Menachem Begin (Menaḥem Begin,; Menakhem Volfovich Begin; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel.
Michel Naim Aoun (ميشال نعيم عون,; born 18 February 1935) is the current President of Lebanon.
Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Hussain Fadlallah (also Sayyed Muhammad Hussein Fadl-Allāh; محمد حسين فضل الله; 16 November 1935 – 4 July 2010) was a prominent but controversial Shia cleric from a Lebanese family, but born in Najaf, Iraq, Fadlallah studied Islam in Najaf before moving to Lebanon in 1952.
Monte Melkonian (classical Մոնթէ Մելքոնեան; reformed: Մոնթե Մելքոնյան; November 25, 1957 – June 12, 1993) was an Armenian revolutionary, left-wing nationalist militant and commander.
Moral authority is authority premised on principles, or fundamental truths, which are independent of written, or positive, laws.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mount Lebanon (جَبَل لُبْنَان, jabal lubnān, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation; ܛܘܪ ܠܒܢܢ) is a mountain range in Lebanon.
The Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate (متصرفية جبل لبنان; Cebel-i Lübnan Mutasarrıflığı) was one of the Ottoman Empire's subdivisions following the Tanzimat reform.
The Mountain War (حرب الجبل | Harb al-Jabal), also known as the War of the Mountain and Guerre de la Montagne in French, was a subconflict between the 1982–83 phase of the Lebanese Civil War and the 1984–89 phase of the Lebanese Civil War, which occurred at the mountainous Chouf District located south-east of the Lebanese Capital Beirut.
The Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF) was an international peacekeeping force created in August 1982 following the 1981 U.S.-brokered ceasefire between the PLO and Israel to end their involvement in the conflict between Lebanon's pro-government and pro-Syrian factions.
Musa al-Sadr (سید موسى صدر; 4 June 1928 – disappeared in Libya on 31 August 1978) is a Lebanese-Iranian philosopher and Shi'a religious leader from a long line of distinguished clerics tracing their ancestry back to Jabal Amel. Born in the Cheharmardan neighbourhood of Qom, Iran, he underwent both seminary and secular studies in Iran. He left Qom for Najaf to study theology and returned to Iran after the 1958 Iraqi coup d'état. He belongs to the Sadr family from Jabal Amel in Lebanon, a branch of Musawi family tracing to Musa Ibn Jaafar, the seventh Shia Imam and ultimately to the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima. Therefore Musa al-Sadr is often styled with the honorific title Sayyid. Some years later, Sadr went to Tyre, Lebanon as the emissary of Ayatollahs Borujerdi and Hakim. Fouad Ajami called him a "towering figure in modern Shi'i political thought and praxis"., chapter 26 He gave the Shia population of Lebanon "a sense of community". In Lebanon, he founded and revived many organizations including schools, charities, and the Amal Movement. On 25 August 1978, Sadr and two companions departed for Libya to meet with government officials at the invitation of Muammar Gaddafi. The three were last seen on 31 August. They were never heard from again. Many theories exist around the circumstances of Sadr's disappearance, none of which have been proven.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
Mustafa Abdul Qadir Tlass (مصطفى طلاس; 11 May 1932 – 27 June 2017) was a Syrian senior military officer and politician who was Syria's minister of defense from 1972 to 2004.
In the Ottoman Empire, a mutasarrıf was an administrative authority of any of certain sanjaks, who were appointed directly by the Sultan.
Nabatieh (النبطية), or Nabatîyé, is the city of the Nabatieh Governorate, in southern Lebanon.
Nabih Berri (نبيه بري; born 28 January 1938) is a Lebanese politician who has been the Speaker of the Parliament of Lebanon since 1992.
Nabil Kanso (born 1946) is an American painter.
The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.
Nasserism (at-Tayyār an-Nāṣṣarī) is a socialist Arab nationalist political ideology based on the thinking of Gamal Abdel Nasser, one of the two principal leaders of the Egyptian revolution of 1952 and Egypt's second President.
The National Liberal Party (NLP, حزب الوطنيين الأحرار, literally Ḥizb Al-Waṭaniyyīn Al-Aḥrār) is a center-right political party in Lebanon, established by President Camille Chamoun in 1958.
The National Pact (الميثاق الوطني) is an unwritten agreement that laid the foundation of Lebanon as a multiconfessional state, having shaped the country to this day.
National Reconciliation is the term used for establishment of so-called 'national unity' in countries beset with political problems.
New wave is a genre of rock music popular in the late 1970s and the 1980s with ties to mid-1970s punk rock.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Non-combatant is a term of art in the law of war and international humanitarian law, describing civilians who are not taking a direct part in hostilities; persons—such as combat medics and military chaplains—who are members of the belligerent armed forces but are protected because of their specific duties (as currently described in Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions, adopted in June 1977); combatants who are placed hors de combat; and neutral nationals (including military personnel) who are not fighting for one of the belligerents involved in an armed conflict.
The October 13 Massacre took place on 13 October 1990, during the final period of the Lebanese Civil War, when hundreds of Lebanese Army soldiers were executed after they surrendered to the Syrian Army.
Omar Abdul Hamid Karami (last name also spelled Karamé and Karameh) (عمر عبد الحميد كرامي; 7 September 1934 – 1 January 2015) was the 55th Prime Minister of Lebanon on two separate occasions.
Out of Life (Hors la vie) is a 1991 film directed by Lebanese director Maroun Bagdadi.
The Palestine Liberation Army (PLA, جيش التحرير الفلسطيني, Jaysh al-Tahrir al-Filastini) was ostensibly set up as the military wing of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) at the 1964 Arab League summit held in Alexandria, Egypt, with the mission of fighting Israel.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
Palestinian Christians (مسيحيون فلسطينيون) are Christian citizens of the State of Palestine.
The Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon was a conflict initiated by Palestinian militants based in South Lebanon upon Israel since 1968 and upon Christian Lebanese factions since mid-1970s, which evolved into the wider Lebanese Civil War in 1975 and lasted until the expulsion of the Palestinian Liberation Organization from Lebanon in the 1982 Lebanon War.
The Palestinian Liberation Front (PLF) (جبهة التحرير الفلسطينية) is a Palestinian political faction.
The Palestinian National Salvation Front (جبهة الانقاذ الوطني الفلسطيني) was a coalition of Palestinian factions.
The term "Palestine refugees" originally referred to both Arabs and Jews whose normal place of residence had been in Mandatory Palestine but were displaced and lost their livelihoods as a result of the 1948 Palestine war.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
Pan-Arabism, or simply Arabism, is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
Philip Charles Habib (February 25, 1920 – May 25, 1992) was an American career diplomat.
Philip Khuri Hitti (Arabic: فيليب خوري حتي), (Shimlan 22 June 1886 – Princeton 24 December 1978) was a Lebanese American professor and scholar at Princeton and Harvard University, and authority on Arab and Middle Eastern history, Islam, and Semitic languages.
Sheikh Pierre Gemayel (بيار الجميّل.) (6 November 1905 – 29 August 1984) (last name also spelt Jmayyel, Jemayyel or al-Jumayyil; Sheikh is an honorific title in Arab countries) was a Lebanese political leader.
In politics, polarization (or polarisation) can refer to the divergence of political attitudes to ideological extremes.
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين, al-Jabhah al-Sha`biyyah li-Taḥrīr Filasṭīn) is a secular Palestinian Marxist–Leninist and revolutionary socialist organization founded in 1967 by George Habash.
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command (الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين – القيادة العامة) or PFLP-GC is a Palestinian nationalist militant organisation based in Syria.
The Progressive Socialist Party or PSP (الحزب التقدمي الاشتراكي, al-hizb al-taqadummi al-ishtiraki, Parti socialiste progressiste) is a political party in Lebanon.
Quisling is a term originating in Norway, which is used in Scandinavian languages and in English for a person who collaborates with an enemy occupying force – or more generally as a synonym for traitor.
Rafael "Raful" Eitan (רפאל "רפול" איתן, born 11 January 1929 – 23 November 2004) was an Israeli general, former Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces and later a politician, a Knesset member government minister.
Rafic Baha El Deen Al Hariri (رفيق بهاء الدين الحريري; 1 November 1944 – 14 February 2005) was a Lebanese business tycoon and the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on.
Rageh Omaar (Raage Oomaar; راجح عمر; born 19 July 1967) is a Somali-born British journalist and writer.
Rashaya, Rachaya, Rashaiya, Rashayya or Rachaiya (Arabic: راشيا), also known as Rashaya al-Wadi or Rachaya el-Wadi (and variations), is a town of the Rashaya District in the south of the Beqaa Governorate of Lebanon.
Rashid Abdul Hamid Karami (30 December 1921 – 1 June 1987) (رشيد كرامي) was a Lebanese statesman.
A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees and people in refugee-like situations.
René Moawad (April 17, 1925 in Zgharta – November 22, 1989 in Beirut) (رينيه معوض) was President of Lebanon for 17 days in 1989, from the 5 to 22 November, when he was assassinated by unknown assailants.
Riyadh (/rɨˈjɑːd/; الرياض ar-Riyāḍ Najdi pronunciation) is the capital and most populous city of Saudi Arabia.
A roadblock is a temporary installation set up to control or block traffic along a road.
Robert Fisk (born 12 July 1946) is an English writer and journalist.
Robert Norman Munsch, CM (born June 11, 1945) is an American-born Canadian children's author.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
Saad Haddad (1936 – January 14, 1984) was the founder and head of the South Lebanon Army (SLA) during the Lebanese Civil War.
The Sabra and Shatila massacre was the killing of between 762 and 3,500 civilians, mostly Palestinians and Lebanese Shiites, by a militia close to the Kataeb Party, also called Phalange, a predominantly Christian Lebanese right-wing party in the Sabra neighborhood and the adjacent Shatila refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
The Safra massacre, or the Day of the Long Knives, occurred in the coastal town of Safra (north of Beirut) on 7 July 1980, during the Lebanese civil war, as part of Bashir Gemayel's effort to consolidate all the Christian fighters under his leadership in the Lebanese Forces.
Saleh Barakat (born in 1969 in Beirut, Lebanon) is a Lebanese art expert, gallery owner and curator.
Samir Farid Geagea (سمير فريد جعجع Lebanese pron.:, also spelled Samir Ja‘ja‘; born on 25 October 1952 in Ain al-Remaneh) is a Lebanese militia leader and politician.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Selim Ahmed Hoss (spelled "Salim Al-Hoss" on his website, Arabic: سليم أحمد الحص) (born 20 December 1929) is a veteran Lebanese politician.
Shafik Al-Wazzan (شفيق الوزان, January 16, 1925 – July 8, 1999) was the 27th Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1980 until 1984.
The Shatila refugee camp (مخيم شاتيلا), also known as the Chatila refugee camp, is a refugee camp, originally set-up for Palestinian refugees in 1949.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shlomo Argov (שלמה ארגוב; 14 December 1929 – 23 February 2003) was a prominent Israeli diplomat.
Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.
The Siege of Beirut took place in the summer of 1982, as part of the 1982 Lebanon War, which resulted from the breakdown of the cease-fire effected by the United Nations.
The siege of Tel al-Zaatar (حصار تل الزعتر) was an armed siege of Tel al-Zaatar (Hill of Tyme), a fortified, UNRWA-administered refugee camp housing Palestinian refugees in northeastern Beirut.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
The Sixth of February Movement or '6th FM' was a small, predominantly Sunni Nasserist political party and militia active in Lebanon from the early 1970s to the mid-1980s.
The Socialist Arab Lebanon Vanguard Party (Arabic: حزب طليعة لبنان العربي الاشتراكي Hizb Al-Taliyeh Lubnan Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki) is a political party in Lebanon.
Souha Fawaz Bechara also spelled Souha Bechara or Soha Bechara (Arabic: سهى فواز بشارة) (born June 15, 1967) is a Lebanese national.
The South Lebanon Army or South Lebanese Army (SLA) (Jayš Lubnān al-Janūbiyy) was a Lebanese militia, dominated by Christians, during the Lebanese Civil War and its aftermath, until disbanded in the year 2000.
The South Lebanon conflict (1985–2000) or the Security Zone conflict in Lebanon refers to 15 years of warfare between the Lebanese Christian proxy militias SLA with military and logistic support of Israel Defense Forces against Lebanese Muslim guerrillas led by the Iranian-backed Hezbollah, within what was defined as the "Security Zone" in South Lebanon.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Subhi al-Tufayli (صبحي الطفيلي) (born 1948) was the first Secretary-General or leader of Hezbollah for a year.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
Suleiman Kabalan Frangieh, last name also spelled Frangié, Franjieh, or Franjiyeh (15 June 1910 – 23 July 1992), was a Lebanese Maronite politician, President of Lebanon from 1970 to 1976.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Synth-pop (short for synthesizer pop; also called techno-pop) is a subgenre of new wave music that first became prominent in the late 1970s and features the synthesizer as the dominant musical instrument.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.
The Syrian Arab Armed Forces (القوات المسلحة العربية السورية, Forces armées syriennes) are the military forces of the Syrian Arab Republic.
The Syrian Army, officially the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) (al-Jayš al-ʿArabī as-Sūrī), is the land force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
The Syrian occupation of Lebanon (الاحتلال السوري للبنان, Occupation syrienne du Liban) began in 1976, during the Lebanese Civil War, and ended in 2005 following the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri.
The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) (الحزب السوري القومي الاجتماعي, transliterated: Al-Ḥizb Al-Sūrī Al-Qawmī Al-'Ijtimā'ī, often referred to in French as Parti populaire syrien or Parti social nationaliste syrien), is a nationalist political party operating in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Palestine.
Ta'if (الطائف) is a city in Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of on the slopes of Sarawat Mountains (Al-Sarawat Mountains).
The Taif Agreement (اتفاقية الطائف / ittifāqiyat al-Ṭā’if) (also the or) was an agreement reached to provide "the basis for the ending of the civil war and the return to political normalcy in Lebanon".
The Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel and the Palestinians is a 1983 book by Noam Chomsky about the relationship among the U.S., Israel and the Arab Palestinians.
The Human League are an English synth-pop band formed in Sheffield in 1977.
"The Lebanon" is a song by the British synthpop group The Human League, released as a single in April 1984.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Vortices of Wrath (Lebanon 1977) is a triptych painted by Nabil Kanso in 1977.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Tigers Militia (Arabic: نمور الأحرار, transliterated: Numūr or Al-Noumour), also known as NLP Tigers or Tigers of the Liberals (Arabic: Numur al-Ahrar) and PNL "Lionceaux" in French, was the military wing of the National Liberal Party (NLP) during the Lebanese Civil War.
Antoine Frangieh (1 September 1941 – 13 June 1978), better known by his diminutive, Tony Frangieh, طوني فرنجية) was a Lebanese politician and militia leader during the early years of the Lebanese Civil War. He is the son of Suleiman Frangieh, a former Lebanese president.
The Tripartite Accord of 1985 was a short-lived agreement between the three major Lebanese feuding factions, signed in Damascus, Syria, to end the Lebanese Civil War.
Tripoli (طرابلس / ALA-LC: Ṭarābulus; Lebanese Arabic: Ṭrāblos; Trablusşam) is the largest city in northern Lebanon and the second-largest city in the country.
The Tyous Team of Commandos – TTC or simply Tyous for short (‘Tyous’ means 'Male Goat' in Arabic, also translated as the “Stubborn Ones”; “Les Têtus”, “Les Obstinés” in French), was a small far-right Christian militia which fought in the 1975-78 phase of the Lebanese Civil War.
The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (قوة الأمم المتحدة المؤقتة في لبنان), or UNIFIL (يونيفيل) and also known as the UN, is a demilitarized zone created by the United Nations, with the adoption of Security Council Resolution 425 and 426 on 19 March 1978, to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon which Israel had invaded five days prior, restore international peace and security, and help the government of Lebanon restore its effective authority in the area.
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was a proposal by the United Nations, which recommended a partition of Mandatory Palestine at the end of the British Mandate. On 29 November 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted the Plan as Resolution 181 (II). The resolution recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish States and a Special International Regime for the city of Jerusalem. The Partition Plan, a four-part document attached to the resolution, provided for the termination of the Mandate, the progressive withdrawal of British armed forces and the delineation of boundaries between the two States and Jerusalem. Part I of the Plan stipulated that the Mandate would be terminated as soon as possible and the United Kingdom would withdraw no later than 1 August 1948. The new states would come into existence two months after the withdrawal, but no later than 1 October 1948. The Plan sought to address the conflicting objectives and claims of two competing movements, Palestinian nationalism and Jewish nationalism, or Zionism. Molinaro, Enrico The Holy Places of Jerusalem in Middle East Peace Agreements Page 78 The Plan also called for Economic Union between the proposed states, and for the protection of religious and minority rights. The Plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, despite its perceived limitations. Arab leaders and governments rejected it and indicated an unwillingness to accept any form of territorial division, arguing that it violated the principles of national self-determination in the UN Charter which granted people the right to decide their own destiny.Sami Hadawi, Olive Branch Press, (1989)1991 p.76. Immediately after adoption of the Resolution by the General Assembly, a civil war broke out and the plan was not implemented.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 425, adopted on March 19, 1978, five days after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, called on Israel to withdraw immediately its forces from Lebanon and established the United Nations Interim Force In Lebanon (UNIFIL).
United Nations Security Council resolution 508, adopted unanimously on 5 June 1982, after recalling previous resolutions including 425 (1978), 426 (1978) and 501 (1982), demanded an end of foreign hostilities taking place on Lebanese territory between the Palestinian Liberation Organization and Israel.
United Nations Security Council resolution 509, adopted unanimously on 6 June 1982, after recalling previous resolutions on the topic including 425 (1978) and 508 (1982), the Council expressed concern and demanded Israel unconditionally withdraw all its military forces from Lebanon back to its internationally recognised border.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Walid Bey Jumblatt (وليد بيك جنبلاط; born 7 August 1949) is a veteran Lebanese politician, the leader of Lebanon's Druze and the current leader of the Progressive Socialist Party.
Waltz with Bashir (ואלס עם באשיר, translit. Vals Im Bashir) is a 2008 Israeli animated war documentary film written and directed by Ari Folman.
The War of the Camps (Arabic: حرب المخيمات) was a subconflict within the 1984–1990 phase of the Lebanese Civil War, in which the Palestinian refugee camps in Beirut were besieged by the Shi'ite Amal militia.
The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (also known as The Washington Report and WRMEA) magazine, published eight times per year, focuses on "news and analysis from and about the Middle East and U.S. policy in that region".
Wayne State University Press (or WSU Press) is a university press that is part of Wayne State University.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
William Amine Hawi (also written: William Haoui), – (September 5, 1908 – July 13, 1976), (وليم أمين حاوي) was a Lebanese-American businessman and a leader and militia commander of the Kataeb Party (الكتائب اللبنانية) better known in English as the Phalange, a right-wing Christian political party in Lebanon.
Lieutenant-General William Bull O'Callaghan (DSM) (Liam Ó Céallachgáin; 3 July 1921 – 26 December 2015) was an Irish Army officer.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (أبو عمار), was a Palestinian political leader.
Zahlé (زحلة) is the capital and the largest city of Beqaa Governorate, Lebanon.
Zgharta (زغرتا), also spelled Zghorta, is a city in North Lebanon, with an estimated population of around 50,000.
The Zgharta Liberation Army or Zghartawi Liberation Army – ZLA (French: Armée de Liberation de Zgharta – ALZ) was the paramilitary branch of the Lebanese Marada Movement during the Lebanese Civil War.
The 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war (also called the 1860 Civil War in Syria) was the culmination of a peasant uprising, which began in the north of Mount Lebanon as a rebellion of Maronite peasants against their Druze overlords and culminated in a massacre in Damascus.
The 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine was the first phase of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1948 Palestinian exodus, also known as the Nakba (النكبة, al-Nakbah, literally "disaster", "catastrophe", or "cataclysm"), occurred when more than 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled from their homes, during the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1958 Lebanon crisis was a Lebanese political crisis caused by political and religious tensions in the country that included a U.S. military intervention.
The 1967 Palestinian exodus refers to the flight of around 280,000 to 325,000 Palestinians out of the territories captured by Israel during and in the aftermath of the Six-Day War, including the demolition of the Palestinian villages of Imwas, Yalo, and Bayt Nuba, Surit, Beit Awwa, Beit Mirsem, Shuyukh, Al-Jiftlik, Agarith and Huseirat and the "emptying" of the refugee camps of Aqabat Jaber and ʿEin as-Sultan.
The 1976 Arab League summit was held on October 16 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as an extraordinary Arab League Summit.
The 1978 South Lebanon conflict (code-named Operation Litani by Israel) was an invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River, carried out by the Israel Defense Forces in 1978 in response to the Coastal Road massacre.
The 1982 Lebanon War, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, or מבצע של"ג Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil or Mivtsa Sheleg) by the Israeli government, later known in Israel as the Lebanon War or the First Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון הראשונה, Milhemet Levanon Harishona), and known in Lebanon as "the invasion" (الاجتياح, Al-ijtiyāḥ), began on 6 June 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) invaded southern Lebanon, after repeated attacks and counter-attacks between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) operating in southern Lebanon and the IDF that had caused civilian casualties on both sides of the border.
The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a suicide attack that occurred on October 23, 1983, in Beirut, Lebanon, during the Lebanese Civil War.
The April 18, 1983, United States embassy bombing was a suicide bombing in Beirut, Lebanon, that killed 63 people, including 17 Americans.
On September 20, 1984, the Shi'a Islamic militant group Hezbollah, with support and direction from the Islamic Republic of Iran, carried out a suicide car bombing targeting the U.S. embassy annex in East Beirut, Lebanon.
The 44th Cannes Film Festival was held from 9 to 20 May 1991.
AISHIYA, BATTLE OF, Battle of Aishiya, Civil war in Lebanon, Civil war in the Lebanon, Lebanese Civil Jihad, Lebanese Civil War (1975-1977), Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990), Lebanese Civil War (1975–1977), Lebanese Civil War (1977-1982), Lebanese Civil War (1984-1989), Lebanese Civil War (1984–1989), Lebanese civil war, Lebanon Civil War.