305 relations: Abbas al-Musawi, Abu Nidal Organization, Akkar District, Al Jazeera, Al-Mourabitoun, Al-Tanzim, Alawites, Aley, Algeria, Ali Eid, Amal Movement, Amine Gemayel, Amnesty, Amnesty law, Antoine Lahad, Arab Democratic Party (Lebanon), Arab Deterrent Force, Arab League, Arab Liberation Front, Arab nationalism, Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Lebanon Region, Arab world, Aref Rayess, Argentina, Ariel Sharon, Armenian Revolutionary Federation, Armenian Revolutionary Federation in Lebanon, Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia, Armenians in Lebanon, Army of Free Lebanon, Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution, As-Sa'iqa, Assem Qanso, Émile Lahoud, Ba'ath Party (Iraqi-dominated faction), Ba'athism, Baabda, Baalbek, Bachir Gemayel, Battle of the Hotels, Battle of Zahleh, Beirut, Beirut Art Center, Beqaa Valley, Black Saturday (Lebanon), Black September in Jordan, Bourj el-Barajneh, Bulgaria, Bus massacre, Camille Chamoun, ..., Canada, Car bomb, Cedar Revolution, Central Treaty Organization, Chouf District, Christianity in Lebanon, Coast, Coastal Road massacre, Cold War, Communism, Communist Action Organization in Lebanon, Confederation, Damascus, Damour massacre, Dany Chamoun, Defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Druze, Elias Atallah, Elias Hrawi, Elias Sarkis, Elie Hobeika, Emigration, Emmanuel Erskine, Etienne Saqr, Exile, Fatah, Fillip, First Intifada, France, Free France, Free Lebanon State, French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, Fuad Chehab, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Geagea, Geagea–Hobeika Conflict, George Habash, George Hawi, Georges Adwan, Global Policy Forum, GOC Army Headquarters, Greater Lebanon, Greater Syria, Greek Orthodox Christianity in Lebanon, Green Line (Lebanon), Guardians of the Cedars, Guerrilla warfare, Gulf War, Gustav Hägglund, Hafez al-Assad, Hagop Hagopian (guerrilla), Hamra Street, Hasbaya, Hashish, Hermel, Hezbollah, Hundred Days' War, Hussein of Jordan, Ibrahim Kulaylat, Incendies, Iran, Iran–Iraq War, Iranian Revolution, Iraq, Islam in Lebanon, Islamic Unification Movement, Islamism, Israel, Israel Prison Service, Israeli Declaration of Independence, Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon, Jewish Virtual Library, Jordan, Jumblatt family, Jury Prize (Cannes Film Festival), Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide, Kahan Commission, Kamal Jumblatt, Karantina massacre, Kataeb Party, Kataeb Regulatory Forces, Khalil al-Wazir, Koura District, Kurdistan Workers' Party, Kurds, Kuwait, Land mine, League of Nations, Lebanese Armed Forces, Lebanese Civil War, Lebanese Communist Party, Lebanese Forces, Lebanese Forces – Executive Command, Lebanese Front, Lebanese general election, 1992, Lebanese National Movement, Lebanese National Resistance Front, Lebanese Renewal Party, Lebanese Youth Movement (MKG), Lebanon, Lebanon hostage crisis, Left-wing politics, Libya, Likud, Lina Murr Nehme, List of modern conflicts in the Middle East, List of Presidents of Lebanon, Litani River, Maarouf Saad, Mafia, Mahsum Korkmaz, Malcolm Kerr (academic), Mandatory Palestine, Marada Movement, March 14 Alliance, March 8 Alliance, Marjayoun, Maronite Christianity in Lebanon, Maronites, Martyrs' Square, Beirut, Marxism–Leninism, Matn District, May 17 Agreement, Menachem Begin, Michel Aoun, Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah, Monte Melkonian, Moral authority, Morocco, Mount Lebanon, Mountain War (Lebanon), Multinational Force in Lebanon, Musa al-Sadr, Muslim Brotherhood, Mustafa Tlass, Nabatieh, Nabih Berri, Narcotic, Nasserism, National Liberal Party (Lebanon), National Pact, National Reconciliation, New wave music, Non-combatant, October 13 massacre, Omar Karami, Out of Life, Palestine Liberation Army, Palestine Liberation Front, Palestine Liberation Organization, Palestinian Christians, Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon, Palestinian refugee, Palestinians, Pan-Arabism, Peacekeeping, Philip Habib, Philip Khuri Hitti, Pierre Gemayel, 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Times, The Washington Post, Tigers Militia, Tony Frangieh, Tripartite Accord (Lebanon), Tripoli, Lebanon, Tyous Team of Commandos, United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 425, United Nations Security Council Resolution 508, United Nations Security Council Resolution 509, United States Department of State, United States Marine Corps, Vichy France, Walid Jumblatt, Waltz with Bashir, War of the Camps, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, Wayne State University Press, White House, William Hawi, William O'Callaghan (Irish Army officer), World War I, World War II, Yasser Arafat, Zahlé, Zgharta, Zgharta Liberation Army, 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war, 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1958 Lebanon crisis, 1976 Arab League summit (Riyadh), 1978 South Lebanon conflict, 1982 Lebanon War, 1983 Beirut barracks bombing, 1983 United States embassy bombing, 1984 United States embassy annex bombing, 1991 Cannes Film Festival. 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Abbas al Musawi عباس الموسوي; 1952 – 16 February 1992) was an influential Lebanese Shia cleric, co-founder and Secretary General of Hezbollah. He was killed by Israel Defense Forces in 1992.
The Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) is the most common name for the Palestinian group Fatah–The Revolutionary Council (Fatah al-Majles al-Thawry), also known as Black June, the Arab Revolutionary Brigades, the Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims, and sometimes operating as Black September (not to be confused with the Black September Organization).
Akkar (عكار) is a district (Qadaa) in the North Governorate, Lebanon.
Al Jazeera (الجزيرة, literally "The Peninsula", referring to the Arabian Peninsula), also known as Aljazeera and JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a Doha-based state-funded broadcaster owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network, which is partly funded by the House of Thani, the ruling family of Qatar.
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The Independent Nasserite Movement (INM) or al-Murabitoun (Arabic: حركة الناصريين المستقلين-المرابطون| Harakat al-Nasiriyin al-Mustaqillin), also termed variously Mouvement des Nasséristes Indépendants (MNI) in French, Independent Nasserite Organization (INO), or Movement of Independent Nasserists (MIN), is a Nasserist political party in Lebanon.
The Al-Tanzim, Al-Tanzym or At-Tanzim (حركة المقاومة اللبنانية - التنظيم | Arabic for “The Organization”) was the name of an ultra-nationalist secret military society and militia set up by right-wing Christian activists in Lebanon at the early 1970s, and which came to play an important role in the Lebanese Civil War.
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The Alawites, also known as Alawis (ʿAlawīyyah علوية), are a religious group, centred in Syria, who follow a very highly contested and controversial branch of the Twelver school of Shia Islam but with syncretistic elements.
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Aley (Arabic: عاليه) is a city inLebanon.
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Algeria (الجزائر), officially People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
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Ali Eid (born 14 July 1940) is the leader of the Lebanese Alawite Community.
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The Amal Movement (or Hope Movement in English, حركة أمل) is a Lebanese political party associated with Lebanon's Shia community.
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Amine Pierre Gemayel (أمين بيار الجميٌل; born 22 January 1942) was President of Lebanon from 1982 to 1988 and is the leader of Kataeb Party.
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Amnesty (from the Greek ἀμνηστία amnestia, "forgetfulness") is defined as: "A pardon extended by the government to a group or class of persons, usually for a political offense; the act of a sovereign power officially forgiving certain classes of persons who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted." It includes more than pardon, in as much as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the offense.
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An amnesty law is any law that retroactively exempts a select group of people, usually military leaders and government leaders, from criminal liability for crimes committed.
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Antoine Lahad (1927 – 10 September 2015) was the leader of the South Lebanon Army (SLA) from 1984 until 2000, until the latter withdrew from Southern Lebanon and the SLA was dissolved.
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The Arab Democratic Party – ADP (الحزب العربي الديمقراطي | Al-Hizb Al-'Arabi Al-Dimuqrati) or Parti Démocratique Arabe (PDA) in French, is a Lebanese party, based in Tripoli.
The Arab Deterrent Force (ADF; Arabic: قوات الردع العربية) was an international peacekeeping force created by the Arab League in the extraordinary Riyadh Summit on 17–18 October 1976, attended only by heads of state from Egypt, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally, the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab countries in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
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Arab Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير العربية, Jabhet Al-Tahrir Al-'Arabiyah) is a minor Palestinian political group, previously controlled by the Iraqi-led Ba'ath movement, formed in 1969 by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr and then headed by Saddam Hussein.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Lebanon Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في لبنان Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-Arabi Al-Ishtiraki fi Lubnan), officially the Lebanon Regional Branch, is the regional branch of the Damascus-based Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party in Lebanon.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab Nation (الأمة العربية), consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries of the Arab League.
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Aref El Rayess (or Aref Rayess) (Aley, Lebanon, 1928 – 2005) was a Lebanese painter.
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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.
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Ariel Sharon (אריאל שרון;,, also known by his diminutive Arik, אַריק, born Ariel Scheinermann, אריאל שיינרמן‎; February 26, 1928 – January 11, 2014) was an Israeli politician and general who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Israel until he was incapacitated by a stroke.
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The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (classical Հայ Յեղափոխական Դաշնակցութիւն, ՀՅԴ), also known as Dashnaktsutyun, is an Armenian nationalist and socialist political party founded in 1890 in Tiflis, Russian Empire (now Tbilisi, Georgia) in 1890 by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian.
The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF or ՀՅԴ) (Հայ Յեղափոխական Դաշնակցութիւն Hay Heghapokhagan Tashnagtsutiun, Դաշնակ Tashnag) (in Arabic الإتحاد الثوري الأرمني - الطاشناق) is an Armenian political party active in Lebanon since the 1920s as an official political party in the country after having started with small student cells in the late 1890s and early 20th century.
The Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) (Հայաստանի Ազատագրութեան Հայ Գաղտնի Բանակ, ՀԱՀԳԲ, Hayasdani Azadakrut'ean Hay Kaghtni Panag, HAHKP) was an Armenian militant organization, that operated from 1975 to the early 1990s.
The Armenians in Lebanon (Լիբանանահայեր lipananahayer, اللبنانيون الأرمن) are Lebanese citizens of Armenian descent.
The Army of Free Lebanon – AFL (Arabic: جيش لبنان الحر transliteration Jaiysh Lubnan al-Horr) or ‘Colonel Barakat’s Army’ (Arabic: جيش بركات transliteration Jaiysh Barakat), also designated Armée du Liban Libre (ALL) or ‘Armée du Colonel Barakat’ in French, was a predominantely Christian splinter faction of the Lebanese Army that came to play a major role in the 1975-77 phase of the Lebanese Civil War.
The Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution (سپاه پاسداران انقلاب اسلامی. /, or Sepāh for short), often called Revolutionary Guards, in U.S. media often Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps ("IRGC"), is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces, founded after the Iranian revolution on 5 May 1979.
As-Sa'iqa (also transliterated as al-Saika, Saeqa, etc., from الصاعقة meaning storm or thunderbolt; also known as the Vanguard for the Popular Liberation War) is a Palestinian Ba'athist political and military faction created and controlled by Syria.
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Muhammad Assem Qanso (عاصم قانصوه, born 1937 in Baalbek) is a Lebanese politician.
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Émile Jamil Lahoud (اميل لحود) (born 12 January 1936) is a Lebanese politician, former President of Lebanon, in office from 1998 to 2007.
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The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (also spelled Ba'th or Baath, "resurrection" or "renaissance"; حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki), also referred to as the pro-Iraqi Ba'ath movement, was a neo-Ba'athist political party headquartered in Baghdad, Iraq.
Ba'athism (البعث al-ba‘ath meaning "renaissance"/"resurrection") is an Arab nationalist ideology that promotes the development and creation of a unified Arab state through the leadership of a vanguard party over a progressive revolutionary government.
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Baabda (بعبدا) is the capital city of Baabda District as well as the capital of Mount Lebanon Governorate, western Lebanon.
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Baalbek, properly Baʿalbek (بعلبك) and also known as Balbec, Baalbec or Baalbeck, is a town in the Anti-Lebanon foothills east of the Litani River in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley, about northeast of Beirut and about north of Damascus.
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Bachir Gemayel (10 November 1947 – 14 September 1982) was a Lebanese leader and president-elect.
The Battle of the Hotels, also known as the “Hotel front”, was a subconflict within the 1975-77 phase of the Lebanese Civil War which occurred in the Minet-el-Hosn hotel district of downtown Beirut.
The Battle of Zahle (Arabic: معركة زحلة) took place during the Lebanese Civil War, between December 1980 and June 1981.
Beirut (بيروت; Biblical Hebrew: בְּאֵרוֹת Be'erot; Hebrew: ביירות Beirut; Latin: Berytus; Beyrouth; Beyrut; Պէյրութ Beyrut) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
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Beirut Art Center is a space for exhibiting contemporary art in Beirut, Lebanon.
The Beqaa Valley (وادي البقاع,, Lebanese; Բեքայի դաշտավայր), also transliterated as Bekaa, Biqâ, and Becaa and known in classical antiquity as Coele-Syria, is a fertile valley in eastern Lebanon and western Syria.
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Black Saturday was a series of massacres and armed clashes in Beirut, that occurred in the first stages of the Lebanese Civil War.
The term Black September (أيلول الأسود; aylūl al-aswad) refers to the Jordanian Civil War that began in September 1970 and ended in July of 1971.
Bourj el-Barajneh (برج البراجنة, "Tower of Towers") is a municipality located in the southern suburbs of Beirut, in Lebanon.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
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The Bus Massacre, also known as the ‘Ain el-Rammaneh incident’ (or 'massacre'), was the collective name given to a short series of armed clashes involving Lebanese Christian and Palestinian elements in the streets of central Beirut, which is commonly presented as the spark that set off the Lebanese Civil War in the mid-1970s.
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Camille Nimr Chamoun (Arabic: كميل نمر شمعون, Kamīl Sham'ūn) (3 April 1900 – 7 August 1987) was President of Lebanon from 1952 to 1958, and one of the country's main Christian leaders during most of the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990).
Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
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A car bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), is an improvised explosive device placed inside a car or other vehicle and detonated.
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The Cedar Revolution (Arabic: ثورة الأرز - thawrat al-arz) or Independence Intifada (Arabic: انتفاضة الاستقلال- intifāḍat al-istiqlāl) was a chain of demonstrations in Lebanon (especially in the capital Beirut) triggered by the assassination of the former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on 14 February 2005.
The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO) was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom.
Chouf (also spelled Shouf, Shuf or Chuf, in Arabic جبل الشوف Jebel ash-Shouf) is a historic region of Lebanon, as well as an administrative district in the governorate (mohafazat) of Mount Lebanon.
Christianity in Lebanon has a long and continuous history beginning with the visits of Jesus to the southern territories, where he is said to have performed many miraculous healings.
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
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The Coastal Road massacre of 1978 was an attack involving the hijacking of a bus on Israel's Coastal Highway in which 38 Israeli civilians, including 13 children, were killed, and 71 were wounded.
The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).
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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis – common, universal) is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.
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The Communist Action Organization in Lebanon (منظمة العمل الشيوعي في لبنان, munaẓẓamah al-‘amal al-shuyū‘ī fī lubnān, Organisation de l'Action Communiste du Liban, abbreviation OACL) is a Marxist-Leninist political party and former militia group in Lebanon.
A confederation (also known as confederacy or league) is a union of political units for common action in relation to other units.
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Damascus (دمشق) is the capital and the second-largest city of Syria after Aleppo.
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The Damour massacre took place on January 20, 1976, during the 1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War.
Dany Chamoun (داني شمعون) (26 August 1934 – 21 October 1990) was a prominent Lebanese politician.
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The period of defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution.
The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) (Arabic: 'الجبهة الديموقراطية لتحرير فلسطين', transliterated Al-Jabha al-Dimuqratiya Li-Tahrir Filastin) is a Palestinian Marxist–Leninist, secular political and military organization.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group, originating in Southwestern Asia, who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhideen).
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Elias Atallah (إلياس عطا الله) (born 1947), is a Lebanese politician, and an elected member of parliament during the 2005 elections.
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Elias Hrawi (الياس الهراوي, 4 September 1926 - 7 July 2006) was a President of Lebanon, whose term of office ran from 1989 to 1998.
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Elias Youssef Sarkis (20 July 1924 – 27 June 1985) (إلياس سركيس) was a lawyer and is the sixth President of Lebanon, whose tenure lasted from 1976 to 1982.
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Elie Hobeika (22 September 1956 – 24 January 2002) (Arabic: إيلي حبيقة) was a Lebanese Phalangist and Lebanese Forces militia commander during the Lebanese Civil War, and former MP.
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Emigration is the act of leaving one's native country with the intent to settle elsewhere.
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Lieutenant General Emmanuel Alexander Erskine (born 19 January 1937) is a retired Ghanaian soldier and politician.
Etienne Saqr (born in 1937) (last name also spelt Sakr or Sacre, Arabic: إتيان صقر), also known by his nom de guerre "Abu Arz" (translate: Father of Cedars), is a far-right, Lebanese nationalist leader and founder of the Guardians of the Cedars militia and political party (حراس الأرز, Horras Al-Arz in Arabic).
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Exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
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Fataḥ (فتح), formerly the Palestinian National Liberation Movement, is a leading secular Palestinian political party and the largest faction of the confederated multi-party Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
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Fillip is a Vancouver-based contemporary art publishing organization formed in 2004.
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The First Intifada or First Palestinian Intifada (also known as simply as "the intifada" or "intifadah") was a Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza,Lockman; Beinin (1989), p. which lasted from December 1987 until the Madrid Conference in 1991, though some date its conclusion to 1993, with the signing of the Oslo Accords.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.
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Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces that continued to fight against the Axis powers as an Ally after the fall of France.
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The Free Lebanon State (جمهورية لبنان الحرة) was a de facto unrecognized state, announced by Saad Haddad, Lebanese politician and commander of the Maronite-Christian dominated South Lebanon Army on the course of the Lebanese Civil War.
Officially, the Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon (1923−1946), (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban), was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire.
Fuad Chehab (فؤاد شهاب; also transliterated Fouad Shihab; 19 March 1902 — 25 April 1973) was the President of the Lebanese Republic from 1958 to 1964.
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Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death.
Geagea is a surname, and may refer to.
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The Geagea–Hobeika Conflict took place in January 1986 when relations between the two dominant figures of the Lebanese Forces (LF) broke down.
George Habash (جورج حبش) also known by his laqab "al-Hakim" (الحكيم — the wise one or the doctor) (2 August 1926 – 26 January 2008) was a Marxist and Palestinian Christian who founded the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.
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George Hawi (Arabic: جورج حاوي / ALA-LC: Jūrj Ḥāwī; 5 November 1938 – 21 June 2005) was a Lebanese politician and former secretary general of the Lebanese Communist Party (LCP).
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Georges Adwan (جورج عدوان, born 1947 in Deir el Qamar) is a lawyer and a Lebanese politician.
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Global Policy Forum or GPF, founded in 1993, is an organization seeking to promote accountability of international organizations such as the United Nations and strengthen international law.
The Israeli GOC Army headquarters (זְרוֹעַ הַיַבָּשָׁה, Zro'a ha-Yabasha, "Ground Arm"), known unofficially as MAZI, is a multi-corps command headquarters created in 1998, which amalgamates the ground forces of the Israel Defense Forces.
The state of Greater Lebanon, the predecessor of modern Lebanon, was created in 1920.
Greater Syria (سوريّة الكبرى) or Natural Syria (سوريّة الطبيعية), Bilad ash-Sham (بلاد الشام.), is a hypothetical united Fertile Crescent state.
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Greek Orthodox Christianity in Lebanon refers to adherents of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch in Lebanon, which is an autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, and is the second largest Christian denomination in Lebanon after the Maronites.
The Green Line was a line of demarcation in Beirut, Lebanon during the Lebanese Civil War from 1975 to 1990.
The Guardians of the Cedars – GoC (Arabic: حراس الأرز; Ḥurrās al-Arz), also designated Gardiens du Cedre or Gardiens des Cèdres (GdC) in French, are a far-right ultranationalist Lebanese party and former militia in Lebanon.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants such as armed civilians or irregulars use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
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Johan Edvin Birger Gustav Hägglund (born September 6, 1938, Viipuri) is a retired Finnish general.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian statesman, politician and general who was President of Syria from 1971 to 2000, Prime Minister from 1970 to 1971, Regional Secretary of the Regional Command of the Syrian Regional Branch and Secretary General of the National Command of the Ba'ath Party from 1971 to 2000.
Hagop Hagopian (or Agop Agopian; Յակոբ Յակոբեան; 1951–28 April 1988) was one of the founders and the main leader of the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA).
Hamra Street (شارع الحمراء), or Rue Hamra, (technical name: Rue 31, 31st Street, شارع ٣١) is one of the main streets of the city of Beirut, Lebanon, and one of the main economic and diplomatic hubs of Beirut.
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Hasbeya or Hasbeiya (حاصبيا) is a town in Lebanon, situated about 36 miles to the west of Damascus, at the foot of Mount Hermon, overlooking a deep amphitheatre from which a brook flows to the Hasbani.
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Hashish, or hash, is a cannabis product composed of compressed or purified preparations of stalked resin glands, called trichomes.
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Hermel (الهرمل) is a town in Beqaa Governorate, Lebanon.
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Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.
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The Hundred Days War (Arabic: حرب المئة يوم | Harb Al-Mia’at Yaoum), also known as 'La Guerre des Cent Jours' in French was a subconflict within the 1977–82 phase of the Lebanese Civil War which occurred at the Lebanese Capital Beirut.
Hussein bin Talal (حسين بن طلال,; 14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999) was King of Jordan from the abdication of his father, King Talal, in 1952, until his death.
Ibrahim Kulaylat is a Lebanese politician.
Incendies is a 2010 Canadian mystery drama film written and directed by Denis Villeneuve.
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Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.
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The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Iraq lasting from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the 20th century's longest conventional war.
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The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution;, Iran Chamber., MS Encarta. October 31, 2009., PDF. Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi or انقلاب بیست و دو بهمن) refers to events involving the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States and its eventual replacement with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution, supported by various leftist and Islamic organizations and Iranian student movements. Demonstrations against the Shah commenced in October 1977, developing into a campaign of civil resistance that included both secular and religious elements. and which intensified in January 1978. Between August and December 1978 strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country. The Shah left Iran for exile on January 16, 1979, as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and an opposition-based prime minister. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government, and returned to Tehran to a greeting by several million Iranians. The royal reign collapsed shortly after on February 11 when guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting, bringing Khomeini to official power. Iran voted by national referendum to become an Islamic Republic on April 1, 1979, and to approve a new theocratic-republican constitution whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country, in December 1979. The revolution was unusual for the surprise it created throughout the world: it lacked many of the customary causes of revolution (defeat at war, a financial crisis, peasant rebellion, or disgruntled military), occurred in a nation that was enjoying relatively good material wealth and prosperity, produced profound change at great speed, was massively popular, resulted in the exile of many Iranians,Kurzman, The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran, (2004), p.121 and replaced a pro-Western semi-absolute monarchy with an anti-Western authoritarian theocracyInternational Journal of Middle East Studies, 19, 1987, p. 261 based on the concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (or velayat-e faqih). It was a relatively non-violent revolution, and helped to redefine the meaning and practice of modern revolutions (although there was violence in its aftermath). Its outcome – an Islamic Republic "under the guidance of a religious scholar from Qom" – was, as one scholar put it, "clearly an occurrence that had to be explained".Benard, "The Government of God" (1984), p. 18.
Iraq (or; العراق, Kurdish: Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جمهورية العراق; كۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia.
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Islam in Lebanon is followed by 59.5% of the country's total population: Shia's make up 27%: Twelvers are the predominant Shia group, followed by Alawites and Ismailis.
The Islamic Unification Movement – IUM (حركة التوحيد الإسلامي | Harakat al-Tawhid al-Islami), also named Islamic Unity Movement or Mouvement de Unification Islamique (MUI) in French, but best known as Al-Tawhid, At-Tawhid, or Tawheed, is a Lebanese Sunni Muslim political party.
Islamism (اسلام پرستی; إسلاموية), also known as Political Islam, is a set of ideologies holding that "Islam should guide social and political as well as personal life." Islamism is a controversial concept not just because it posits a political role for Islam but also because its most extreme advocates believe their Islamic views are superior to all others', and that the contrary idea that Islam is, or can be, apolitical is an error.
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Israel, officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל; دولة إِسْرَائِيل), is a country in West Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea.
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The Israel Prison Service (שירות בתי הסוהר, Sherut Batei HaSohar, إدارة السجون الإسرائيلية, Idārat al-Sujūn al-Isrā’īlīyyah), commonly known in Israel by its acronym Shabas (שבס) or IPS in English, is the state agency responsible for overseeing prisons in Israel.
The Israeli Declaration of Independence (הכרזת העצמאות, Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut or מגילת העצמאות Megilat HaAtzma'ut), formally the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708) by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist OrganizationThen known as the Zionist Organization.
The Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon took place after Israel invaded Lebanon during the 1982 Lebanon War and subsequently retained its forces to support the Christian South Lebanon Army in Southern Lebanon.
The Jewish Virtual Library (JVL) is an online encyclopedia published by the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE), one of whose "principal objectives is to enhance Israel's image by publicizing novel Israeli approaches to problems common to both our nations and illustrating how Americans can learn from these innovations." Launched in 1998, it is a comprehensive website covering topics about US-Israel relations, Israel, the Jewish people, and more.
Jordan (الأردن), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
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The Jumblatt family (جنبلاط in Arabic, originally Kurdish (Canpolad جانپولاد, meaning "steel-bodied" or "soul of steel"), also transliterated as Joumblatt, Junblat and Junblatt) is an influential Druze family who settled in the Lebanon mountains (coming from Syria) around the 15-16th century, fleeing persecution from the Ottoman governor.
The Jury Prize (Prix du Jury) is an award presented at the Cannes Film Festival, chosen by the Jury from the "official section" of movies at the festival.
Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide (JCAG) (Հայկական Ցեղասպանութեան Արդարութեան Մարտիկներ, ՀՑԱՄ) was a militant Armenian organization that operated in various countries from 1975 to 1987.
The Kahan Commission (ועדת כהן), formally known as the Commission of Inquiry into the Events at the Refugee Camps in Beirut, was established by the Israeli government on 28 September 1982, to investigate the Sabra and Shatila massacre (16–18 September 1982).
Kamal Fouad Jumblatt (Arabic: كمال جنبلاط) (December 6, 1917 – March 16, 1977) was an important Lebanese politician.
The Karantina massacre took place early in the Lebanese Civil War on January 18, 1976.
The Lebanese Phalanges Party (حزب الكتائب اللبنانية), better known in English as the Phalange (الكتائب), is a Christian right-wing political party in Lebanon.
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The Kataeb Regulatory Forces – KRF or RF (Arabic: قوى الكتائب النظامية |), Forces Regulatoires du Kataeb (FRK) in French were the military wing of the right-wing Lebanese Christian Kataeb Party, otherwise known as the Phalange, from 1961 to 1977.
Khalil Ibrahim al-WazirStandardized Arabic transliteration: / / (خليل إبراهيم الوزير, also known by his kunya Abu Jihad Standardized Arabic transliteration: أبو جهاد—"father of struggle"; October 10, 1935 – April 16, 1988) was a Palestinian leader and co-founder of the secular nationalist party Fatah.
Koura (الكورة, from χώρα, "country") is a district in the North Governorate, Lebanon.
The Kurdistan Workers' Party, (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan, PKK), is a left-wing Kurdish nationalist militant organization based in Turkey and Iraqi Kurdistan.
The Kurds (کورد Kurd) are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern or Turkish Kurdistan), western Iran (Eastern or Iranian Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern or Iraqi Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan or Rojava).
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Kuwait (دولة الكويت), officially the State of Kuwait, is a country in Western Asia.
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A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
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The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, "Société des Nations" abbreviated as SDN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) (Arabic: القوات المسلحة اللبنانية | Al-Quwwāt al-Musallaḥa al-Lubnāniyya) or Forces Armées Libanaises (FAL) in French, also known as the Lebanese Army according to its official Website (Arabic: الجيش اللبناني or "Armée libanaise" in French, is the military of the Republic of Lebanon. It consists of three branches, the army, the air force and the navy. The motto of the Lebanese Armed Forces is "Honor, Sacrifice, Loyalty" (Arabic: "شرف · تضحية · وفاء" - Sharaf.Tadhia.Wafa'). The Lebanese Armed Forces symbol consists of a Lebanon Cedar tree surrounded by two laurel leaves, positioned above the symbols of the three branches: the ground forces represented by the two bayonets, the navy represented by an anchor, and the air force represented by two wings.
The Lebanese Civil War (الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية - Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities.
The Lebanese Communist Party – LCP (Arabic: الـحـزب الشـيـوعـي اللبـنـانـي, transliterated) or Parti communiste libanais (PCL) in French, is a communist party in Lebanon.
The Lebanese Forces (LF) (القوات اللبنانية; ܚܝܠܘܬܐ ܠܒܢܢܝܐ) is a Lebanese political party and formerly Christian militia during the Lebanese Civil War.
The Lebanese Forces – Executive Command, or LFEC (Arabic: Al-Quwwat al-Lubnaniyya – Al-Qiyada Al-Tanfeethiyya), was a splinter group from the Lebanese Forces led by Elie Hobeika, based in the town of Zahlé in the Beqaa valley in the late 1980s.
The Lebanese Front (الجبهة اللبنانية| al-Jabha al-Lubnaniyya) or Front libanais in French, was a coalition of mainly Christian parties formed in 1976 during the Lebanese Civil War.
General elections were held in Lebanon between 23 August and 11 October 1992, the first since 1972.
The Lebanese National Movement (LNM) (Arabic: الحركة الوطنية اللبنانية, Al-Harakat al-Wataniyya al-Lubnaniyya) or Mouvement National Libanais (MNL) in French, was a front of leftist, pan-Arab and Syrian nationalist parties and organizations active during the early years of the Lebanese Civil War that supported the PLO.
The Lebanese National Resistance Front – LNRF (Arabic: جبهة المقاومة الوطنية اللبنانية, transliterated: Jabhat al-Muqawama al-Wataniyya al-Lubnaniyya) or Front National de la Résistance Libanaise (FNRL) in French, but best known by its Arabic acronym, ‘Jammoul’ (جمول), was an underground guerrilla alliance active in Lebanon in the 1980s.
Lebanese Renewal Party (in Arabic حزب التجدد اللبناني) abbreviated as LRP was a Lebanese nationalist party established in 1972 by a number of staunch Lebanese nationalists including activist Etienne Saqr, poet Said Akl and writer May Murr.
The Lebanese Youth Movement – LYM (Arabic: حركة الشباب اللبنانية | Harakat al-Shabab al-Lubnaniyya), also known as the Maroun Khoury Group (MKG), was a Christian far-right militia which fought in the 1975-77 phase of the Lebanese Civil War.
Lebanon (or; لبنان or; Lebanese Arabic:; Aramaic: לבנאן; French: Liban), officially the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
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The Lebanon hostage crisis was the systematic kidnapping in Lebanon of 96 foreign hostages of 21 national origins—mostly American and western European — between 1982 and 1992.
Left-wing politics are political positions or activities that accept or support social equality, often in opposition to social hierarchy and social inequality.
Libya (ليبيا) is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
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Likud (הַלִּיכּוּד, translit. HaLikud, lit. The Consolidation), officially the Likud–National Liberal Movement, is the major center-right political party in Israel.
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Lina Murr Nehme (born 1955) is a French-Lebanese historical author and professor of History of Art at the Lebanese University.
This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East.
This is a list of Presidents (and acting Presidents) of Lebanon since the creation of the office in 1926.
The Litani River (نهر الليطاني, Nahr al-Līṭānī), the classical Leontes (Λέοντες, Léontes, "Lions"), is an important water resource in southern Lebanon.
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Maarouf Saad (معروف سعد) (1910. Maarouf Saad Cultural Center. or 1914–6 March 1975) was a Lebanese politician and activist.
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A mafia is a type of organized crime syndicate whose primary activities are protection racketeering, the arbitration of disputes between criminals, and the organizing and oversight of illegal agreements and transactions.
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Mahsum Korkmaz, also known as Agit, was the first commander of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)'s military forces.
Malcolm H. Kerr (October 8, 1931 – January 18, 1984) was a university professor, whose speciality was the Middle East and the Arab world.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael" (Land of Israel)) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Southern Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
The Marada Movement (تيار المردة Tayyār Al-Marada) is a Lebanese political party and a former militia active during the Lebanese civil war named after the legendary Marada (also called Mardaites) warriors of the early Middle Ages that fought on the external edge of the Byzantine Empire.
The March 14 Alliance (تحالف 14 آذار Taḥāluf 14 Adhār), named after the date of the Cedar Revolution, is a coalition of political parties and independents in Lebanon formed in 2005 that are united by their anti-Syrian regime stance and their opposition to the pro-Syrian regime March 8 Alliance.
The March 8 Alliance is a coalition of various political parties in Lebanon.
Marjayoun (Arabic مرجعيون, also Marj 'Ayoun, Marjuyun or Marjeyoun - meaning "meadow of springs") is both a Lebanese town (also known as Jdeideh / Jdeida / Jdeidet Marjeyoun) and an administrative district, Marjeyoun District, in the Nabatieh Governorate in Southern Lebanon.
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Maronite Christianity in Lebanon refers to adherents of the Maronite Church in Lebanon, which is the largest Christian denomination in the country.
The Maronites are an ethno-religious group situated in the Levant, mainly in the area of modern Lebanon.
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Martyrs' Square (Place des Martyrs) is a square in the heart of downtown Beirut, Lebanon.
Marxism–Leninism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of Marxism and Leninism, and seeks to establish socialist states and develop them further.
Matn (قضاء المتن), sometimes spelled Metn, is a district (qadaa) in the Mount Lebanon Governorate of Lebanon, east of the Lebanon's capital Beirut.
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The May 17 Agreement of 1983 was a failed U.S.-backed attempt to create peace between Lebanon and Israel during the Lebanese Civil War, after Israel invaded Lebanon and besieged Beirut in 1982.
Menachem Begin (Menakhem Vol'fovich Begin; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of the State of Israel.
Michel Naim Aoun (ميشال عون) (born 18 February 1935) is a former Lebanese Army Commander and now a politician.
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Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Hussein Fadl-Allāh (also Sayyed Muhammad Hussein Fadl-Allāh; محمد حسين فضل الله; 16 November 1935 – 4 July 2010) was a prominent Lebanese Twelver marja.
Monte Melkonian (classical Մոնթէ Մելքոնեան; reformed: Մոնթե Մելքոնյան; November 25, 1957 – June 12, 1993) was an Armenian left-wing nationalist militant, revolutionary, and commander.
Moral authority is authority premised on principles, or fundamental truths, which are independent of written, or positive, laws.
Morocco (المغرب; ⵍⵎⴰⵖⵔⵉⴱ or Muṛṛakuc, ⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ; Maroc), officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa.
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Mount Lebanon (جبل لبنان; Jabal Lubnān, ܛܘܪ ܠܒܢܢ) is a mountain range in Lebanon.
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The Mountain War (حرب الجبل| Harb al-Jabal) or War of the Mountain, also known as 'Guerre de la Montagne' in French, was a subconflict between the 1982–83 phase of the Lebanese Civil War and the 1984–89 phase of the Lebanese Civil War, which occurred at the mountainous Chouf District located south-east of the Lebanese Capital Beirut.
The Multinational Force in Lebanon (M.N.F) was an international peacekeeping force created in September of 1982, after the demand was made by Lebanon to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and was subsequently dissolved in March 1984 following the October 1983 Beirut barracks bombing; however, french paratrooper regiments of the French Armed Forces, the Irish Armed Forces, the Italian Armed Forces and Foreign Legion did not leave Lebanon and remained committed around the security of Lebanon in and out of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (U.N.I.F.I.L) The Peacekeeping force was and initially to oversee the withdrawal of the Palestine Liberation Organization.
Mūsá aṣ-Ṣadr (4 June 1928 – disappeared in Libya on 31 August 1978) (امام موسى صدر, السيد موسى الصدر, also Musā-ye Sader and Moussa Sadr) was an Iran-educated Lebanese philosopher and Shī‘ah religious leader who went missing in Libya.
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The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), shortened to the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
Mustafa Abdul Qadir Tlass (مصطفى طلاس; born 11 May 1932) is a Syrian senior military officer and politician who was Syria's minister of defense from 1972 to 2004.
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Nabatieh (Arabic: النبطية), or Nabatîyé, is the principal town of the Nabatieh Governorate, in southern Lebanon.
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Nabih Berri (نبيه بري; born 28 January 1938) is the Speaker of the Parliament of Lebanon.
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The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with any sleep-inducing properties.
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Nasserism (at-Tayyār an-Nāṣṣarī) is a socialist Arab nationalist political ideology based on the thinking of Gamal Abdel Nasser, one of the two principal leaders of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and Egypt's second President.
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The National Liberal Party (NLP, حزب الوطنيين الأحرار, literally Ḥizb Al-Waṭaniyyīn Al-Aḥrār) is a center-right political party in Lebanon, established by President Camille Chamoun in 1958.
The National Pact (الميثاق الوطني) is an unwritten agreement that laid the foundation of Lebanon as a multi-confessional state, having shaped the country to this day.
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National Reconciliation is the term used for establishment of so-called 'national unity' in countries beset with political problems.
New wave music is a musical genre of pop/rock created in the late-1970s to mid-1980s with ties to 1970s punk rock.
Non-combatant is a term of art in the law of war and international humanitarian law, describing civilians who are not taking a direct part in hostilities; persons—such as combat medics and military chaplains—who are members of the belligerent armed forces but are protected because of their specific duties (as currently described in Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions, adopted in June 1977); combatants who are placed hors de combat; and neutral nationals (including military personnel) who are not fighting for one of the belligerents involved in an armed conflict.
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The October 13 Massacre took place on 13 October 1990, during the final period of the Lebanese Civil War, when hundreds of Lebanese Army soldiers were executed after they surrendered to the Syrian Army.
Omar Abdul Hamid Karami (last name also spelled Karamé and Karameh) (عمر عبد الحميد كرامي; 7 September 1934 – 1 January 2015) was the Prime Minister of Lebanon on two separate occasions.
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Out of Life (Hors la vie) is a 1991 film directed by Lebanese director Maroun Bagdadi.
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The Palestine Liberation Army (PLA) was ostensibly set up as the military wing of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) at the 1964 Arab League summit held in Alexandria, Egypt, with the mission of fighting Israel.
The Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) (جبهة التحرير الفلسطينية) is a Palestinian militant group, which is designated as a terrorist organization by the United States.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle.
Palestinian Christians number approximately 38,000 in the State of Palestine, and belong to one of a number of Christian denominations, including Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, Catholicism (Eastern and Western rites), Anglicanism, Protestantism and others.
The Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon was a conflict initiated by Palestinian militants based in South Lebanon upon Israel since 1968, which evolved into the wider Lebanese Civil War in 1975 and lasted until the expulsion of the Palestinian Liberation Organization from Lebanon in the 1982 Lebanon War.
The term "Palestine refugee", originally included both Arabs and Jews whose normal place of residence was in Mandatory Palestine but were displaced and lost their livelihoods as a result of the 1948 Palestine war.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים), are an ethnic group representing the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Palestinian Arab due to Arabization of the region.
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Pan-Arabism is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world.
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Peacekeeping refers to activities that tend to create conditions that favor lasting peace.
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Philip Charles Habib (February 25, 1920 – May 25, 1992) was a American career diplomat.
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Philip Khuri Hitti (فيليب خوري حتي in Arabic), (Shimlan 1886 - Princeton 1978) was a Lebanese American scholar and authority on Arab and Middle Eastern history, Islam, and Semitic languages.
Sheikh Pierre Gemayel (الشيخ بيار الجميّل) (6 November 1905 – 29 August 1984) (last name also spelt Jmayyel, Jemayyel or al-Jumayyil, Sheikh is an honorific title in Arab countries), was a Lebanese political leader.
In the world of politics, polarization (or polarisation) can refer to the divergence of political attitudes to ideological extremes.
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين, al-Jabhah al-Sha`biyyah li-Taḥrīr Filasṭīn) is a secular Palestinian Marxist-Leninist and revolutionary socialist organization founded in 1967 by George Habash.
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command (الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين - القيادة العامة) or PFLP-GC is a small Palestinian nationalist militant organisation based in Syria.
The Progressive Socialist Party or PSP (الحزب التقدمي الاشتراكي, al-hizb al-taqadummi al-ishtiraki), also known as Parti Socialiste Progressiste in French, is a political party in Lebanon.
A quisling is a person who collaborates with an enemy occupying force.
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Rafael "Raful" Eitan (רפאל "רפול" איתן, born 11 January 1929 – 23 November 2004) was an Israeli general, former Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces and later a politician, a Knesset member government minister.
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Rafic Baha El Deen Al Hariri (رفيق بهاء الدين الحريري; 1 November 1944 – 14 February 2005) was a Lebanese-Saudi business tycoon and the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on.
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Rageh Omaar (Raage Omaar, راجح عمر; born 19 July 1967) is a Somali-born British journalist and writer.
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Rashaya, Rachaya, Rashaiya, Rashayya or Rachaiya (Arabic: راشيا), also known as Rashaya al-Wadi or Rachaya el-Wadi (and variations), is a town of the Rashaya District in the south of the Beqaa Governorate of Lebanon.
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Rashid Abdul Hamid Karami (30 December 1921 –1 June 1987) (رشيد كرامي) was a Lebanese statesman.
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A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees.
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The Rejectionist Front (جبهة الرفض) or Front of the Palestinian Forces Rejecting Solutions of Surrender (جبهة القوى الفلسطينية الرافضة للحلول الإستسلامية) was a political coalition formed in 1974 by radical Palestinian factions who rejected the Ten Point Program adopted by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in its 12th Palestinian National Congress (PNC) session.
René Moawad (April 17, 1925, Zgharta – November 22, 1989, Beirut) (رينيه معوض) was President of Lebanon for 17 days in 1989, from the 5th to the 22nd of November, when he was assassinated by unknown assailants.
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Riyadh (الرياض Najdi pronunciation:, "The Gardens") is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia.
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A roadblock is a temporary installation set up to control or block traffic along a road.
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Robert Norman Munsch, CM (born June 11, 1945) is an American-born Canadian children's author.
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RomaniaIn English, Romania was formerly often spelled Rumania or sometimes Roumania.
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Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician, commentator, and actor, who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
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Ruhollah Moosavi Khomeini (روحالله خمینی,, 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989) was an Iranian Ayatollah, revolutionary, politician, the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of the Pahlavi monarchy and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran.
Saad Haddad (1936–Jan. 14, 1984) was the founder and head of the South Lebanon Army (SLA) during Lebanese Civil War.
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The Sabra and Shatila massacre was the killing of between 762 and 3,500 civilians, mostly Palestinians and Lebanese Shiites, by a militia close to the Kataeb Party, also called Phalange, a predominantly Christian Lebanese right-wing party in the Sabra neighborhood and the adjacent Shatila refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq, serving in this capacity from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
The Safra massacre, or Day of the Long Knives, occurred in the coastal town of Safra (north of Beirut) on 7 July 1980, during the Lebanese civil war, as part of Bashir Gemayel's effort to consolidate all the Christian fighters under his leadership in the Lebanese Forces.
Saleh Barakat (born in 1969 in Beirut, Lebanon) is a Lebanese art expert, gallery owner and curator.
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Samir Farid Geagea (Arabic: سمير فريد جعجع, also spelled Samir Ja‘ja‘; born 25 October 1952) is a Lebanese politician and commander.
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Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
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Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries.
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Selim Ahmed Hoss (spelled "Salim El-Hoss" on his website, Arabic: سليم أحمد الحص) (born 20 December 1929) is a veteran Lebanese politician.
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Shafik Al-Wazzan (شفيق الوزان, 1925—July 8, 1999) was the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1980 until 1984.
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The Shatila refugee camp (مخيم شاتيلا), also known as the Chatila refugee camp, is a refugee camp, originally set-up for Palestinian refugees in 1949.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah), an abbreviation of Shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي, "followers/party of Ali"), is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib.
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Shia Islam in Lebanon has a history of more than a millennium.
Shlomo Argov (14 December 1929 – 23 February 2003) was a prominent Israeli diplomat.
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Sidon or Saïda (صيدا, صيدون,; Phoenician:, Ṣdn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών; Sidon; Sayda) is the third-largest city in Lebanon.
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The Siege of Beirut took place in the summer of 1982, as part of the 1982 Lebanon War, which resulted from the breakdown of the cease-fire effected by the United Nations.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a division of CBS Corporation, is a publisher founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard L. Simon and M. Lincoln ("Max") Schuster.
The Sixth of February Movement or ‘6th FM’ was a small predominantly Sunni Nasserist faction active in Lebanon from the early 1970s to the mid-1980s.
Souha Fawaz Bechara also spelled Souha Bechara or Soha Bechara (Arabic: سهى فواز بشارة) (born June 15, 1967) is a Lebanese woman who, at the age of twenty one, attempted to assassinate General Antoine Lahad of the South Lebanon Army.
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The South Lebanon Army or South Lebanese Army (SLA) (جيش لبنان الجنوبي, transliterated: Jaysh Lubnān al-Janūbi; צבא דרום לבנון, צד"ל, transliterated: Tzvá Dróm Levanón, Tzadál) was a Lebanese militia during the Lebanese Civil War which split from the Army of Free Lebanon.
The South Lebanon conflict (1985–2000) or the Security Zone conflict in Lebanon refers to 15 years of warfare between the Israel Defense Forces and its Lebanese Christian proxy militias against Lebanese Muslim guerrillas led by the Iranian-backed Hezbollah, within what was defined by Israelis as the "Security Zone" in South Lebanon.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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The Suez Crisis, also named the Tripartite Aggression,Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Second Arab-Israeli War; in the Arab world commonly known as the Tripartite aggression; other names include the Sinai war, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Kadesh, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") and the Kadesh Operation was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by Britain and France.
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Suleiman Kabalan Frangieh, last name also spelled Frangié, Franjieh, or Franjiyeh (15 June 1910 – 23 July 1992), was a Lebanese Maronite politician, President of Lebanon from 1970 to 1976.
Sunni Islam is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his father-in-law Abu Bakr.
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Sunni Islam in Lebanon has a history of more than a millennium.
Syria (سوريا or سورية, Sūriyā or Sūrīyah), officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia.
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The Syrian Armed Forces (القوات المسلحة العربية السورية) are the military forces of Syria.
The Syrian Army, officially the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) (الجيش العربي السوري al-Jaysh al-’Arabī as-Sūrī), is the land force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.
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The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية) is an ongoing armed conflict taking place in Syria.
The Syrian occupation of Lebanon began in 1976 as a result of the Lebanese Civil War and ended in April 2005 in response to domestic and international pressure after the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister, Rafik Hariri.
The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) (الحزب السوري القومي الاجتماعي, transliterated: Al-Ḥizb Al-Sūrī Al-Qawmī Al-'Ijtimā'ī, often referred to in French as Parti populaire syrien or Parti social nationaliste syrien), is a left-wing secular-nationalist political party operating in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, and Palestine.
Ta'if (الطائف) is a city in Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of on the slopes of Sarawat Mountains (Al-Sarawat Mountains).
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The Taif Agreement (اتفاقية الطائف) (also the or) was an agreement reached to provide "the basis for the ending of the civil war and the return to political normalcy in Lebanon".
The Tel al-Zaatar massacre (مذبحة تل الزعتر) took place during the Lebanese Civil War on August 12, 1976.
The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.
The Washington Post is an American daily newspaper.
The Tigers Militia (Arabic: نمور الأحرار, transliterated: Numūr or Al-Noumour), also known as NLP Tigers or Tigers of the Liberals (Arabic: Numur al-Ahrar) and PNL "Lionceaux" in French, was the military wing of the National Liberal Party (NLP) during the Lebanese Civil War.
Antoine Frangieh (1 September 1941 – 13 June 1978), better known by his diminutive, Tony Frangieh, طوني فرنجية) was a Lebanese politician and militia leader during the early years of the Lebanese Civil War.
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The Tripartite Accord of 1985 was a short-lived agreement between the three major Lebanese feuding factions, signed in Damascus, Syria, to end the Lebanese Civil War.
Tripoli (طرابلس / ALA-LC: Ṭarābulus; Lebanese Arabic: Ṭrāblos; Τρίπολις / Tripolis; Trablusşam) is the largest city in northern Lebanon and the second-largest city in the country.
The Tyous Team of Commandos – TTC or simply Tyous for short (‘Tyous’ means 'Male Goat' in Arabic, also translated as the “Stubborn Ones”; “Les Têtus”, “Les Obstinés” in French), was a small far-right Christian militia which fought in the 1975-78 phase of the Lebanese Civil War.
The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon Arabic:(قوة الأمم المتحدة المؤقتة في لبنان), or UNIFIL Arabic:(يونيفيل) and also known as the UN, was originally created by the United Nations Arabic:(الأمم المتحدة), with the adoption of Security Council Resolution 425 and 426 on 19 March 1978, to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon which Israel had invaded five days prior, restore international peace and security, and help the Government of Lebanon restore its effective authority in the area.
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was a proposal developed by the United Nations, which recommended a partition with Economic Union of Mandatory Palestine to follow the termination of the British Mandate.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 425, adopted on March 19, 1978, five days after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, called on Israel to withdraw immediately its forces from Lebanon and established the United Nations Interim Force In Lebanon (UNIFIL).
United Nations Security Council resolution 508, adopted unanimously on 5 June 1982, after recalling previous resolutions including 425 (1978), 426 (1978) and 501 (1982), demanded an end of foreign hostilities taking place on Lebanese territory between the Palestinian Liberation Organization and Israel.
United Nations Security Council resolution 509, adopted unanimously on 6 June 1982, after recalling previous resolutions on the topic including 425 (1978) and 508 (1982), the Council expressed concern and demanded Israel unconditionally withdraw all its military forces from Lebanon back to its internationally recognised border.
The United States Department of State (DoS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces.
Vichy France is the Allies' description of the government of the French State (État français), following its relocation to the spa town of Vichy, headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain from 1940 to 1944 during World War II.
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Walid Jumblatt (وليد جنبلاط) (born 7 August 1949) is a Lebanese politician and the current leader of the mostly Druze Progressive Socialist Party (PSP).
Waltz with Bashir (ואלס עם באשיר, translit. Vals Im Bashir) is a 2008 Israeli animated war documentary film written and directed by Ari Folman.
The War of the Camps (Arabic: حرب المخيمات) was a subconflict within the 1984–1989 phase of the Lebanese Civil War, in which Palestinian refugee camps were besieged by the Shi'ite Amal militia.
The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (also known as The Washington Report and WRMEA) magazine, published eight times per year, focuses on "news and analysis from and about the Middle East and U.S. policy in that region".
Wayne State University Press (or WSU Press) is a university press that is part of Wayne State University.
The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States, located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C. It has been the residence of every U.S. president since John Adams in 1800.
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William Amine Hawi (also written: William Haoui), – (September 5, 1908 – July 13, 1976), (وليم أمين حاوي) William Hawi joined the Kataeb Social Democratic Party in 1937 (الكتائب اللبنانية) better known in English as the Phalangist party organization, a right-wing christian political party in Lebanon.
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Lieutenant-General William O'Callaghan (DSM) (Liam Ó Céallachgáin) was an Irish Army officer.
World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (أبو عمار), was a Palestinian leader.
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Zahlé (also transliterated Zahleh; Lebanese Arabic: زحلة; Զահլէ) is the capital and largest city of Beqaa Governorate, Lebanon.
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Zgharta, or Zghorta (زغرتا) is a large town in North Lebanon, with an estimated population of around 90,000.
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The Zgharta Liberation Army or Zghartawi Liberation Army (abbreviation: ZLA) (in French: Armée de Liberation de Zgharta, ALZ) was the party militia of the Lebanese Marada Movement during the Lebanese Civil War.
The 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war was the culmination of a peasant uprising, which began in the north of Mount Lebanon as a rebellion of Maronite peasants against their Druze overlords and culminated in a massacre in Damascus.
The 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine was the first phase of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War or the First Arab–Israeli War was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states.
The 1958 Lebanon crisis was a Lebanese political crisis caused by political and religious tensions in the country that included a U.S. military intervention.
The 1976 Arab League summit was held on October 16 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as an extraordinary Arab League Summit.
The 1978 South Lebanon conflict (code-named Operation Litani by Israel) was an invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River, carried out by the Israel Defense Forces in 1978 in response to the Coastal Road massacre.
The 1982 Lebanon War (الاجتياح, Al-ijtiyāḥ, "the invasion"), (מלחמת לבנון הראשונה, Milhemet Levanon Harishona, "the first Lebanon war"), called Operation Peace for Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, or מבצע של"ג Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil or Mivtsa Sheleg) by Israel, and later known in Israel as the Lebanon War and First Lebanon War, began on 6 June 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) invaded southern Lebanon, after repeated attacks and counter-attacks between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) operating in southern Lebanon and the IDF which caused civilian casualties on both sides of the border.
The Beirut Barracks Bombings (October 23, 1983, in Beirut, Lebanon) occurred during the Lebanese Civil War when two truck bombs struck separate buildings housing United States and French military forces—members of the Multinational Force (MNF) in Lebanon—killing 299 American and French servicemen.
The April 18, 1983 United States embassy bombing was a suicide bombing in Beirut, Lebanon, that killed 63 people, mostly embassy and CIA staff members, several soldiers and one Marine.
On September 20, 1984, the Shi'a Islamic militant group Hezbollah, with support and direction from the Islamic Republic of Iran, carried out a suicide car bombing targeting the U.S. embassy annex in East Beirut, Lebanon.
The 44th Cannes Film Festival was held on May 9–20, 1991.
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