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Lebanon (or; لبنان or; Lebanese Arabic:; Aramaic: לבנאן; French: Liban), officially the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies. [1]

455 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Acre, Israel, AFC Asian Cup, Agriculture in Lebanon, Ahmad Haidar, Airstrike, Akkar District, Al Akhbar (Lebanon), Al Shouf Cedar Nature Reserve, Al-Ansar SC, Al-Malkiyya, Alexander the Great, Aley District, Allies of World War II, Alluvium, Alphabet, Amal Movement, American University of Beirut, Amin Maalouf, Anatolia, Ancient Macedonians, Ancient Rome, Anti-Lebanon mountains, Antoine Ghanem, Arab Deterrent Force, Arab Image Foundation, Arab Kingdom of Syria, Arab League, Arabic, Arabs, Aramaic language, Archaeological record, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenians in Lebanon, Artillery, Asceticism, Asia Times, Assassination of Mohamad Chatah, Association football, Assyria, Australia, Émile Lahoud, Baabda District, Baalbeck International Festival, Baalbek, Baalbek District, Bachir Gemayel, Banque du Liban, Basketball, Bassel Fleihan, ..., Batroun District, Bechara El Khoury, Beirut, Beirut Governorate, Beirut Marathon, Beiteddine Festival, Beqaa Governorate, Beqaa Valley, Bint Jbeil District, Black September in Jordan, Blue Line (Lebanon), Brazil, Bsharri, Bsharri District, Buddhism, Byblos, Byblos International Festival, Byzantine Empire, Camille Chamoun, Canaan, Canada, Canoeing, Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs, Capital punishment, Car bomb, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carthage, Catholic Church, Caving, Cádiz, Cedar Revolution, Cedars of God, Cedrus libani, Chalcolithic, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Glass, Chouf District, Christianity, Christianity in Lebanon, Cinema of Lebanon, Circa, Civil law (legal system), Climbing, Coastal plain, Commemorative stelae of Nahr el-Kalb, Commodity market, Confessionalism (politics), Consociationalism, Constantinople, Constitution of Lebanon, County of Tripoli, Crusader states, Crusades, Culture of Lebanon, Currency substitution, Cyprus, Cyrus the Great, Damour massacre, Defence minister, Democratic Left Movement (Lebanon), Demographics of Lebanon, Deputy prime minister, Doha 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government, Head of state, Hebrew Bible, Hekmeh, Hellenistic period, Henri Dentz, Hermel District, Hezbollah, High Commissioner, Hindu, Hinterland, History of Lebanon, History of the Jews in Lebanon, Holy Spirit University of Kaslik, IB Diploma Programme, Index of Lebanon-related articles, International Air Transport Association, International Monetary Fund, International Organization for Standardization, Investment Development Authority of Lebanon, Iran, Iraq, Iraqis in Lebanon, Ireland national rugby league team, Islam in Lebanon, Israel, Istanbul, Ivory Coast, Jabal Amel, Japanese cuisine, Jazz fusion, Jbeil District, Jean Kahwaji, Jeux de la Francophonie, Jezzine District, Julian calendar, Kahlil Gibran, Kataeb Party, Kaza, Keserwan District, Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Kingdom of Jerusalem, Koura District, Kurds in Lebanon, La Razón (Madrid), Laissez-faire, Latin America, Law of France, League of Nations, League of Nations mandate, Lebanese, Lebanese American University, Lebanese Arabic, Lebanese Armed Forces, Lebanese Australian, Lebanese Brazilian, Lebanese Canadians, Lebanese Civil War, Lebanese Communist Party, Lebanese diaspora, Lebanese Forces, Lebanese government of November 2009, Lebanese identity card, Lebanese National Anthem, Lebanese nationality law, Lebanese passport, Lebanese people, Lebanese people in Senegal, Lebanese pound, Lebanese Premier League, Lebanese University, Lebanon at the Olympics, Lebanon national basketball team, Lebanon national rugby league team, Levant, Levantine Arabic Sign Language, Limestone, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of Lebanese people (diaspora), List of Muslim empires and dynasties, List of Presidents of Lebanon, List of Prime Ministers of Lebanon, List of rivers of Lebanon, List of Speakers of the Parliament of Lebanon, Litani River, Lonely Planet, Lydia Canaan, Madrid, Majid Arslan, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), March 14 Alliance, March 8 Alliance, Marine environmental issues in Lebanon, Marjeyoun District, Market capitalization, Maron, Maronite Christianity in Lebanon, Maronite Church, Maronites, Matn District, Media of Lebanon, Mediterranean Basin, Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean Sea, Mehlis report, Melkite Christianity in Lebanon, Metres above sea level, Michel Suleiman, Middle East, Ministry of Education and Higher Education (Lebanon), Ministry of Finance (Lebanon), Ministry of National Defense (Lebanon), Ministry of Tourism (Lebanon), Miniyeh-Danniyeh District, Modern Standard Arabic, Mohamad Chatah, Mohammad Bannout, Monotheism, Mormons, Mossad, Mount Hermon, Mount Lebanon, Mount Lebanon Emirate, Mount Lebanon Governorate, Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, Mount Sannine, Moustafa Farroukh, Multinational Force in Lebanon, Music of Lebanon, Muslim, Muslim conquest of the Levant, Nabatieh District, Nabatieh Governorate, Nabih Berri, Nahr al-Bared, Najib Mikati, Napoleonic Code, Naqoura, National Pact, National Rugby League, Navigability, Nazi Germany, Nejmeh SC, Neolithic, New Kingdom of Egypt, North Governorate, Olympic Games, Ottoman Empire, Outline of Lebanon, Palestine (region), Palestine Liberation Organization, Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon, Palestinians in Lebanon, Pan Arab Games, Panethnicity, Paris of the East, Parliament of Lebanon, Parliamentary system, PBS, Perennial stream, Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, Petroleum, Philip Khuri Hitti, Phoenicia, Physical geography, Pierre Gemayel, Political freedom, Protestantism in Lebanon, Qurnat as Sawda', Rafic Hariri, Rafting, Rain shadow, Rashaya District, Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, Règlement Organique (Mount Lebanon), Recorded history, Refugee, Refugees of the Syrian Civil War, Reporters Without Borders, Republic, Reserved political positions, Riad Al Solh, Right of asylum, Roda Antar, Roman Catholicism in Lebanon, Roman Empire, Roman Rota, Roman–Persian Wars, Rugby league in Lebanon, Saad Hariri, Sabra and Shatila massacre, Saint Joseph University, Samir Bannout, Samir Kassir, Sandstone, Sasanian Empire, Saudi Arabia, Second Punic War, Seljuk Empire, Semitic languages, Senegal, Sharia, Shebaa farms, Shia Islam, Shia Islam in Lebanon, Sidon District, Siege of Tyre (332 BC), Skiing in Lebanon, South Governorate, Southern Lebanon, Spain, Speaker (politics), Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Sporting Al Riyadi Beirut, Stream, Sudan, Sunni Islam in Lebanon, Sydney, Syria, Syrian Civil War, Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon, Syrians in Lebanon, Taif Agreement, Tammam Salam, Tannourine, Telephone numbers in Lebanon, The Daily Star (Lebanon), The Prophet (book), The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, The World Factbook, Total fertility rate, Tripoli District, Tunisia, Tyre District, Unicameralism, Unitary state, United Arab Republic, United Nations, United Nations Charter, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine, United Nations International Independent Investigation Commission, United Nations Population Fund, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1595, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701, United States Agency for International Development, United States Forest Service, United States Marine Corps, UNRWA, Vichy, Walid Eido, Walid Raad, War, War of the Camps, Water supply and sanitation in Lebanon, Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, West Africa, Western Asia, Western Beqaa District, Wildfire, Workforce, World Trade Organization, World War I, Youssef Bey Karam, Youssef Mohamad, Zahlé District, Zgharta District, .lb, 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1958 Lebanon crisis, 1982 Lebanon War, 1983 Beirut barracks bombing, 2000 Rugby League World Cup, 2006 Lebanon War, 2006–08 Lebanese protests, 2007 Lebanon conflict, 2008 conflict in Lebanon, 2008 Rugby League World Cup, 2009 European Cup, 2009 Jeux de la Francophonie, 2013 Rugby League World Cup, 33rd parallel north, 35th meridian east, 35th parallel north, 37th meridian east. 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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great, notable for embracing various civilizations and becoming the largest empire of the ancient history, spanning at its maximum extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east.

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Acre, Israel

Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAkko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the northern coastal plain region of northern Israel at the northern extremity of Haifa Bay.

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AFC Asian Cup

The AFC Asian Cup is an international association football tournament run by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).

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Agriculture in Lebanon

Agriculture in Lebanon is the third most important sector in the country after the tertiary and industrial sectors.

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Ahmad Haidar

Ahmad Ali Haidar (born April 10, 1968 in Beirut, Lebanon) is an IFBB professional bodybuilder.

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An airstrike or air strike is an attack on a specific objective by military aircraft during an offensive mission.

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Akkar District

Akkar (عكار) is a district (Qadaa) in the North Governorate, Lebanon.

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Al Akhbar (Lebanon)

Al Akhbar (الأخبار, literally "The News") is a daily Arabic language newspaper published in a semi tabloid format in Beirut.

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Al Shouf Cedar Nature Reserve

Al Shouf Cedar Nature Reserve is a nature reserve in the Chouf District of Lebanon.

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Al-Ansar SC

Al-Ansar Sporting Club (نادي الأنصار الرياضي) is a Lebanese association football club based in Beirut.

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Al-Malikiyya (المالكية) was a Palestinian village located in the Jabal Amil region.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas, from the Greek ἀλέξω (alexō) "defend" and ἀνδρ- (andr-), the stem of ἀνήρ (anēr) "man" and means "protector of men") was a King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;. and a member of the Argead dynasty, a famous ancient Greek royal house.

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Aley District

Aley (عاليه) is a district (qadaa) in Mount Lebanon, Lebanon, to the south-east of the Lebanon's capital Beirut.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.

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An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) which is used to write one or more languages based on the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.

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Amal Movement

The Amal Movement (or Hope Movement in English, حركة أمل) is a Lebanese political party associated with Lebanon's Shia community.

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American University of Beirut

The American University of Beirut (AUB); الجامعة الأميركية في بيروت) is a private, secular, and independent university in Beirut, Lebanon. Degrees awarded at the American University of Beirut (AUB) are officially registered with the New York Board of Regents. The university is ranked as the number one university in Lebanon and among the top 250 universities in the world by the QS World University Rankings. The American University of Beirut is governed by a private, autonomous Board of Trustees and offers programs leading to Bachelor's, Master’s, MD, and PhD degrees. It collaborates with many universities around the world, notably with Columbia University, George Washington University School of Medicine & Health Sciences in Washington, DC; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and the University of Paris. The current president is Fadlo R. Khuri, M.D.. The American University of Beirut (AUB) boasts an operating budget of $300 million with an endowment of approximately $500 million. The campus is composed of 64 buildings, including the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) (420 beds), 5 libraries, 3 museums and 7 dormitories. Almost one-fifth of AUB's students attended secondary school or university outside of Lebanon before coming to AUB. AUB Graduates reside in approximately 100 countries worldwide. The language of instruction is English.

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Amin Maalouf

Amin Maalouf (أمين معلوف, born 25 February 1949 in Beirut) is a Lebanese-born French, Modern Arab writers.

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Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.

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Ancient Macedonians

The Macedonians (Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula.

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Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.

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Anti-Lebanon mountains

The Anti-Lebanon Mountains (Jabal Lubnan ash-Sharqi, "Eastern Lebanon Mountains"; Lebanese Arabic:, Jabal ash-Sharqi, "Eastern Mountains") are a southwest-northeast-trending mountain range that forms the majority of the border between Syria and Lebanon.

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Antoine Ghanem

Antoine Ghanem (Arabic: أنطوان غانم) (10 August 1943 – 19 September 2007) was a Lebanese politician and an MP in the Lebanese Parliament.

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Arab Deterrent Force

The Arab Deterrent Force (ADF; Arabic: قوات الردع العربية) was an international peacekeeping force created by the Arab League in the extraordinary Riyadh Summit on 17–18 October 1976, attended only by heads of state from Egypt, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.

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Arab Image Foundation

The Arab Image Foundation (Fondation Arabe pour l’Image; (المؤسسة العربية للصورة/ ALA-LC: al-mu`ssasah al-'arabiyah lil-surah) is a non-profit organization established in Beirut in 1997. It aims to track down, collect, preserve and study photographs from the Middle East, North Africa and the Arab diaspora. Its expanding collection includes more than 600,000 from Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Jordan, Egypt, Morocco, Iraq, Iran, Mexico, Argentina, and Senegal.

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Arab Kingdom of Syria

The Arab Kingdom of Syria (المملكة العربية السورية) was the first modern Arab state to come into existence but only lasted a little over four months (8 March–24 July 1920).

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Arab League

The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally, the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab countries in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.

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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.

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Arabs (عرب, ʿarab) are a major panethnic group whose native language is Arabic, comprising the majority of the Arab world.

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Aramaic language

Aramaic (Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ) is a family of languages or dialects belonging to the Semitic family.

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Archaeological record

The archaeological record is the body of physical (i.e. not written) evidence about the past.

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Armenian Apostolic Church

The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, Hay Aṙak’elakan Yekeġetsi) is the world's oldest national church.

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Armenians in Lebanon

The Armenians in Lebanon (Լիբանանահայեր lipananahayer, اللبنانيون الأرمن) are Lebanese citizens of Armenian descent.

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Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.

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Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskēsis, "exercise" or "training") describes a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from worldly pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.

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Asia Times

Asia Times was a newspaper launched in Thailand by Thai tycoon Sondhi Limthongkul in 1995.

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Assassination of Mohamad Chatah

At approximately 9:40am on 27 December 2013, a car bomb struck the convoy of Mohamad Chatah, a former Lebanese minister of finance and ambassador to the United States, in the Central District of Beirut, Lebanon.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Assyria, a major Mesopotamian East Semitic kingdom and empire of the Ancient Near East, existed as an independent state for a period of approximately nineteen centuries, from the 25th century BC to 605 BC, spanning the mid to Early Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age.

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Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Émile Lahoud

Émile Jamil Lahoud (اميل لحود) (born 12 January 1936) is a Lebanese politician, former President of Lebanon, in office from 1998 to 2007.

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Baabda District

Baabda District (Arabic: قضاء بعبدا, translit: Qada' Baabda), sometimes spelled B'abda, is a district (qadaa) in Mount Lebanon, Lebanon, to the south and east of the Lebanon's capital Beirut.

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Baalbeck International Festival

The Baalbeck International Festival is a cultural event in Lebanon.

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Baalbek, properly Baʿalbek (بعلبك) and also known as Balbec, Baalbec or Baalbeck, is a town in the Anti-Lebanon foothills east of the Litani River in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley, about northeast of Beirut and about north of Damascus.

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Baalbek District

Baalbek District (قضاء بعلبك) is an administrative district in the Beqaa Governorate of the Republic of Lebanon, having Baalbek as its capital.

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Bachir Gemayel

Bachir Gemayel (10 November 1947 – 14 September 1982) was a Lebanese leader and president-elect.

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Banque du Liban

Bank of Lebanon (Officially Banque du Liban) BDL (مصرف لبنان) is the central bank of Lebanon.

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Basketball is a sport played by two teams of five players on a rectangular court.

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Bassel Fleihan

Bassel Fleihan (10 September 1963 – 18 April 2005; باسل فليحان) was a Lebanese legislator and minister of economy and trade.

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Batroun District

Batroun District (البترون) is a district (qadaa) in the North Governorate, Lebanon, south of Tripoli.

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Bechara El Khoury

Bechara El Khoury (10 August 1890 – 11 January 1964) (بشارة الخوري) was the first post-independence President of Lebanon, holding office from 21 September 1943 to 18 September 1952, apart from an 11-day interruption (11–22 November) in 1943.

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Beirut (بيروت; Biblical Hebrew: בְּאֵרוֹת Be'erot; Hebrew: ביירות Beirut; Latin: Berytus; Beyrouth; Beyrut; Պէյրութ Beyrut) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.

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Beirut Governorate

The Beirut Governorate (Arabic) is the only Lebanese governorate that consists of one district and one city, Beirut, which is also its capital, and the capital of Lebanon.

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Beirut Marathon

The Beirut Marathon Association is a not-for-profit organization whose vision is to become the leading running expert organization in the Middle East.

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Beiteddine Festival

The Beiteddine Festival (مهرجان بيت الدين) is an annual summer festival that takes place in Beiteddine Palace in Beiteddine, Lebanon.

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Beqaa Governorate

Beqaa is a governorate in Lebanon with a population of 750,000 inhabitants.

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Beqaa Valley

The Beqaa Valley (وادي البقاع,, Lebanese; Բեքայի դաշտավայր), also transliterated as Bekaa, Biqâ, and Becaa and known in classical antiquity as Coele-Syria, is a fertile valley in eastern Lebanon and western Syria.

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Bint Jbeil District

The Bint Jbeil District is a district in the Nabatiyeh Governorate of Lebanon.

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Black September in Jordan

The term Black September (أيلول الأسود; aylūl al-aswad) refers to the Jordanian Civil War that began in September 1970 and ended in July of 1971.

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Blue Line (Lebanon)

The Blue Line is a border demarcation between Lebanon and Israel published by the United Nations on 7 June 2000 for the purposes of determining whether Israel had fully withdrawn from Lebanon.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.

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Bsharri (also spelled Becharre, Bcharre, Bsharre; بْشَرِّيْ), is a town at an altitude of about in the Kadisha Valley in northern Lebanon.

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Bsharri District

Bsharri District is one of the 7 districts (qadaa, قضاء) of the North Governorate, Lebanon.

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Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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Byblos, in Arabic Jubayl (جبيل Lebanese Arabic pronunciation), is a Mediterranean city in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.

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Byblos International Festival

The Byblos International Festival is a Lebanese festival held in Byblos, believed to be the first Phoenician city, founded around 5000 BC.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.

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Camille Chamoun

Camille Nimr Chamoun (Arabic: كميل نمر شمعون, Kamīl Sham'ūn) (3 April 1900 – 7 August 1987) was President of Lebanon from 1952 to 1958, and one of the country's main Christian leaders during most of the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990).

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Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍; Biblical Hebrew: כנען /; Masoretic: כְּנָעַן /) was, during the late 2nd millennium BC, a region in the Ancient Near East.

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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.

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Canoeing is a sport or recreational activity which involves paddling a canoe with a single-bladed paddle.

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Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs

The Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs are an Australian professional rugby league football club based in Belmore, a suburb in the Canterbury-Bankstown region of Sydney.

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Capital punishment

Capital punishment, death penalty or execution is punishment by death.

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Car bomb

A car bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), is an improvised explosive device placed inside a car or other vehicle and detonated.

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Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is a foreign-policy think tank with centers in Washington, D.C., Moscow, Beirut, Beijing, and Brussels.

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The city of Carthage (قرطاج) is a city in Tunisia that was once the center of the ancient Carthaginian civilization.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.

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Caving — also traditionally known as spelunking in the United States and Canada and potholing in the United Kingdom and Ireland — is the recreational pastime of exploring wild (generally non-commercial) cave systems.

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Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.

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Cedar Revolution

The Cedar Revolution (Arabic: ثورة الأرز - thawrat al-arz) or Independence Intifada (Arabic: انتفاضة الاستقلال- intifāḍat al-istiqlāl) was a chain of demonstrations in Lebanon (especially in the capital Beirut) triggered by the assassination of the former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on 14 February 2005.

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Cedars of God

The Cedars of God (أرز الربّ Horsh Arz el-Rab "Cedars of the Lord") is one of the last vestiges of the extensive forests of the Cedars of Lebanon (Cedrus libani) that thrived across Mount Lebanon in ancient times.

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Cedrus libani

Cedrus libani is a species of cedar native to the mountains of the Mediterranean region.

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The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X, p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BC, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, also known as the Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of bronze"), is a phase of the Bronze Age before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze.

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Charles de Gaulle

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general, resistant, writer and statesman.

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Charles Glass

Charles Glass (born 1951) is an American-British author, journalist, and broadcaster specializing in the Middle East.

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Chouf District

Chouf (also spelled Shouf, Shuf or Chuf, in Arabic جبل الشوف Jebel ash-Shouf) is a historic region of Lebanon, as well as an administrative district in the governorate (mohafazat) of Mount Lebanon.

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ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianity in Lebanon

Christianity in Lebanon has a long and continuous history beginning with the visits of Jesus to the southern territories, where he is said to have performed many miraculous healings.

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Cinema of Lebanon

Cinema of Lebanon, according to film critic and historian, Roy Armes, was the only other cinema in the Arabic-speaking region, beside Egypt's, that could amount to a national cinema.

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Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca or ca. (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages including English, usually in reference to a date.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of late Roman law, and whose most prevalent feature is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Climbing is the activity of using one's hands, feet, or any other part of the body to ascend a steep object.

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Coastal plain

A coastal plain is an area of flat, low-lying land adjacent to a seacoast.

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Commemorative stelae of Nahr el-Kalb

The commemorative stelae of Nahr el-Kalb are a group of over 20 inscriptions carved into the limestone rocks around the estuary of the Nahr al-Kalb (Dog River) in Lebanon, just north of Beirut.

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Commodity market

A 'commodity market' is a market that trades in primary rather than manufactured products.

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Confessionalism (politics)

Confessionalism (محاصصة طائفية muḥāṣaṣah ṭā’ifīyah) is a system of government that refers to de jure mix of religion and politics.

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Consociationalism is often viewed as synonymous with power-sharing, although it is technically only one form of power-sharing.

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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis or Κωνσταντινούπολη Konstantinoúpoli; Constantinopolis; قسطنطینية, Kostantiniyye; Цариград; modern Istanbul) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1924) empires.

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Constitution of Lebanon

The Constitution of Lebanon was adopted on 23 May 1926.

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County of Tripoli

The County of Tripoli (1109–1289) was the last of the Crusader states.

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Crusader states

The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.

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The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages.

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Culture of Lebanon

The Culture of Lebanon and the Lebanese people emerged from various civilizations over thousands of years.

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Currency substitution

Currency substitution occurs when the inhabitants of a country use a foreign currency in parallel to or instead of the domestic currency.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

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Cyrus the Great

Cyrus II of Persia (Old Persian: Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش بُزُرگ Kurosh-e Bozorg  ; c. 600 or 576 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire.

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Damour massacre

The Damour massacre took place on January 20, 1976, during the 1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War.

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Defence minister

The title Defense minister, Minister for Defense, Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State for Defence, Secretary of National Defense or some similar variation, is assigned to the person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defence, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states.

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Democratic Left Movement (Lebanon)

The Democratic Left Movement (DLM, حركة اليسار الديمقراطي Harakat Al-Yassar Al-Dimuqratiy, Arabic acronym HYD) is a nonsectarian and a democratic leftist political party with seats in the Lebanese Parliament.

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Demographics of Lebanon

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Lebanon, including population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

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Deputy prime minister

A deputy prime minister or vice prime minister is, in some countries, a government minister who can take the position of acting prime minister when the prime minister is temporarily absent.

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Doha Agreement

The Doha Agreement was an agreement reached by rival Lebanese factions on 21 May 2008 in Doha, Qatar.

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Driving licence in Lebanon

In the Republic of Lebanon, a driver's license is the official document which authorises its holder to operate various types of motor vehicles on highways and some other roads to which the public have access and are issued by each individual canton (قضاء). In domestic non-electronic identification the driving licence has remained in a leading position, since most of the population have to have a licence anyway, and a driving licence is valid for almost every situation where non-electronic personal identification is needed even though they are not officially recognized as such.

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Druze in Lebanon

Druze in Lebanon refers to adherents of the Druze faith, an ethnoreligious esoteric group originating from the Near East who self identify as unitarians (Muwahhideen).

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Eastern European Summer Time

Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.

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Eastern European Time

Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.

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Eastern Mediterranean

The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea.

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Ebla (إبلا., modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh), was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Egyptian language

Egyptian is the oldest known language of Egypt and a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Ehmej Festival

Ehmej Festival is a music festival held annually (since 2011) in Ehmej, a municipality, located about 40 km north of Beirut, in the district of Jbeil.

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Elias Khoury

Elias Khoury (إلياس خوري) (born 12 July 1948) is a Lebanese novelist, playwright, critic and a prominent public intellectual.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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An entrepôt or entrepot is a port, city, or trading post where merchandise may be imported, stored and/or traded, typically to be exported again.

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Epic of Gilgamesh

The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia.

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Euronews is a multilingual news television channel, headquartered in Lyon-Écully, France.

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European Neighbourhood Policy

The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union (EU) which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.

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Fadi El Khatib

Fadi El Khatib (فادي الخطيب), is a Lebanese professional basketball player currently playing for Al Riyadi in the Lebanese Basketball League.

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Fakhr-al-Din II

Emir Fakhr-al-Din ibn Maan (August 6, 1572 – April 13, 1635) (الامير فخر الدين بن معن), also transliterated Fakhreddine, was a Druze Ma'ani prince and an early leader of the Emirate of Chouf, a self-governed area under the Ottoman Empire between the 17th and 19th centuries.

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Fatah al-Islam

Fatah al-Islam (فتح الإسلام', meaning Conquest of Islam) is a radical Sunni Islamist group that formed in November 2006 in a Palestinian refugee camp, located in Lebanon.

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Fatimid Caliphate

The Fatimid Caliphate (الفاطميون) (909-1171) was a Shia Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.

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FIBA Basketball World Cup

The FIBA Basketball World Cup, also known as the FIBA World Cup of Basketball or simply the FIBA World Cup, between 1950 and 2010 known as the FIBA World Championship, is an international basketball competition contested by the men's national teams of the members of the International Basketball Federation (FIBA), the sport's global governing body.

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Finance minister

A finance minister is an executive or cabinet position in charge of one or more of government finances, economic policy and financial regulation.

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First Crusade

The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to capture the Holy Lands, called by Pope Urban II in 1095.

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Football in Lebanon

Football is the most popular sport in Lebanon.

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Foreign worker

A foreign worker is a person who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a citizen.

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Fouad Siniora

Fouad Siniora (alternative spellings: Fouad Sanyoura, Fuad Sinyora, Fouad Sanioura, Fouad Seniora, Fuad Siniora) (فؤاد السنيورة, Fu'ād as-Sanyūrah) (born 14 April 1943) is a Lebanese politician, a former Prime Minister of Lebanon, a position he held from 19 July 2005 to 25 May 2008.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.

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France 24

France 24 (pronounced France vingt-quatre on all three editions) is an international news and current affairs television channel based in Paris.

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Francia or Frankia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankish Empire, Frankish Realm or occasionally Frankland, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks, a confederation of Germanic tribes, during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

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Franco-Syrian War

The Franco-Syrian War took place during 1920, between the Hashemite rulers of the newly established Arab Kingdom of Syria and France.

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Free France

Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces that continued to fight against the Axis powers as an Ally after the fall of France.

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Free Patriotic Movement

The Free Patriotic Movement (FPM) (التيار الوطني الحر), also known as the Aounist party (التيار العوني), is a Lebanese political party, led by General Michel Aoun.

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Freedom House

Freedom House is a U.S. based government fundedGiannonea, Diego (2010)."Political and ideological aspects in the measurement of democracy: the Freedom House case".

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.

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French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon

Officially, the Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon (1923−1946), (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban), was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire.

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Fuad Chehab

Fuad Chehab (فؤاد شهاب; also transliterated Fouad Shihab; 19 March 1902 — 25 April 1973) was the President of the Lebanese Republic from 1958 to 1964.

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Gebran Tueni

Gebran Ghassan Tueni (جبران تويني; 15 September 1957 – 12 December 2005) was a Lebanese politician and the former editor and publisher of daily paper An Nahar, established by his grandfather, also named Gebran Tueni, in 1933.

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General officer

A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.

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George Hawi

George Hawi (Arabic: جورج حاوي / ALA-LC: Jūrj Ḥāwī; 5 November 1938 – 21 June 2005) was a Lebanese politician and former secretary general of the Lebanese Communist Party (LCP).

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Georges Catroux

Georges Albert Julien Catroux (29 January 1877 – 21 December 1969) was a French Army general and diplomat who served in both World War I and World War II, and served as Grand Chancellor of the Légion d'honneur from 1954 to 1969.

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Georges Schehadé

Georges Schehadé (2 November 1905 – 17 January 1989) was a Lebanese playwright and poet writing in French.

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Germination is the process by which a plant grows from a seed.

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Golan Heights

The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan or the Syrian Golan, is a region in the Levant.

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Gold coin

A gold coin is a coin made mostly or entirely of gold.

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A governorate is an administrative division of a country.

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Great Recession

The Global Recession was the general economic decline observed in world markets around the end of the first decade of the 21st century.

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Great Rift Valley

The Great Rift Valley is a name given to the continuous geographic trench, approximately in length, that runs from northern Jordan Rift Valley in Asia to Mozambique in South Eastern Africa.

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Greater Lebanon

The state of Greater Lebanon, the predecessor of modern Lebanon, was created in 1920.

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Greek Orthodox Christianity in Lebanon

Greek Orthodox Christianity in Lebanon refers to adherents of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch in Lebanon, which is an autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, and is the second largest Christian denomination in Lebanon after the Maronites.

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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Anatolia, Southern Italy, and other regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered around the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Greeks in Lebanon

The Greek presence in Lebanon is dated to ancient times, and the Phoenicians and Greeks (both maritime peoples) shared close ties.

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Gregorian calendar

The Gregorian calendar, also called the Western calendar and the Christian calendar, is internationally the most widely used civil calendar.

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Hafez al-Assad

Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian statesman, politician and general who was President of Syria from 1971 to 2000, Prime Minister from 1970 to 1971, Regional Secretary of the Regional Command of the Syrian Regional Branch and Secretary General of the National Command of the Ba'ath Party from 1971 to 2000.

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Hanan al-Shaykh

Hanan al-Shaykh (born November 12, 1945, Beirut) is a Lebanese author of contemporary literature.

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Hasbaya District

The Hasbaya District is a district in the Nabatiyeh Governorate of Lebanon.

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Hassan Nasrallah

Hassan Nasrallah (حسن نصرالله; born 31 August 1960) has been the third Secretary General of the Lebanese political and paramilitary organization Hezbollah since his predecessor, Abbas al-Musawi, was assassinated by the Israel Defense Forces in February 1992.

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Hazem El Masri

Hazem El Masri (حازم المصري) (born 1 April 1976) is a Lebanese-Australian professional rugby league footballer of the 1990s and 2000s.

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Head of government

Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.

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Head of state

A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.

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Hebrew Bible

Hebrew Bible or Hebrew Scriptures (Biblia Hebraica) is the term used by biblical scholars to refer to the Tanakh (תנ"ך), the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is the common textual source of the several canonical editions of the Christian Old Testament.

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Hekmeh SC, or Hekmeh Sports Club (in Arabic نادي الحكمة الرياضي) also known by its French synonym Sagesse (French translation of the name) or Club Sagesse or Club Sportif Sagesse (SC Sagesse) is a multi-sports club in Lebanon.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Henri Dentz

Henri Fernand Dentz (16 December 1881 – 13 December 1945) was a soldier and general in the French Army (Armée de Terre) and, after France surrendered during World War II, he served with the Vichy French Army.

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Hermel District

The Hermel District (قضاء الهرمل) is a district in the Beqaa Governorate of Lebanon.

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Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.

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High Commissioner

High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment.

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Hindu has historically referred to geographical, religious or cultural identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.

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Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city, a port, or similar).

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History of Lebanon

The history of Lebanon covers the history of the modern Republic of Lebanon and the earlier emergence of Greater Lebanon under the French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon, as well as the previous history of the region, covered by the modern state.

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History of the Jews in Lebanon

The history of the Jews in Lebanon deals with the presence of Jews in Lebanon, which stretches back to Biblical times.

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Holy Spirit University of Kaslik

The Holy Spirit University of Kaslik (in French: Université Saint-Esprit de Kaslik (USEK); جامعة الرّوح القدس – الكسليك Jāmi'aẗ Al Rūḥ Al Qudus – Al Kaslīk), is a private Catholic university in Mount Lebanon, founded in 1950 by the Lebanese Maronite Order (LMO).

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IB Diploma Programme

The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) is a two-year educational programme primarily aimed at students aged 16–19.

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Index of Lebanon-related articles

Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to or originating from Lebanon, including people, places, things, and concepts, are.

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International Air Transport Association

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is a trade association of the world’s airlines.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".

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International Organization for Standardization

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

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Investment Development Authority of Lebanon

The Investment Development Authority of Lebanon (IDAL) is the national investment promotion agency of Lebanon.

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Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.

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Iraq (or; العراق, Kurdish: Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جمهورية العراق; كۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia.

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Iraqis in Lebanon

Iraqis in Lebanon are people of Iraqi origin residing in Lebanon, which includes Lebanese citizens of Iraqi ancestry or more recently Iraqis seeking refuge in Lebanon, most as a direct result of the instability and violence that followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

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Ireland national rugby league team

The Ireland national rugby league team, known as the Wolfhounds, represents the entire island of Ireland in rugby league football.

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Islam in Lebanon

Islam in Lebanon is followed by 59.5% of the country's total population: Shia's make up 27%: Twelvers are the predominant Shia group, followed by Alawites and Ismailis.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל; دولة إِسْرَائِيل), is a country in West Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea.

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Istanbul (İstanbul), once known as Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey, and the country's economic, cultural, and historical center.

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Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast or Côte d'Ivoire, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (République de Côte d'Ivoire), is a country in West Africa.

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Jabal Amel

Jabal Amel (جبل عامل jabal ʿāmil) is a mountainous region of Southern Lebanon.

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Japanese cuisine

Japanese cuisine is the food—ingredients, preparation and way of eating—of Japan.

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Jazz fusion

Jazz fusion, fusion, or jazz-rock is a musical fusion genre that developed from mixing funk and rhythm and blues rhythms and the amplification and electronic effects of rock music, complex time signatures derived from non-Western music and extended, typically instrumental compositions with a jazz approach to lengthy group improvisations, often using wind and brass and displaying a high level of instrumental technique.

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Jbeil District

Byblos /Jbeil (Qadaa' Jbail) (قضاء جبيل) is a district (qadaa) in the Mount Lebanon Governorate (Arabic محافظة جبل لبنان), Lebanon, to the northeast of the Lebanon's capital Beirut.

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Jean Kahwaji

Jean Kahwaji is chief of the Lebanese Armed Forces.

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Jeux de la Francophonie

The Jeux de la Francophonie (Canadian English: Francophonie Games; British English: Francophone Games (French-speakers' Games) or The Francophonie) are a combination of artistic and sporting events for the Francophonie, mostly French speaking nations, held every four years since 1989, similar in concept to the Commonwealth Games.

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Jezzine District

The Jezzine District (قضاء جزين) is a district in the South Governorate of Lebanon.

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Julian calendar

The Julian calendar, introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.

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Kahlil Gibran

Khalil Gibran (Full Arabic name Gibran Khalil Gibran, sometimes spelled Kahlil; جبران خليل جبران / ALA-LC: Jubrān Khalīl Jubrān or Jibrān Khalīl Jibrān) (January 6, 1883 – April 10, 1931) was a Lebanese-American artist, poet, and writer of the New York Pen League.

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Kataeb Party

The Lebanese Phalanges Party (حزب الكتائب اللبنانية), better known in English as the Phalange (الكتائب), is a Christian right-wing political party in Lebanon.

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A kaza (qaḍāʾ,, plural: أقضية, aqḍiyah,; kazâ) is an administrative division historically used in the Ottoman Empire and currently used in several of its successor states.

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Keserwan District

Keserwan (Qadaa' Keserwèn) (Arabic قضاء كسروان) Turkish (kesrvan) is a district (caza) in the Mount Lebanon Governorate (محافظة جبل لبنان), Lebanon, to the northeast of Lebanon's capital Beirut.

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Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)

Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (access-date; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.

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Kingdom of Jerusalem

The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant in 1099 after the First Crusade.

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Koura District

Koura (الكورة, from χώρα, "country") is a district in the North Governorate, Lebanon.

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Kurds in Lebanon

Kurds in Lebanon refers to people born in or residing in Lebanon who are of Kurdish origin.

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La Razón (Madrid)

La Razón (Spanish for "Reason") is a daily newspaper based in Madrid, Spain.

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Laissez-faire is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government interference such as regulations, privileges, tariffs, and subsidies.

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Latin America

Latin America is a region of the Americas that comprises countries where Romance languages are predominant; primarily Spanish and Portuguese, but also French.

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Law of France

In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law ("droit privé") and public law ("droit public").

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, "Société des Nations" abbreviated as SDN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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League of Nations mandate

A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League.

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Lebanese may refer to.

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Lebanese American University

The Lebanese American University (Arabic: الجامعة اللبنانية الأميركية) is a secular, private and independent American university and research institution located in Lebanon.

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Lebanese Arabic

Lebanese Arabic or Lebanese is a variety of Levantine Arabic, indigenous to and spoken primarily in Lebanon, with significant linguistic influences borrowed from other Middle Eastern and European languages, and is in some ways unique from other varieties of Arabic.

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Lebanese Armed Forces

The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) (Arabic: القوات المسلحة اللبنانية | Al-Quwwāt al-Musallaḥa al-Lubnāniyya) or Forces Armées Libanaises (FAL) in French, also known as the Lebanese Army according to its official Website (Arabic: الجيش اللبناني or "Armée libanaise" in French, is the military of the Republic of Lebanon. It consists of three branches, the army, the air force and the navy. The motto of the Lebanese Armed Forces is "Honor, Sacrifice, Loyalty" (Arabic: "شرف · تضحية · وفاء" - Sharaf.Tadhia.Wafa'). The Lebanese Armed Forces symbol consists of a Lebanon Cedar tree surrounded by two laurel leaves, positioned above the symbols of the three branches: the ground forces represented by the two bayonets, the navy represented by an anchor, and the air force represented by two wings.

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Lebanese Australian

A Lebanese Australian is a citizen or permanent resident of Australia of Lebanese ancestry.

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Lebanese Brazilian

A Lebanese Brazilian (Líbano-brasileiro) (Arabic: البرازيلي اللبناني) is a Brazilian person of full, partial, or predominantly Lebanese ancestry, or a Lebanese-born person immigrant in Brazil.

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Lebanese Canadians

Lebanese Canadians are Canadian nationals of Lebanese origin.

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Lebanese Civil War

The Lebanese Civil War (الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية - Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities.

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Lebanese Communist Party

The Lebanese Communist Party – LCP (Arabic: الـحـزب الشـيـوعـي اللبـنـانـي, transliterated) or Parti communiste libanais (PCL) in French, is a communist party in Lebanon.

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Lebanese diaspora

Lebanese diaspora refers to Lebanese migrants and their descendants who, whether by choice or coercion, emigrated from Lebanon and now reside in other countries.

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Lebanese Forces

The Lebanese Forces (LF) (القوات اللبنانية; ܚܝܠܘܬܐ ܠܒܢܢܝܐ) is a Lebanese political party and formerly Christian militia during the Lebanese Civil War.

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Lebanese government of November 2009

In November 2009, after five months of negotiations following the 2009 parliamentary elections, Lebanese prime minister Saad Hariri formed a national unity government.

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Lebanese identity card

The Lebanese identity card (Arabic: بطاقة الهوية (bițāqat al-hawiya); French: Carte d'identité) is a compulsory Identity document issued to citizens of the Republic of Lebanon by the police on behalf of the Lebanese Ministry of Interior or in Lebanese embassies/consulates (abroad) free of charge.

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Lebanese National Anthem

The Lebanese National Anthem (النشيد الوطني اللبناني) was written by Rashid Nakhle and composed by Wadih Sabra.

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Lebanese nationality law

200px Lebanese nationality is based primarily on the principle of Jus sanguinis, transmitted by way of the father.

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Lebanese passport

The passport of the Republic of Lebanon (جواز سفر الجمهورية اللبنانية) is a passport issued to the citizens of the Republic of Lebanon.

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Lebanese people

The Lebanese people (الشعب اللبناني / ALA-LC: Lebanese Arabic pronunciation) are the inhabitants of the country of Lebanon and their ancestors.

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Lebanese people in Senegal

There is a significant community of Lebanese people in Senegal.

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Lebanese pound

The Lebanese pound (Arabic: lira; French: livre; ISO 4217: LBP) is the currency unit of Lebanon.

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Lebanese Premier League

Lebanese Premier League (French: Championnat du Liban de Football / Arabic: الدوري اللبناني لكرة القدم) is the top division of the Federation Libanaise de Football Association football league competitions.

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Lebanese University

The Lebanese University (الجامعة اللبنانية, Université Libanaise) is the only public institution for higher learning in Lebanon.

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Lebanon at the Olympics

Lebanon's first appearance in the Olympics was in 1940 when a "delegation of officials" attended the Summer Olympics in Berlin.

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Lebanon national basketball team

The Lebanon national basketball team is the basketball team of men representing Lebanon in international competitions.

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Lebanon national rugby league team

The Lebanon national rugby league team (Arabic: لبنان الرجبي الوطني فريق في الدوري) is the representative side of Lebanon in rugby league football.

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The Levant (Arabic: المشرق Naim, Samia, Dialects of the Levant, in Weninger, Stefan et al. (eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter (2011), p. 921) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean.

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Levantine Arabic Sign Language

Levantine Arabic Sign Language, also known as Syro-Palestinian Sign Language, is the deaf sign language of Jordan, Palestine, Syria, and Lebanon.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.

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List of Lebanese people (diaspora)

This is a list of notable Lebanese individuals born in the Lebanese diaspora of Lebanese ancestry or people of dual Lebanese and foreign nationality who live in the diaspora.

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List of Muslim empires and dynasties

Scholars debate what exactly constitutes an Empire.

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List of Presidents of Lebanon

This is a list of Presidents (and acting Presidents) of Lebanon since the creation of the office in 1926.

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List of Prime Ministers of Lebanon

This is a list of Prime Ministers of Lebanon since the creation of the office in 1926.

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List of rivers of Lebanon

This is a list of all waterways named as rivers in Lebanon.

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List of Speakers of the Parliament of Lebanon

This is a list of Speakers of the Parliament of Lebanon since the creation of the office in 1922.

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Litani River

The Litani River (نهر الليطاني, Nahr al-Līṭānī), the classical Leontes (Λέοντες, Léontes, "Lions"), is an important water resource in southern Lebanon.

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Lonely Planet

Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.

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Lydia Canaan

Lydia Canaan is a Lebanese singer-songwriter, recording artist, poet, activist, and musical pioneer widely regarded as the first rock star of the Middle East.

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Madrid is a south-western European city and the capital and largest municipality of Spain.

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Majid Arslan

Emir Majid Toufic Arslan (in Arabic الأمير مجيد توفيق أرسلان) (born February 1908 in Choueifat, Lebanon — died September 18, 1983 in Khaldeh, south of Beirut) was a Lebanese Druze leader and head of the Arslan feudal Druze ruling family.

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Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)

The Mamluk Sultanate (Memlük Sultanlığı, سلطنة المماليك Sulṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.

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March 14 Alliance

The March 14 Alliance (تحالف 14 آذار Taḥāluf 14 Adhār), named after the date of the Cedar Revolution, is a coalition of political parties and independents in Lebanon formed in 2005 that are united by their anti-Syrian regime stance and their opposition to the pro-Syrian regime March 8 Alliance.

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March 8 Alliance

The March 8 Alliance is a coalition of various political parties in Lebanon.

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Marine environmental issues in Lebanon

A variety of factors affect the water and coastline of Lebanon, including marine pollution and the environmental impact of shipping.

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Marjeyoun District

The Marjeyoun District is a district in the Nabatieh Governorate of Lebanon.

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Market capitalization

Market capitalization or market cap is the total money market value of the shares outstanding of a publicly traded company; it is equal to the share price times the number of shares outstanding.

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Maroun (also Maron or Maro; ܡܪܝ ܡܪܘܢ,; مار مارون; Maron) was a 4th-century Syriac Christian monk whose followers, after his death, founded a religious Christian movement that became known as the Maronite Church.

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Maronite Christianity in Lebanon

Maronite Christianity in Lebanon refers to adherents of the Maronite Church in Lebanon, which is the largest Christian denomination in the country.

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Maronite Church

The Syriac Maronite Church of Antioch (الكنيسة الأنطاكية السريانية المارونية al-Kanīsa al-Anṭākiyya al-Suryāniyya al-Mārūniyya; Ecclesia Maronitarum) is an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome.

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The Maronites are an ethno-religious group situated in the Levant, mainly in the area of modern Lebanon.

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Matn District

Matn (قضاء المتن), sometimes spelled Metn, is a district (qadaa) in the Mount Lebanon Governorate of Lebanon, east of the Lebanon's capital Beirut.

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Media of Lebanon

Lebanon is not only a regional center of media production but also the most liberal and free in the Arab world.

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Mediterranean Basin

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

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Mediterranean climate

The term Mediterranean climate is one typical of the Mediterranean Basin and is a particular variety of subtropical climate.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

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Mehlis report

The Mehlis Report is the result of the United Nations' investigation into the 14 February 2005 assassination of Lebanon's former prime minister Rafik al-Hariri.

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Melkite Christianity in Lebanon

Melkite Christianity in Lebanon refers to adherents of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church in Lebanon, which is the third Christian denomination in the country after the Maronite Christianity in Lebanon and Eastern Orthodox Christianity in Lebanon.

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Metres above sea level

Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL), or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m.a.s.l.), is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation of a location in reference to historic mean sea level; the determination of what actually constitutes mean sea level over time however, may be determined by other parameters, such as the effects of climate history and climate change, and may have differed in the past, as well as in the future, from that established by historic, modern, documented elevations.

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Michel Suleiman

Michel Suleiman or Sleiman (ميشال سليمان, born 21 November 1948) was the President of Lebanon from 2008 to 2014.

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Middle East

The Middle EastArabic: الشرق الأوسط,; Armenian: Միջին Արևելք, Merdzavor Arevelk’; Azerbaijani: Orta Şərq; French: Moyen-Orient; Georgian: ახლო აღმოსავლეთი, akhlo aghmosavleti; Greek: Μέση Ανατολή, Mési Anatolí; Hebrew: המזרח התיכון, Ha'Mizrah Ha'Tihon; Kurdish: Rojhilata Navîn; Persian: خاورمیانه, khāvar-miyāneh; Somali: Bariga Dhexe; Soranî Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, rrojhellatî nayn; Turkish: Orta Doğu; Urdu: مشرق وسطی, hashrq vsty (also called the Mid East) is a eurocentric description of a region centered on Western Asia and Egypt.

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Ministry of Education and Higher Education (Lebanon)

The Republic of Lebanon Ministry of Education & Higher Education (الجمهورية اللبنانية وزارة التربية والتعليم العالي) is a government agency of Lebanon.

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Ministry of Finance (Lebanon)

This page is a list of Finance Ministers of Lebanon.

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Ministry of National Defense (Lebanon)

The Ministry of National Defense (وزارة الدفاع الوطني Wizārat al-Difāʾ al-Waṭanī) is Lebanon's service section for the Lebanese Armed Forces which directs the entire Army.

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Ministry of Tourism (Lebanon)

The Ministry of Tourism (وزارة السياحة) is a government ministry of Lebanon.

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Miniyeh-Danniyeh District

The Miniyeh-Danniyeh District is a district in the North Governorate of Lebanon.

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Modern Standard Arabic

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech.

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Mohamad Chatah

Mohamad Bahaa Chatah (محمد بهاء شطح; 1951 – 27 December 2013) was a Lebanese economist and diplomat.

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Mohammad Bannout

Mohammad Ali Bannout (محمد علي بنوت; born 17 December 1976, in Beirut, Lebanon), informally referred to as Moe Bannout, is a Lebanese IFBB professional bodybuilder.

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Monotheism is defined by the Encyclopædia Britannica as belief in the existence of one god or in the oneness of God.

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Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity, which began with Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s.

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Mossad (הַמוֹסָד,; الموساد,; literally meaning "the Institute"), short for (המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, meaning "Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations"; الموساد للاستخبارات والمهام الخاصة), is the national intelligence agency of Israel.

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Mount Hermon

Mount Hermon (جبل الشيخ or جبل حرمون / ALA-LC: Jabal al-Shaykh ("Mountain of the Chief") or Jabal Haramun; הר חרמון, Har Hermon, "Mount Hermon") is a mountain cluster constituting the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range.

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Mount Lebanon

Mount Lebanon (جبل لبنان; Jabal Lubnān, ܛܘܪ ܠܒܢܢ) is a mountain range in Lebanon.

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Mount Lebanon Emirate

The Emirate of Mount Lebanon was an autonomous subdivision in the Ottoman Empire.

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Mount Lebanon Governorate

Mount Lebanon (جبل لبنان) is the wealthiest and the most modern of the Governorates in Lebanon.

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Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate

The Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate (متصرفية جبل لبنان; Cebel-i Lübnan Mutasarrıflığı) was one of the Ottoman Empire's subdivisions following the Tanzimat reform.

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Mount Sannine

Mount Sannine (جبل صنين / ALA-LC: Jabal Șannīn) is a mountain in the Mount Lebanon range.

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Moustafa Farroukh

Moustafa Farroukh (in Arabic مصطفى فروخ) (born 1901 - died 1957) was one of Lebanon's most prominent painters of the 20th century.

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Multinational Force in Lebanon

The Multinational Force in Lebanon (M.N.F) was an international peacekeeping force created in September of 1982, after the demand was made by Lebanon to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and was subsequently dissolved in March 1984 following the October 1983 Beirut barracks bombing; however, french paratrooper regiments of the French Armed Forces, the Irish Armed Forces, the Italian Armed Forces and Foreign Legion did not leave Lebanon and remained committed around the security of Lebanon in and out of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (U.N.I.F.I.L) The Peacekeeping force was and initially to oversee the withdrawal of the Palestine Liberation Organization.

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Music of Lebanon

The music of Lebanon has a long history.

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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.

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Muslim conquest of the Levant

The Muslim conquest of Syria (Arabic: الفتح الإسلامي لبلاد الشام) occurred in the first half of the 7th century,"Syria." Encyclopædia Britannica.

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Nabatieh District

The Nabatieh District is a district in the Nabatieh Governorate of Lebanon.

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Nabatieh Governorate

Nabatieh Governorate (محافظة النبطية) is one of the six governorates of Lebanon.

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Nabih Berri

Nabih Berri (نبيه بري; born 28 January 1938) is the Speaker of the Parliament of Lebanon.

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Nahr al-Bared

Nahr al-Bared (نهر البارد, literally: Cold River) is a Palestinian refugee camp in northern Lebanon, 16 km from the city of Tripoli.

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Najib Mikati

Najib Azmi Mikati (نجيب ميقاتي; born 24 November 1955) is a Lebanese politician who served as the Prime Minister of Lebanon two times.

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Napoleonic Code

The Napoleonic Code (and officially Code civil des Français) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.

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Naqoura (Enn Nâqoura, Naqoura, An Nāqūrah) is a small city in southern Lebanon.

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National Pact

The National Pact (الميثاق الوطني) is an unwritten agreement that laid the foundation of Lebanon as a multi-confessional state, having shaped the country to this day.

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National Rugby League

The National Rugby League (NRL) is the top league of professional rugby league clubs in Australasia.

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A body of water, such as a river, canal or lake, is navigable if it is deep, wide and slow enough for a vessel to pass or walk.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nejmeh SC

Nejmeh Sporting Club (نادي النجمة الرياضي), commonly known as Nejmeh SC, Nadi Al-Nejma Al-Riyadi or Najma Beirut, is a professional multi-sports club based in the Manara district of Ras Beirut, Beirut, the capital of Lebanon.

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The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, from νέος (néos, "new") and λίθος (líthos, "stone"), or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world from First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies by Peter Bellwood, 2004 and ending between 4,500 and 2,000 BC.

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New Kingdom of Egypt

The New Kingdom of Egypt, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt.

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North Governorate

North Governorate (الشمال) is one of the governorates of Lebanon.

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Olympic Games

The modern Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques) are the leading international sporting event featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.

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Outline of Lebanon

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Lebanon: Lebanon – sovereign country located along the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea in Southwest Asia and the Middle East.

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Palestine (region)

Palestine (فلسطين.,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; Hebrew: פלשתינה Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.

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Palestine Liberation Organization

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle.

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Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon

The Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon was a conflict initiated by Palestinian militants based in South Lebanon upon Israel since 1968, which evolved into the wider Lebanese Civil War in 1975 and lasted until the expulsion of the Palestinian Liberation Organization from Lebanon in the 1982 Lebanon War.

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Palestinians in Lebanon

Palestinians in Lebanon refers to the Palestinian refugees, who fled to Lebanon during the 1948 Palestine war and their descendants, as well as Palestinians expelled from Jordan, following the events of Black September.

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Pan Arab Games

The Arab Games (الألعاب العربية) also called the Pan Arab Games are a regional multi-sport event held between nations from the Arab world.

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Panethnicity is a political neologism used to group together related ethnic groups.

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Paris of the East

The description Paris of the East has been liberally applied to a large number of locations, including.

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Parliament of Lebanon

The Parliament of Lebanon is the national parliament of Lebanon.

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.

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The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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Perennial stream

A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river (channel) that has continuous flow in parts of its stream bed all year round during years of normal rainfall.

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Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council

The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5, include the following five governments: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.

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Philip Khuri Hitti

Philip Khuri Hitti (فيليب خوري حتي in Arabic), (Shimlan 1886 - Princeton 1978) was a Lebanese American scholar and authority on Arab and Middle Eastern history, Islam, and Semitic languages.

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Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη,; فينيقية) was an ancient Semitic thalassocratic civilization situated on the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent and centered on the coastline of modern Lebanon.

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Physical geography

Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.

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Pierre Gemayel

Sheikh Pierre Gemayel (الشيخ بيار الجميّل) (6 November 1905 – 29 August 1984) (last name also spelt Jmayyel, Jemayyel or al-Jumayyil, Sheikh is an honorific title in Arab countries), was a Lebanese political leader.

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Political freedom

Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important (real or ideal) features of democratic societies.

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Protestantism in Lebanon

Protestantism in Lebanon is a Christian minority in an overwhelmingly Muslim (Shia and Sunni) and Christian (Maronite and Eastern Orthodox) country.

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Qurnat as Sawda'

Qurnat as Sawdā’ is the highest point in Lebanon and the Levant, at 3,088 meters above sea level.

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Rafic Hariri

Rafic Baha El Deen Al Hariri (رفيق بهاء الدين الحريري; 1 November 1944 – 14 February 2005) was a Lebanese-Saudi business tycoon and the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on.

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Rafting and white water rafting are recreational outdoor activities which use an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other body of water.

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Rain shadow

A rain shadow is a dry area on the lee side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).

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Rashaya District

Rashaya District (قضاء راشيا) is an administrative district in the Beqaa Governorate of the Republic of Lebanon.

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Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse

Raymond IV (1041 – 1105), sometimes called Raymond of Saint-Gilles or Raymond I of Tripoli, was a powerful prince in southern France and one of the leaders of the First Crusade (1096–99).

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Règlement Organique (Mount Lebanon)

The Règlement Organique ("Organic Regulations") was a series of international conventions, between 1860-1864, between the Ottoman Empire and the European Powers which led to the creation of the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate.

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Recorded history

Recorded history or written history is a historical narrative based on a written record or other documented communication.

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A refugee, in contrast to a migrant, is according to the Geneva Convention on Refugees applied to a person who is outside their home country of citizenship because they have well-founded grounds for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, and is unable to obtain sanctuary from their home country or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country; or in the case of not having a nationality and being outside their country of former habitual residence as a result of such event, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to their country of former habitual residence.

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Refugees of the Syrian Civil War

No description.

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Reporters Without Borders

Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is a France-based international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.

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A republic (from res publica) is a form of government or country in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.

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Reserved political positions

Several politico-constitutional arrangements use reserved political positions, especially when endeavoring to ensure the rights of minorities or preserving a political balance of power.

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Riad Al Solh

Riad Al Solh (1894 – 17 July 1951) (رياض الصلح) was the first prime minister of Lebanon after the country's independence.

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Right of asylum

The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by their own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or church sanctuaries (as in medieval times).

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Roda Antar

Roda Antar (رضا عنتر; born 12 September 1980 in Freetown) is a Sierra Leone-born Lebanese professional footballer who currently plays for Hangzhou Greentown in the Chinese Super League and the Lebanon national football team, captaining the squad since 2005 also he captains Hangzhou Greentown on some match days due to his experience and wisdom.

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Roman Catholicism in Lebanon

The Roman Catholic Church in Lebanon is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman Rota

The Tribunal Apostolicum Rotae Romanae (Latin, "Apostolic Tribunal of the Roman Rota") — also called the Roman Rota, and anciently the Apostolic Court of Audience — is the highest appellate tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church, with respect to both Latin-rite members and the eastern-rite members and is, with respect to judicial trials conducted in the Catholic Church, the highest ecclesiastical court constituted by the Holy See.

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Roman–Persian Wars

The Roman–Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sassanid.

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Rugby league in Lebanon

The seeds of rugby league in Lebanon lie in Australia.

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Saad Hariri

Saad-eddine Rafic Al-Hariri (سعد الدين رفيق الحريري; born 18 April 1970) is a Lebanese-Saudi billionaire who served as the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 2009 until 2011.

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Sabra and Shatila massacre

The Sabra and Shatila massacre was the killing of between 762 and 3,500 civilians, mostly Palestinians and Lebanese Shiites, by a militia close to the Kataeb Party, also called Phalange, a predominantly Christian Lebanese right-wing party in the Sabra neighborhood and the adjacent Shatila refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Saint Joseph University

Saint Joseph University (French: Université Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth, USJ) is a private Catholic research university in Beirut, Lebanon, founded in 1875 by the Jesuits.

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Samir Bannout

Samir Bannout (Arabic: سمير بنوت, born November 7, 1955 in Beirut, Lebanon) is an IFBB professional bodybuilder.

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Samir Kassir

Samir Kassir (سمير قصير in Arabic) (5 May 1960 – 2 June 2005) was a French-Lebanese professor of history at Saint-Joseph University and journalist.

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Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire (or; also known as Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire), known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian language, was the last Iranian empire before the rise of Islam, ruled by the Sasanian dynasty from 224 AD to 651 AD.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Second Punic War

The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War and (by the Romans) The War Against Hannibal, lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean.

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Seljuk Empire

The Seljuk Empire was a medieval Turko-Persian empire, originating from the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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Senegal (le Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.

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Sharia or sharia law (شريعة, is the Islamic legal system derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. The term sharia comes from the Arabic language term sharīʿah, which means a body of moral and religious law derived from religious prophecy, as opposed to human legislation. Sharia deals with many topics, including crime, politics, and economics, as well as personal matters such as sexual intercourse, hygiene, diet, prayer, everyday etiquette and fasting. Adherence to sharia has served as one of the distinguishing characteristics of the Muslim faith historically. In its strictest and most historically coherent definition, sharia is considered in Islam as the infallible law of God.Coulson, N. J. (2011), A history of Islamic law, Aldine, ISBN 978-1412818551 There are two primary sources of sharia: the Quran, and the Hadiths (opinions and life example of Muhammad).Esposito, John (2001), Women in Muslim family law, Syracuse University Press, ISBN 978-0815629085 For topics and issues not directly addressed in these primary sources, sharia is derived. The derivation differs between the various sects of Islam (Sunni and Shia), and various jurisprudence schools such as Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Jafari. The sharia in these schools is derived hierarchically using one or more of the following guidelines: Ijma (usually the consensus of Muhammad's companions), Qiyas (analogy derived from the primary sources), Istihsan (ruling that serves the interest of Islam in the discretion of Islamic jurists) and Urf (customs). Sharia is a significant source of legislation in various Muslim countries. Some apply all or a majority of the sharia code, and these include Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Brunei, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Yemen and Mauritania. In these countries, sharia prescribed punishments such as beheading, flogging and stoning continue to be practiced judicially or extra-judicially. The introduction of sharia is a longstanding goal for Islamist movements globally, including in Western countries, but attempts to impose sharia have been accompanied by controversy, violence, and even warfare. Most countries do not recognize sharia; however, some countries in Asia, Africa and Europe recognize parts of sharia and accept it as the law on divorce, inheritance and other personal affairs of their Islamic population. In Britain, the Muslim Arbitration Tribunal makes use of sharia family law to settle disputes, and this limited adoption of sharia is controversial. The concept of crime, judicial process, justice and punishment embodied in sharia is different from that of secular law. The differences between sharia and secular laws have led to an ongoing controversy as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, and women's rights.

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Shebaa farms

Shebaa Farms, also spelled Sheba'a Farms (مزارع شبعا,; חוות שבעא, Havot Sheba‘a or הר דוב, Har Dov) is a small strip of disputed land at the intersection of the Lebanese-Syrian border and the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah), an abbreviation of Shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي, "followers/party of Ali"), is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib.

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Shia Islam in Lebanon

Shia Islam in Lebanon has a history of more than a millennium.

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Sidon District

The Sidon District (قضاء صيدا) is a district within the South Governorate of Lebanon.

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Siege of Tyre (332 BC)

The Siege of Tyre was orchestrated by Alexander the Great in 332 BC during his campaigns against the Persians.

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Skiing in Lebanon

Skiing in Lebanon has been a popular sport since an engineering student returning from studying in Switzerland brought back with him the sport of skiing to Lebanon in the early twentieth century.

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South Governorate

South Governorate (الجنوب; transliterated: al-Janub) is one of the governorates of Lebanon.

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Southern Lebanon

Southern Lebanon is the geographical area of Lebanon comprising the South Governorate and the Nabatiye Governorate.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.

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Speaker (politics)

Speaker is a title given to the presiding officer (chair) of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body.

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Special Tribunal for Lebanon

The Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) is an international criminal tribunal undertaking the prosecution, under Lebanese criminal law, of the persons responsible for the attack resulting in the assassination of Rafic Hariri, former Lebanese prime minister, and the deaths of 22 others, on 14 February 2005.

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Sporting Al Riyadi Beirut

Al Riyadi Club, also known as Riyadi Club and Sporting Club (النادي الرياضي بيروت An-Nadi Al Riyadi Beirut) is a Lebanese Basketball club based in Raouché, Beirut where both men's and women's tournaments are held every year.

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A stream is a body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks.

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Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūrīyat as-Sūdān), is a country in the Nile Valley of North Africa, bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea, and Ethiopia, to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest.

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Sunni Islam in Lebanon

Sunni Islam in Lebanon has a history of more than a millennium.

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Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.

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Syria (سوريا or سورية, Sūriyā or Sūrīyah), officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia.

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Syrian Civil War

The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية) is an ongoing armed conflict taking place in Syria.

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Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon

Fighting from the Syrian Civil War has spilled over into Lebanon as opponents and supporters of the Syrian rebels have travelled to Lebanon to fight and attack each other on Lebanese soil.

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Syrians in Lebanon

Syrians in Lebanon refers to the Syrian migrant workers and more recently to the Syrian refugees who fled to Lebanon during the Syrian Civil War.

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Taif Agreement

The Taif Agreement (اتفاقية الطائف) (also the or) was an agreement reached to provide "the basis for the ending of the civil war and the return to political normalcy in Lebanon".

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Tammam Salam

Tammam Saeb Salam (تمّام صائب سلام; born 13 May 1945) is a Lebanese politician who has been Prime Minister of Lebanon since February 2014 and the acting President of Lebanon since May 2014.

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Tannourine (also Tannoureen, Tannorine, in Arabic تنورين) is a Lebanese municipality located in the Batroun District, part of the Mohafazah (Governorate) of North-Lebanon, 75 km from the capital Beirut.

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Telephone numbers in Lebanon

No description.

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The Daily Star (Lebanon)

The Daily Star is a pan-Middle East English language newspaper edited in Beirut.

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The Prophet (book)

The Prophet is a book of 26 prose poetry essays written in English by the Lebanese artist, philosopher and writer Kahlil Gibran.

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The Washington Institute for Near East Policy

The Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., focused on the foreign policy of the United States as it pertains to the countries of Southwest Asia.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook (ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, period total fertility rate (PTFR) or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Tripoli District

The Tripoli District is a small, but very densely populated district in the North Governorate of Lebanon.

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No description.

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Tyre District

The Tyre District is a district in the South Governorate of Lebanon.

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In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as one single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (subnational units) exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate.

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United Arab Republic

The United Arab Republic (UAR; الجمهورية العربية المتحدة) was a short-lived political union between Egypt and Syria.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.

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United Nations Charter

The Charter of the United Nations is the foundational treaty of the intergovernmental organization; the United Nations.

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United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to the major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly.

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United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine

The United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine (UNISPAL) is an online collection of texts of current and historical United Nations decisions and publications concerning the question of Palestine, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and other issues related to the Middle East situation.

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United Nations International Independent Investigation Commission

The United Nations International Independent Investigation Commission was established in April 2005 by Security Council Resolution 1595 to investigate the assassination of Rafic Hariri, the former Prime Minister of Lebanon on 14 February 2005.

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United Nations Population Fund

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, is a UN organization.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 1595

United Nations Security Council resolution 1595, adopted unanimously on 7 April 2005, after recalling its support for the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of Lebanon, the Council established a commission to assist Lebanese authorities in their investigation of the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafic Hariri in Beirut on 14 February 2005.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 is a resolution that was intended to resolve the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict.

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United States Agency for International Development

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is the United States Government agency primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid.

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United States Forest Service

The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass.

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United States Marine Corps

The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces.

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Created in December 1949, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is a relief and human development agency, originally intended to provide jobs on public works projects and direct relief for 652,000 Arab Palestinians who fled or were expelled from their homes during the fighting that followed the end of the British mandate over the region of Palestine.

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Vichy is a city in the Allier department in Auvergne in central France.

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Walid Eido

Walid Eido (وليد عيدو.

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Walid Raad

Walid Raad (Ra'ad) (Arabic: وليد رعد) (born 1967 in Chbanieh, Lebanon) is a contemporary media artist.

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War is a state of armed conflict between societies.

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War of the Camps

The War of the Camps (Arabic: حرب المخيمات) was a subconflict within the 1984–1989 phase of the Lebanese Civil War, in which Palestinian refugee camps were besieged by the Shi'ite Amal militia.

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Water supply and sanitation in Lebanon

This article's last major overhaul was conducted in December 2013. Water supply and sanitation in Lebanon is characterized by a number of achievements and challenges.

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Webometrics Ranking of World Universities

The Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, also known as Ranking Web of Universities, is a ranking system for the world's universities based on a composite indicator that takes into account both the volume of the Web contents (number of web pages and files) and the visibility and impact of these web publications according to the number of external inlinks (site citations) they received.

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West Africa

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost subcontinent of Africa.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Western Beqaa District

Western Beqaa District (قضاء البقاع الغربي) is an administrative district in the Beqaa Governorate of the Republic of Lebanon.

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A wildfire or wildland fire is an uncontrolled fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside area.

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The workforce or labour force (also labor force in the United States) is the labour pool in employment.

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization which regulates international trade.

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World War I

World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.

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Youssef Bey Karam

Youssef Bey Boutros Karam (also Joseph Bey Karam) (May 15, 1823 – April 7, 1889) (Arabic يوسف بك كرم), was a Lebanese Maronite notable who fought in the 1860 civil war and led a rebellion in 1866-1867 against the Ottoman Empire rule in Mount Lebanon.

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Youssef Mohamad

Youssef Wasef Mohamad (يوسف واصف محمد, born 1 July 1980 in Beirut, Lebanon), known as "Dodo" is a Lebanese footballer who last played for Al-Ahli in the UAE Football League, and the Lebanese national team.

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Zahlé District

Zahlé District (قضاء زحلة) is an administrative district of the Beqaa Governorate of the Republic of Lebanon.

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Zgharta District

Zgharta District (زغرتا) is a district (qadaa) of the North Governorate, northern Lebanon.

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.lb is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Lebanon.

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1860 Mount Lebanon civil war

The 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war was the culmination of a peasant uprising, which began in the north of Mount Lebanon as a rebellion of Maronite peasants against their Druze overlords and culminated in a massacre in Damascus.

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1948 Arab–Israeli War

The 1948 Arab–Israeli War or the First Arab–Israeli War was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states.

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1958 Lebanon crisis

The 1958 Lebanon crisis was a Lebanese political crisis caused by political and religious tensions in the country that included a U.S. military intervention.

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1982 Lebanon War

The 1982 Lebanon War (الاجتياح, Al-ijtiyāḥ, "the invasion"), (מלחמת לבנון הראשונה, Milhemet Levanon Harishona, "the first Lebanon war"), called Operation Peace for Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, or מבצע של"ג Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil or Mivtsa Sheleg) by Israel, and later known in Israel as the Lebanon War and First Lebanon War, began on 6 June 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) invaded southern Lebanon, after repeated attacks and counter-attacks between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) operating in southern Lebanon and the IDF which caused civilian casualties on both sides of the border.

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1983 Beirut barracks bombing

The Beirut Barracks Bombings (October 23, 1983, in Beirut, Lebanon) occurred during the Lebanese Civil War when two truck bombs struck separate buildings housing United States and French military forces—members of the Multinational Force (MNF) in Lebanon—killing 299 American and French servicemen.

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2000 Rugby League World Cup

The 2000 Rugby League World Cup was held during October and November of that year in Great Britain, Ireland and France.

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2006 Lebanon War

The 2006 Lebanon War, also called the 2006 Israel–Hezbollah War and known in Lebanon as the July War (حرب تموز, Ḥarb Tammūz) and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון השנייה, Milhemet Levanon HaShniya), was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon, northern Israel and the Golan Heights.

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2006–08 Lebanese protests

The 2006–2008 Lebanese protests were a series of political protests and sit-ins that began on December 1, 2006,MPLBelgique.org (December 1, 2011).

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2007 Lebanon conflict

The 2007 Lebanon conflict began when fighting broke out between Fatah al-Islam, an Islamist militant organization, and the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) on May 20, 2007 in Nahr al-Bared, an UNRWA Palestinian refugee camp near Tripoli.

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2008 conflict in Lebanon

The 2008 conflict in Lebanon began on May 7, after Lebanon's 17-month-long political crisis spiraled out of control.

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2008 Rugby League World Cup

The 2008 Rugby League World Cup was the thirteenth staging of the Rugby League World Cup since its inauguration in 1954, and the first since the 2000 tournament.

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2009 European Cup

The 2009 European Cup, known as the rugbyleague.com European Cup due to sponsorship, was a rugby league football tournament.

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2009 Jeux de la Francophonie

The 2009 Jeux de la Francophonie, also known as VIèmes Jeux de la Francophonie, (French for 6th Francophone Games) were held from September 27 to October 6 in Beirut, Lebanon.

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2013 Rugby League World Cup

The 2013 Rugby League World Cup was the fourteenth staging of the Rugby League World Cup and took place in England, Wales, France and Ireland.

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33rd parallel north

The 33rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 33 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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35th meridian east

The meridian 35° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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35th parallel north

The 35th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 35 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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37th meridian east

The meridian 37° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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Redirects here:

Administrative divisions of lebanon, Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Lubnānīyah, Al-Jumhūrīyyah al-Lubnānīyyah, Architecture of lebanon, Art in Lebanon, Etymology of Lebanon, Festivals in Lebanon, Health in Lebanon, ISO 3166-1:LB, LBN, Languages of Lebanon, Lebanese Republic, Lebannon, Lebanone, Lebnan, Lebnen, Liban, Libanese, Libano, Libanon, Libán, Literature of Lebanon, Lubnan, Lubnaniyah, Lubnān, Name of Lebanon, Republic of Lebanon, Ryan Attiyeh, State of Lebanon, The Lebanon, الجمهورية اللبنانية, لبنان.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lebanon

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