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Lebanon

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Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies. [1]

489 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Acre, Israel, AFC Asian Cup, Agriculture in Lebanon, Ahmad Haidar, Airstrike, Akkar District, Akkar Governorate, Al Akhbar (Lebanon), Al Shouf Cedar Nature Reserve, Al-Ansar SC, Al-Malkiyya, Alexander the Great, Aley District, Allies of World War II, Alluvium, Alphabet, Amal Movement, American University of Beirut, Amin Maalouf, Anatolia, Ancient Macedonians, Ancient Rome, Anti-Lebanon Mountains, Antoine Ghanem, Arab Deterrent Force, Arab Image Foundation, Arab Kingdom of Syria, Arab League, Arabian Plate, Arabic, Arabs, Archaeological record, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenians in Lebanon, Artillery, Asceticism, Asia, Asia Times, Association football, Assyria, Atheism, Australia, Élias Sarkis, Émile Lahoud, Baabda District, Baalbeck International Festival, Baalbek, Baalbek District, Baalbek-Hermel Governorate, ..., Bachir Gemayel, Bahrain, Banque du Liban, Basketball, Bassel Fleihan, Batroun District, Bechara El Khoury, Beirut, Beirut Governorate, Beirut Marathon, Beiteddine Festival, Beqaa Governorate, Beqaa Valley, Bint Jbeil District, Black September, Blue Line (Lebanon), Bourj Hammoud, Brazil, Bronze Age, Brunei, Bsharri, Bsharri District, Buddhism, Byblos, Byblos International Festival, Byzantine Empire, Camille Chamoun, Canaan, Canaanite languages, Canada, Canoeing, Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs, Capital punishment, Car bomb, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carthage, Casualties of the 2006 Lebanon War, Catholic Church, Catholic Church in Lebanon, Caving, Cádiz, Cedar Revolution, Cedars of God, Cedrus libani, Chalcolithic, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Glass, Chinook Sciences, Chouf District, Christianity, Christianity in Lebanon, Cinema of Lebanon, Circa, Civil law (legal system), Climbing, Coastal plain, Commodity market, Confessionalism (politics), Consociationalism, Constantinople, Constitution of Lebanon, County of Tripoli, Crusader states, Crusades, Culture of Lebanon, Currency substitution, Cyprus, Cyrus the 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Gulf Cooperation Council, Hafez al-Assad, Hanan al-Shaykh, Hasbaya District, Hassan Nasrallah, Hazem El Masri, Head of government, Head of state, Hekmeh, Henri Dentz, Hermel District, Hezbollah, High commissioner, Hindu, Hinterland, History of ancient Lebanon, History of Lebanon, History of the Jews in Lebanon, Holy Spirit University of Kaslik, IB Diploma Programme, Index of Lebanon-related articles, International Air Transport Association, International Monetary Fund, International Organization for Standardization, Investment Development Authority of Lebanon, Iran, Iraq, Iraqis in Lebanon, Ireland men's national rugby league team, Islam in Lebanon, Israel, Istanbul, Ivory Coast, Jabal Amel, Japanese cuisine, Jbeil District, Jeux de la Francophonie, Jezzine District, Julian calendar, Kahlil Gibran, Kataeb Party, Kaza, Keserwan District, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Koura District, Kurds in Lebanon, La Razón (Madrid), Laissez-faire, Latin America, Law of France, League of Nations, League of Nations mandate, Lebanese American University, Lebanese Arabic, Lebanese Australians, Lebanese Brazilians, Lebanese Canadians, Lebanese Civil War, Lebanese Communist Party, Lebanese diaspora, Lebanese Forces, Lebanese government of November 2009, Lebanese identity card, Lebanese National Anthem, Lebanese nationality law, Lebanese passport, Lebanese people, Lebanese people (Druze followers), Lebanese people (Greek Orthodox Christians), Lebanese people (Maronite Christians), Lebanese people (Melkite Christians), Lebanese people (Protestant Christians), Lebanese people (Shia Muslims), Lebanese people (Sunni Muslims), Lebanese people in Senegal, Lebanese pound, Lebanese Premier League, Lebanese University, Lebanon at the Olympics, Lebanon national basketball team, Lebanon national rugby league team, Levant, Levantine Arabic, Levantine Arabic Sign Language, Limestone, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of museums in Lebanon, List of oldest continuously inhabited cities, List of Prime Ministers of Lebanon, List of rivers of Lebanon, List of Speakers of the Parliament of Lebanon, Lists of Lebanese diaspora, Litani River, Lonely Planet, Lydia Canaan, Madrid, Majid Arslan, Maldives, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), March 14 Alliance, March 8 Alliance, Marjeyoun District, Market capitalization, Maron, Maronite Church, Matn District, Media of Lebanon, Mediterranean Basin, Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean Sea, Mehlis report, Metres above sea level, Michel Aoun, Michel Suleiman, Middle East, Migrant domestic workers in Lebanon, Ministry of Education and Higher Education (Lebanon), Ministry of Tourism (Lebanon), Miniyeh-Danniyeh District, Modern Standard Arabic, Mohamad Chatah, Mohammad Bannout, Monotheism, Mormons, Mossad, Mount Hermon, Mount Lebanon, Mount Lebanon Emirate, Mount Lebanon Governorate, Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, Mount Sannine, Moustafa Farroukh, Multinational Force in Lebanon, Murad IV, Music of Lebanon, Muslim, Muslim conquest of the Levant, 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Lebanon, Prime Minister of Lebanon, Qurnat as Sawda', Rafic Hariri, Rafting, Rain shadow, Rashaya District, Rashidun Caliphate, Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, Règlement Organique (Mount Lebanon), Recorded history, Refugee, Refugees of the Syrian Civil War, Religious identity, Reporters Without Borders, Representative democracy, Republic, Reserved political positions, Riad Al Solh, Right of asylum, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Roda Antar, Roman Empire, Roman Rota, Roman–Persian Wars, Rugby league in Lebanon, Saad Hariri, Sabra and Shatila massacre, Saint Joseph University, Samir Bannout, Samir Kassir, Sandstone, Sanjak-bey, Sasanian Empire, Saudi Arabia, Second Punic War, Seljuk Empire, Senegal, Sharia, Shebaa farms, Shia Islam, Sidon District, Siege of Beirut, Siege of Tyre (332 BC), Sierra Leone, Singapore, Skiing in Lebanon, South Governorate, Southern Lebanon, Sovereign state, Spain, Speaker (politics), Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Sporting Al Riyadi Beirut, State of Palestine, Stream, Sudan, Sydney, Syria, Syrian Civil War, Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon, Syrians in Lebanon, Taif Agreement, Tanakh, Tannourine, Tanzimat, Telephone numbers in Lebanon, The Daily Star (Lebanon), The Prophet (book), The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, The World Factbook, Total fertility rate, Treaty of Sèvres, Tripoli District, Tunisia, Tyre District, Umayyad Caliphate, Unicameralism, Unitary state, United Arab Republic, United Nations, United Nations Charter, United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine, United Nations International Independent Investigation Commission, United Nations Population Fund, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1595, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701, United States Agency for International Development, United States Forest Service, United States Marine Corps, United States military aid, Vichy France, Wadih El Safi, Walid Eido, Walid Raad, War, War of the Camps, Water supply and sanitation in Lebanon, Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, West Africa, Western Asia, Western Beqaa District, Wildfire, Workforce, World Trade Organization, World Values Survey, World War I, Youssef Bey Karam, Youssef Mohamad, Zahlé District, Zgharta District, .lb, 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1958 Lebanon crisis, 1982 Lebanon War, 1983 Beirut barracks bombings, 2000 Rugby League World Cup, 2000s (decade), 2006 Hezbollah cross-border raid, 2006 Lebanon War, 2006–08 Lebanese protests, 2007 Lebanon conflict, 2008 conflict in Lebanon, 2008 Rugby League World Cup, 2009 European Cup, 2009 Jeux de la Francophonie, 2013 Rugby League World Cup, 33rd parallel north, 35th meridian east, 35th parallel north, 37th meridian east. 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Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Acre, Israel

Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.

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AFC Asian Cup

The AFC Asian Cup is an international association football tournament run by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).

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Agriculture in Lebanon

Agriculture in Lebanon is the third most important sector in the country after the tertiary and industrial sectors.

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Ahmad Haidar

Ahmad Ali Haidar (born April 10, 1968) is an IFBB professional bodybuilder.

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Airstrike

An airstrike or air strike is an offensive operation carried out by attack aircraft.

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Akkar District

Akkar District (قضاء عكار) is the only district in Akkar Governorate, Lebanon.

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Akkar Governorate

Akkar Governorate (محافظة عكار) is the northernmost governorate of Lebanon.

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Al Akhbar (Lebanon)

Al Akhbar (الأخبار, literally "The News") is a daily Arabic language newspaper published in a semi tabloid format in Beirut.

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Al Shouf Cedar Nature Reserve

Al Shouf Cedar Nature Reserve is a nature reserve in the Chouf District of Lebanon.

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Al-Ansar SC

Al-Ansar Sporting Club (نادي الأنصار الرياضي) is a Lebanese association football club based in Beirut.

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Al-Malkiyya

Al-Malikiyya (المالكية) was a Palestinian village located in the Jabal Amil region.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Aley District

Aley (عاليه) is a district (qadaa) in Mount Lebanon, Lebanon, to the south-east of the Lebanon's capital Beirut.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Alluvium

Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.

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Alphabet

An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.

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Amal Movement

The Amal Movement (or Hope Movement in English, حركة أمل) is a Lebanese political party associated with Lebanon's Shia community.

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American University of Beirut

The American University of Beirut (AUB); الجامعة الأمريكية في بيروت) is a private, secular and independent university in Beirut, Lebanon. Degrees awarded at the American University of Beirut (AUB) are officially registered with the New York Board of Regents. The university is ranked number 1 in the Arab region and 235 in the world in the 2018 QS World University Rankings. The American University of Beirut is governed by a private, autonomous Board of Trustees and offers programs leading to bachelor's, master's, MD, and PhD degrees. It collaborates with many universities around the world, notably with Columbia University, George Washington University School of Medicine & Health Sciences in Washington, DC; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and the University of Paris. The current president is Fadlo R. Khuri, MD. The American University of Beirut (AUB) boasts an operating budget of $380 million with an endowment of approximately $500 million. The campus is composed of 64 buildings, including the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC, formerly known as AUH – American University Hospital) (420 beds), four libraries, three museums and seven dormitories. Almost one-fifth of AUB's students attended secondary school or university outside Lebanon before coming to AUB. AUB graduates reside in more than 120 countries worldwide. The language of instruction is English.

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Amin Maalouf

Amin Maalouf (أمين معلوف; born 25 February 1949) is an award-winning Lebanese-born French, Modern Arab writers.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ancient Macedonians

The Macedonians (Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of mainland Greece.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Anti-Lebanon Mountains

The Anti-Lebanon Mountains (Jibāl Lubnān ash-Sharqiyyah, "Eastern Mountains of Lebanon"; Lebanese Arabic:, Jbel esh-Shar'iyyeh, "Eastern Mountains") are a southwest-northeast-trending mountain range that forms most of the border between Syria and Lebanon.

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Antoine Ghanem

Antoine Ghanem (Arabic: أنطوان غانم) (10 August 1943 – 19 September 2007) was a Lebanese politician and an MP in the Lebanese Parliament.

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Arab Deterrent Force

The Arab Deterrent Force (ADF; Arabic: قوات الردع العربية) was an international peacekeeping force created by the Arab League in the extraordinary Riyadh Summit on 17–18 October 1976, attended only by heads of state from Egypt, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.

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Arab Image Foundation

The Arab Image Foundation (Fondation arabe pour l'image; المؤسسة العربية للصورة/ ALA-LC: al-Muʾassasah al-ʿArabiyyah lil-Ṣūrah) is a non-profit organization established in Beirut in 1997.

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Arab Kingdom of Syria

The Arab Kingdom of Syria (المملكة العربية السورية) was a self-proclaimed, unrecognized state that existed only a little over four months, from 8 March to 24 July 1920.

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Arab League

The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.

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Arabian Plate

The Arabian Plate is a tectonic plate in the northern and eastern hemispheres.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Archaeological record

The archaeological record is the body of physical (not written) evidence about the past.

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Armenian Apostolic Church

The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.

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Armenians in Lebanon

The Armenians in Lebanon (Լիբանանահայեր lipananahayer, اللبنانيون الأرمن) (Libano-Arméniens) are Lebanese citizens of Armenian descent.

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Artillery

Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.

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Asceticism

Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Asia Times

Asia Times is a Hong Kong-based Philippine English-language news website covering politics, economics, business and culture "from an Asian perspective specially Philippine".

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Assyria

Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Atheism

Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Élias Sarkis

Élias Youssef Sarkis (20 July 1924 – 27 June 1985) (إلياس سركيس) was a lawyer and President of Lebanon, who served from 1976 to 1982.

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Émile Lahoud

Émile Jamil Lahoud (اميل جميل لحود) (born 12 January 1936) is a Lebanese politician who was President of Lebanon from 1998 to 2007.

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Baabda District

Baabda District (قضاء بعبدا, transliteration: Qada' Baabda), sometimes spelled B'abda, is a district (qadaa) of Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon, to the south and east of the Lebanon's capital Beirut.

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Baalbeck International Festival

The Baalbeck International Festival (مهرجانات بعلبك الدولية) is a cultural event in Lebanon.

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Baalbek

Baalbek, properly Baʿalbek (بعلبك) and also known as Balbec, Baalbec or Baalbeck, is a city in the Anti-Lebanon foothills east of the Litani River in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley, about northeast of Beirut and about north of Damascus.

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Baalbek District

Baalbek District (قضاء بعلبك) is an administrative district in the Baalbek-Hermel Governorate of the Republic of Lebanon, having the city Baalbek as its capital.

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Baalbek-Hermel Governorate

Baalbek-Hermel Governorate (محافظة بعلبك - الهرمل) is a governorate of Lebanon.

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Bachir Gemayel

Bachir Gemayel (Bashīr al-Jimayyel, also romanized al-Jumayyil and El Gemaiel.; 10 November 1947 – 14 September 1982), also Bashir Gemayel, was a Lebanese leader and president-elect.

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Bahrain

Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.

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Banque du Liban

Bank of Lebanon officially Banque du Liban (BDL, مصرف لبنان) is the central bank of Lebanon.

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Basketball

Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.

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Bassel Fleihan

Bassel Fleihan (10 September 1963 – 18 April 2005; باسل فليحان) was a Lebanese legislator and minister of economy and trade.

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Batroun District

Batroun District (البترون) is a district (qadaa) in the North Governorate, Lebanon, south of Tripoli.

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Bechara El Khoury

Bechara El Khoury (10 August 1890 – 11 January 1964 in Rechmaya) (بشارة الخوري) was the first post-independence President of Lebanon, holding office from 21 September 1943 to 18 September 1952, apart from an 11-day interruption (11–22 November) in 1943.

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Beirut

Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.

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Beirut Governorate

Beirut Governorate (Arabic) is a Lebanese governorate that consists of one district and one city, Beirut, which is also its capital, and the capital of Lebanon.

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Beirut Marathon

The Beirut Marathon, known also as the Beirut International Marathon (BIM), is an annual event that takes place in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Beiteddine Festival

The Beiteddine Festival (مهرجان بيت الدين) is an annual summer festival that takes place in Beiteddine Palace in Beiteddine, Lebanon.

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Beqaa Governorate

Beqaa is a governorate in Lebanon.

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Beqaa Valley

The Beqaa Valley (وادي البقاع,, Lebanese; Բեքայի դաշտավայր), also transliterated as Bekaa, Biqâ and Becaa and known in Classical antiquity as Coele-Syria, is a fertile valley in eastern Lebanon.

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Bint Jbeil District

The Bint Jbeil District is a district in the Nabatiyeh Governorate of Lebanon.

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Black September

Black September (أيلول الأسود; Aylūl Al-Aswad) was the conflict fought in Jordan between the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF), under the leadership of King Hussein, and the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), under the leadership of Yasser Arafat, primarily between 16 and 27 September 1970, with certain actions continuing until 17 July 1971.

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Blue Line (Lebanon)

The Blue Line is a border demarcation between Lebanon and Israel published by the United Nations on 7 June 2000 for the purposes of determining whether Israel had fully withdrawn from Lebanon.

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Bourj Hammoud

Bourj Hammoud (or Burj Hammud) (برج حموﺪ, Պուրճ Համուտ), is a town and municipality in Lebanon located north-east of the capital Beirut, in the Metn district and is part of Greater Beirut.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Brunei

Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.

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Bsharri

Bsharri (بْشَرِّيْ Bšarrī; also Romanized Becharre, Bcharre, Bsharre) is a town at an altitude of about to.

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Bsharri District

Bsharri District is one of the 7 districts (qadaa, قضاء) of the North Governorate, Lebanon.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Byblos

Byblos, in Arabic Jbail (جبيل Lebanese Arabic pronunciation:; Phoenician: 𐤂𐤁𐤋 Gebal), is a Middle Eastern city on Levant coast in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.

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Byblos International Festival

The Byblos International Festival is a Lebanese festival held in Byblos, believed to be the first Phoenician city, founded around 5000 BC.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Camille Chamoun

Camille Nimr Chamoun (Arabic: كميل نمر شمعون, Kamīl Sham'ūn) (3 April 1900 – 7 August 1987) was President of Lebanon from 1952 to 1958, and one of the country's main Christian leaders during most of the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990).

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Canaan

Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.

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Canaanite languages

The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canoeing

Canoeing is an activity which involves paddling a canoe with a single-bladed paddle.

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Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs

The Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs are an Australian professional rugby league football club based in Belmore, a suburb in the Canterbury-Bankstown region of Sydney.

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Capital punishment

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.

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Car bomb

A car bomb, lorry bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), is an improvised explosive device placed inside a car or other vehicle and detonated.

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Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a foreign-policy think tank with centers in Washington D.C., Moscow, Beirut, Beijing, Brussels, and New Delhi.

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Carthage

Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.

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Casualties of the 2006 Lebanon War

There have been many casualties in the 2006 Lebanon War, leading to condemnation of both sides, however the exact distribution of casualties has been disputed.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic Church in Lebanon

The Catholic Church in Lebanon is part of the worldwide Catholic Church under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.

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Caving

Caving – also traditionally known as spelunking in the United States and Canada and potholing in the United Kingdom and Ireland – is the recreational pastime of exploring wild (generally non-commercial) cave systems.

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Cádiz

Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.

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Cedar Revolution

The Cedar Revolution (Arabic: ثورة الأرز - thawrat al-arz) or Independence Intifada (Arabic: انتفاضة الاستقلال - intifāḍat al-istiqlāl) was a chain of demonstrations in Lebanon (especially in the capital Beirut) triggered by the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister, Rafik Hariri.

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Cedars of God

The Cedars of God (أرز الربّ Arz ar-Rabb "Cedars of the Lord") in Bsharri mountain is one of the last vestiges of the extensive forests of the Lebanon cedar, that once thrived across Mount Lebanon in ancient times.

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Cedrus libani

Cedrus libani, commonly known as the Cedar of Lebanon or Lebanon cedar, is a species of cedar native to the mountains of the Eastern Mediterranean basin.

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Chalcolithic

The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.

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Charles de Gaulle

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.

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Charles Glass

Charles Glass (born January 23, 1951) is an American-British author, journalist, broadcaster and publisher specializing in the Middle East and the Second World War.

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Chinook Sciences

Chinook Sciences is a US and UK based technology company that specializes in waste to energy and metal recovery.

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Chouf District

Chouf (also spelled Shouf, Shuf or Chuf, in Jebel ash-Shouf) is a historic region of Lebanon, as well as an administrative district in the governorate (mohafazat) of Mount Lebanon.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianity in Lebanon

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Cinema of Lebanon

The cinema of Lebanon, according to film critic and historian Roy Armes, is the only other cinema in the Arabic-speaking region, beside Egypt's, that could amount to a national cinema.

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Circa

Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Climbing

Climbing is the activity of using one's hands, feet, or any other part of the body to ascend a steep object.

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Coastal plain

A coastal plain is flat, low-lying land adjacent to a sea coast.

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Commodity market

A commodity market is a market that trades in primary economic sector rather than manufactured products.

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Confessionalism (politics)

Confessionalism (محاصصة طائفية muḥāṣaṣah ṭā’ifīyah) is a system of government that is a de jure mix of religion and politics.

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Consociationalism

Consociationalism is often viewed as synonymous with power-sharing, although it is technically only one form of power-sharing.

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Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Constitution of Lebanon

The Constitution of Lebanon was adopted on 23 May 1926.

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County of Tripoli

The County of Tripoli (1109–1289) was the last of the Crusader states.

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Crusader states

The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.

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Crusades

The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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Culture of Lebanon

The culture of Lebanon and the Lebanese people emerged from various civilizations over thousands of years.

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Currency substitution

Currency substitution, dollarization, or elminting (from el-, meaning foreign) is the use of a foreign currency in parallel to or instead of the domestic currency.

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Cyprus

Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Cyrus the Great

Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.

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Defence minister

The title Defence Minister, Minister for Defence, Minister of National Defense, Secretary of Defence, Secretary of State for Defense or some similar variation, is assigned to the person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defence, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states.

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Democratic Left Movement (Lebanon)

The Democratic Left Movement (DLM, حركة اليسار الديمقراطي Harakat Al-Yassar Al-Dimuqratiy, Arabic acronym HYD) is a nonsectarian and a democratic leftist political party with seats in the Lebanese Parliament.

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Demographics of Lebanon

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Lebanon, including population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

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Deputy prime minister

A deputy prime minister or vice prime minister is, in some countries, a government minister who can take the position of acting prime minister when the prime minister is temporarily absent.

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Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire

The period of the defeat and end of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution.

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Doha Agreement

The Doha Agreement was an agreement reached by rival Lebanese factions on 21 May 2008 in Doha, Qatar.

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Driving licence in Lebanon

In the Republic of Lebanon, a driver's license is the official document which authorises its holder to operate various types of motor vehicles on highways and some other roads to which the public have access and are issued by each individual canton (قضاء). In domestic non-electronic identification the driving license has remained in a leading position, since most of the population have to have a license anyway, and a driving license is valid for almost every situation where non-electronic personal identification is needed even though they are not officially recognized as such.

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Eastern European Summer Time

Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.

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Eastern European Time

Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.

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Eastern Mediterranean

The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).

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Ebla

Ebla (إبلا., modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh) was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Egyptian language

The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.

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Elias Khoury

Elias Khoury (إلياس خوري) (born 12 July 1948) is a Lebanese novelist, playwright, critic, and prominent public intellectual.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Entrepôt

An entrepôt or transshipment port is a port, city, or trading post where merchandise may be imported, stored or traded, usually to be exported again.

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Epic of Gilgamesh

The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature.

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Euronews

Euronews is a multilingual news media service, headquartered in Lyon, France.

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European Neighbourhood Policy

The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union (EU) which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.

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Fadi El Khatib

Fadi El Khatib (فادي الخطيب), born December 18, 1979 is a Lebanese professional basketball player for Champville SC in the Lebanese Basketball League.

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Fairuz

Nouhad Wadie' Haddad (نهاد وديع حداد) (born November 21, 1935), known as Fairuz (فيروز), also spelled Fairouz, Feyrouz or Fayrouz, is a Lebanese singer who is one of the most admired and influential singers in the Arab world.

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Fakhr-al-Din II

Fakhr-al-Din ibn Maan (August 6, 1572 – April 13, 1635) (الامير فخر الدين بن معن), also known as Fakhreddine and Fakhr-ad-Din II, was a Druze Ma'ani Emir and an early leader of the Mount Lebanon Emirate, a self-governed area under the Ottoman Empire.

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Fatah al-Islam

Fatah al-Islam (فتح الإسلام', meaning Conquest of Islam) is a radical Sunni Islamist group that formed in November 2006 in a Palestinian refugee camp, located in Lebanon.

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Fatimid Caliphate

The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.

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FIBA Basketball World Cup

The FIBA Basketball World Cup, also known as the FIBA World Cup of Basketball or simply the FIBA World Cup, between 1950 and 2010 known as the FIBA World Championship, is an international basketball competition contested by the men's national teams of the members of the International Basketball Federation (FIBA), the sport's global governing body.

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Finance minister

A finance minister is an executive or cabinet position in charge of one or more of government finances, economic policy and financial regulation.

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First Crusade

The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.

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Football in Lebanon

Football is the most popular sport in Lebanon.

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Fouad Siniora

Fouad Siniora (alternative spellings: Fouad Sanyoura, Fuad Sinyora, Fouad Sanioura, Fouad Seniora, Fuad Siniora) (فؤاد السنيورة, Fu'ād as-Sanyūrah) (born 22 November 1943) is a Lebanese politician, a former Prime Minister of Lebanon, a position he held from 19 July 2005 to 25 May 2008.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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France 24

France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.

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Francia

Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.

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Franco-Syrian War

The Franco-Syrian War took place during 1920 between the Hashemite rulers of the newly established Arab Kingdom of Syria and France.

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Free France

Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.

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Free Patriotic Movement

The Free Patriotic Movement (FPM) (التيار الوطني الحر), also known as the Aounist party (التيار العوني), is a Lebanese political party, led by Gebran Bassil.

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Freedom House

Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French language in Lebanon

French language in Lebanon is the second language of the country, and is often used as a prestige language for business, diplomacy, and government, alongside English.

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French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon

The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.

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Fuad Chehab

Fuad Abdullah Chehab (فؤاد عبد الله شهاب; also transliterated Fouad Shihab; 19 March 1902 – 25 April 1973) was the President of the Lebanese Republic from 1958 to 1964.

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Gebran Tueni

Gebran Ghassan Tueni (جبران تويني; 15 September 1957 – 12 December 2005) was a Lebanese politician and the former editor and publisher of daily paper An Nahar, established by his grandfather, also named Gebran Tueni, in 1933.

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George Hawi

George Hawi (جورج حاوي; born 5 November 1938 – 21 June 2005) was a Lebanese politician and former secretary general of the Lebanese Communist Party (LCP).

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Georges Catroux

Georges Albert Julien Catroux (29 January 1877 – 21 December 1969) was a French Army general and diplomat who served in both World War I and World War II, and served as Grand Chancellor of the Légion d'honneur from 1954 to 1969.

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Georges Corm

Georges Corm is a Lebanese economist.

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Georges Schehadé

Georges Schehadé (2 November 1905 – 17 January 1989) was a Lebanese playwright and poet writing in French.

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Germination

Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.

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Golan Heights

The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.

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Gold coin

A gold coin is a coin that is made mostly or entirely of gold.

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Governorate

A governorate is an administrative division of a country.

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Great Recession

The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.

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Great Rift Valley

The Great Rift Valley is a name given to the continuous geographic trench, approximately in length, that runs from Lebanon's Beqaa Valley in Asia to Mozambique in Southeastern Africa.

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Greater Lebanon

The State of Greater Lebanon (دولة لبنان الكبير; État du Grand Liban) was a state declared on 1 September 1920, which became the Lebanese Republic (République libanaise) in May 1926, and is the predecessor of modern Lebanon.

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Greeks

The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Greeks in Lebanon

The presence of Greeks in Lebanon (οι Έλληνες στο Λίβανο) is dated to ancient times.

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Gregorian calendar

The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.

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Gulf Cooperation Council

The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.

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Hafez al-Assad

Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.

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Hanan al-Shaykh

Hanan al-Shaykh (حنان الشيخ; born November 12, 1945, Beirut) is an acclaimed Lebanese author of contemporary literature.

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Hasbaya District

The Hasbaya District is a district in the Nabatiyeh Governorate of Lebanon.

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Hassan Nasrallah

Hassan Nasrallah (حسن نصرالله; born 31 August 1960) is the third and current Secretary General of the Lebanese political and paramilitary party Hezbollah since his predecessor, Abbas al-Musawi, was assassinated by the Israel Defense Forces in February 1992.

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Hazem El Masri

Hazem El Masri (حازم المصري; born 1 April 1976) is a Lebanese Australian former professional rugby league footballer of the 1990s and 2000s.

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Head of government

A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Hekmeh

Hekmeh SC, or Hekmeh Sports Club (in Arabic نادي الحكمة الرياضي) also known by its French synonym Sagesse (French translation of the name) or Club Sagesse or Club Sportif Sagesse (SC Sagesse) is a multi-sports club in Lebanon.

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Henri Dentz

Henri Fernand Dentz (16 December 1881 – 13 December 1945) was a soldier and general in the French Army (Armée de Terre) and, after France surrendered during World War II, he served with the Vichy French Army.

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Hermel District

The Hermel District (قضاء الهرمل) is a district in the Baalbek-Hermel Governorate of Lebanon.

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Hezbollah

Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.

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High commissioner

High commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment.

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Hindu

Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Hinterland

Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city, a port, or similar).

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History of ancient Lebanon

The history of ancient Lebanon traces the course of events in what is now known as Lebanon from the beginning of history to the beginning of Arab rule.

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History of Lebanon

The history of Lebanon covers the history of the modern Republic of Lebanon and the earlier emergence of Greater Lebanon under the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, as well as the previous history of the region, covered by the modern state.

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History of the Jews in Lebanon

The history of the Jews in Lebanon encompasses the presence of Jews in present-day Lebanon stretching back to Biblical times.

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Holy Spirit University of Kaslik

The Holy Spirit University of Kaslik (in French: Université Saint-Esprit de Kaslik (USEK); in Arabic: جامعة الرّوح القدس – الكسليك Jāmi'aẗ Al Rūḥ Al Qudus – Al Kaslīk), is a private Catholic university in Mount Lebanon, founded in 1938 by the Lebanese Maronite Order (LMO).

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IB Diploma Programme

The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) is a two-year educational programme primarily aimed at 16 to 18 year olds.

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Index of Lebanon-related articles

Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to or originating from Lebanon, including people, places, things, and concepts, are.

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International Air Transport Association

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is a trade association of the world’s airlines.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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International Organization for Standardization

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

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Investment Development Authority of Lebanon

The Investment Development Authority of Lebanon (IDAL) is the national investment promotion agency of Lebanon.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Iraqis in Lebanon

Iraqis in Lebanon are people of Iraqi origin residing in Lebanon, which includes Lebanese citizens of Iraqi ancestry or more recently Iraqis seeking refuge in Lebanon, most as a direct result of the instability and violence that followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

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Ireland men's national rugby league team

The Ireland men's national rugby league team, known as the Wolfhounds, represents Ireland in international rugby league competitions.

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Islam in Lebanon

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Istanbul

Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.

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Jabal Amel

Jabal Amel or Jabal 'Amil (jabal ʿāmil) is a mountainous region of Southern Lebanon.

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Japanese cuisine

Japanese cuisine encompasses the regional and traditional foods of Japan, which have developed through centuries of social and economic changes.

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Jbeil District

Jbeil District (قضاء جبيل; transliteration: Qadaa' Jbail) is a district (qadaa) of the Mount Lebanon Governorate of Lebanon.

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Jeux de la Francophonie

The Jeux de la Francophonie (Canadian English: Francophonie Games; British English: Francophone Games) are a combination of artistic and sporting events for the Francophonie, mostly French-speaking nations, held every four years since 1989.

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Jezzine District

The Jezzine District (قضاء جزين) is a district in the South Governorate of Lebanon.

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Julian calendar

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.

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Kahlil Gibran

Khalil Gibran (sometimes spelled Kahlil; full Arabic name Gibran Khalil Gibran (جبران خليل جبران / ALA-LC: Jubrān Khalīl Jubrān or Jibrān Khalīl Jibrān) (January 6, 1883 – April 10, 1931) was a Lebanese-American writer, poet and visual artist. Gibran was born in the town of Bsharri in the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, Ottoman Empire (modern day Lebanon), to Khalil Gibran and Kamila Gibran (Rahmeh). As a young man Gibran emigrated with his family to the United States, where he studied art and began his literary career, writing in both English and Arabic. In the Arab world, Gibran is regarded as a literary and political rebel. His romantic style was at the heart of a renaissance in modern Arabic literature, especially prose poetry, breaking away from the classical school. In Lebanon, he is still celebrated as a literary hero., BBC News, May 12, 2012, Retrieved May 12, 2012. A member of the New York Pen League, he is chiefly known in the English-speaking world for his 1923 book The Prophet, an early example of inspirational fiction including a series of philosophical essays written in poetic English prose. The book sold well despite a cool critical reception, gaining popularity in the 1930s and again especially in the 1960s counterculture.Acocella, Joan (January 7, 2008).. The New Yorker. Retrieved March 9, 2009. Gibran is the third best-selling poet of all time, behind Shakespeare and Laozi.

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Kataeb Party

The Lebanese Phalanges Party (حزب الكتائب اللبنانية), better known in English as the Phalange (الكتائب), is a Christian Democratic political party in Lebanon.

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Kaza

A kaza (qaḍāʾ,, plural: أقضية, aqḍiyah,; kazâ) is an administrative division historically used in the Ottoman Empire and currently used in several of its successor states.

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Keserwan District

Keserwan District (قضاء كسروان, transliteration: Qadaa Keserwan) is a district (qadaa) in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon, to the northeast of Lebanon's capital Beirut.

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Kingdom of Jerusalem

The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.

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Koura District

Koura District (الكورة, from lit) is a district in the North Governorate, Lebanon.

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Kurds in Lebanon

Kurds in Lebanon refers to people born in or residing in Lebanon who are of Kurdish origin.

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La Razón (Madrid)

La Razón (In Spanish: "The Reason") is a daily newspaper based in Madrid, Spain.

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Laissez-faire

Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.

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Latin America

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.

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Law of France

In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law ("droit privé") and public law ("droit public").

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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League of Nations mandate

A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations.

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Lebanese American University

The Lebanese American University (الجامعة اللبنانية الأميركية) is a secular and private American university located in Lebanon.

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Lebanese Arabic

Lebanese Arabic or Lebanese is a variety of Levantine Arabic, indigenous to and spoken primarily in Lebanon, with significant linguistic influences borrowed from other Middle Eastern and European languages, and is in some ways unique from other varieties of Arabic.

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Lebanese Australians

Lebanese Australians refers to citizens or permanent residents of Australia of Lebanese ancestry.

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Lebanese Brazilians

Lebanese Brazilians (Líbano-brasileiros) (Arabic: البرازيلي اللبناني) are Brazilians of full, partial, or predominantly Lebanese ancestry, or Lebanese-born immigrants in Brazil.

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Lebanese Canadians

Lebanese Canadians are Canadians of Lebanese origin.

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Lebanese Civil War

The Lebanese Civil War (الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية – Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities.

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Lebanese Communist Party

The Lebanese Communist Party – LCP (الـحـزب الشـيـوعـي اللبـنـانـي, transliterated) or Parti communiste libanais (PCL) in French, is a communist party in Lebanon.

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Lebanese diaspora

Lebanese diaspora refers to Lebanese migrants and their descendants who, whether by choice or coercion, emigrated from Lebanon and now reside in other countries.

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Lebanese Forces

The Lebanese Forces (القوات اللبنانية) is a Lebanese Christian based political party and former militia during the Lebanese Civil War.

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Lebanese government of November 2009

On 9 November 2009, after five months of negotiations following the 2009 parliamentary elections, Lebanese prime minister Saad Hariri formed a national unity government.

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Lebanese identity card

The Lebanese identity card (Arabic: بطاقة الهوية (bițāqat al-hawiya); French: Carte nationale d'identité) is a compulsory Identity document issued to citizens of the Republic of Lebanon by the police on behalf of the Lebanese Ministry of Interior or in Lebanese embassies/consulates (abroad) free of charge.

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Lebanese National Anthem

The Lebanese National Anthem (النشيد الوطني اللبناني) was written by Rashid Nakhle and composed by Wadih Sabra.

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Lebanese nationality law

Lebanese nationality law is the law governing the acquisition, transmission and loss of Lebanese citizenship.

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Lebanese passport

The passport of the Republic of Lebanon (جواز سفر الجمهورية اللبنانية) (Passeport de la république Libanaise) is a passport issued to the citizens of the Republic of Lebanon.

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Lebanese people

The Lebanese people (الشعب اللبناني / ALA-LC: Lebanese Arabic pronunciation) are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon.

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Lebanese people (Druze followers)

Lebanese Druze refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Druze faith, an ethnoreligious esoteric group originating from the Near East who self identify as unitarians (Muwahhideen).

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Lebanese people (Greek Orthodox Christians)

Lebanese Greek Orthodox Christians (Arabic: المسيحية الأرثوذكسية اليونانية في لبنان) refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch in Lebanon, which is an autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, and is the second largest Christian denomination in Lebanon after the Maronite Christians.

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Lebanese people (Maronite Christians)

Lebanese Maronite Christians (Arabic: المسيحية المارونية في لبنان) refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Maronite Church in Lebanon, which is the largest Christian denomination in the country.

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Lebanese people (Melkite Christians)

Lebanese Melkite Christians refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church in Lebanon, which is the third largest Christian denomination in the country after the Maronite Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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Lebanese people (Protestant Christians)

Lebanese Protestant Christians refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of Protestantism in Lebanon and is a Christian minority in an overwhelmingly Muslim (27% Shia and 27% Sunni) and Christian (22% Maronite and 8% Eastern Orthodox) country.

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Lebanese people (Shia Muslims)

Lebanese people refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Shia branch of Islam in Lebanon, which is the largest Muslim denomination in the country tied with Sunni Muslims.

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Lebanese people (Sunni Muslims)

Lebanese Sunni Muslims refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Sunni branch of Islam in Lebanon, which is the largest denomination in Lebanon tied with Shia Muslims.

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Lebanese people in Senegal

There is a significant community of Lebanese people in Senegal.

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Lebanese pound

The Lebanese pound (ليرة lira; French: livre; sign:, ISO 4217: LBP) is the currency of Lebanon.

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Lebanese Premier League

The Lebanese Premier League (Championnat du Liban de Football; الدوري اللبناني لكرة القدم) is the top division of the Lebanese Football Association league competitions.

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Lebanese University

The Lebanese University (Université libanaise, الجامعة اللبنانية) is the only public institution for higher learning in Lebanon.

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Lebanon at the Olympics

Lebanon's first appearance in the Olympics was in 1936 when a "delegation of officials" attended the Summer Olympics in Berlin.

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Lebanon national basketball team

The Lebanese national basketball team (Équipe du Liban de basket-ball) is the basketball team of men representing Lebanon in international competitions.

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Lebanon national rugby league team

The Lebanon national rugby league team (Arabic: المنتخب اللبناني للرجبي ليغ) is the representative side of Lebanon in rugby league football.

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Levant

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Levantine Arabic

Levantine Arabic (الـلَّـهْـجَـةُ الـشَّـامِـيَّـة,, Levantine Arabic: il-lahže š-šāmiyye) is a broad dialect of Arabic and the vernacular Arabic of the eastern coastal strip of the Levantine Sea, that is Shaam.

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Levantine Arabic Sign Language

Levantine Arabic Sign Language, also known as Syro-Palestinian Sign Language, is the deaf sign language of Jordan, Palestine, Syria, and Lebanon.

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Limestone

Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

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List of museums in Lebanon

This is a list of museums in Lebanon.

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List of oldest continuously inhabited cities

This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.

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List of Prime Ministers of Lebanon

This is a list of Prime Ministers of Lebanon (officially titled President of the Council of Ministers) since the creation of the office in 1926.

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List of rivers of Lebanon

This is a list of all waterways named as rivers in Lebanon.

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List of Speakers of the Parliament of Lebanon

This is a list of Speakers of the Parliament of Lebanon since the creation of the office in 1922.

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Lists of Lebanese diaspora

This is a list of notable Lebanese individuals born in the Lebanese diaspora of Lebanese ancestry or people of dual Lebanese and foreign nationality who live in the diaspora.

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Litani River

The Litani River (نهر الليطاني, Nahr al-Līṭānī), the classical Leontes (Λέοντες, Léontes, "Lions"), is an important water resource in southern Lebanon.

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Lonely Planet

Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.

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Lydia Canaan

Lydia Canaan (ليديا كنعان.) is a Lebanese singer-songwriter and humanitarian activist widely regarded as the first “rock star” of the Middle East.

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Madrid

Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.

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Majid Arslan

Emir Majid Toufic Arslan (الأمير مجيد توفيق أرسلان) (born February 1908 in Choueifat, Lebanon — died September 18, 1983 in Khaldeh, south of Beirut) was a Lebanese Druze leader and head of the Arslan feudal Druze ruling family.

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Maldives

The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.

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Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)

The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.

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March 14 Alliance

The March 14 Alliance (taḥāluf 14 adhār), named after the date of the Cedar Revolution, is a coalition of political parties and independents in Lebanon formed in 2005 that are united by their anti-Syrian regime stance and their opposition to the March 8 Alliance.

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March 8 Alliance

The March 8 Alliance (taḥāluf 8 adhār) is a coalition of various political parties in Lebanon.

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Marjeyoun District

The Marjeyoun District is a district in the Nabatieh Governorate of Lebanon.

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Market capitalization

Market capitalization (market cap) is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares.

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Maron

Maron, also called Maroun or Maro, (ܡܪܘܢ,; مارون; Maron; Μάρων) was a 4th-century Syriac Christian hermit monk in the Taurus Mountains whose followers, after his death, founded a religious Christian movement that became known as the Syriac Maronite Church, in full communion with the Holy See and the Catholic Church.

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Maronite Church

The Maronite Church (الكنيسة المارونية) is an Eastern Catholic sui iuris particular church in full communion with the Pope and the Catholic Church, with self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches.

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Matn District

Matn (قضاء المتن), sometimes spelled Metn, is a district (qadaa) in the Mount Lebanon Governorate of Lebanon, east of the Lebanon's capital Beirut.

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Media of Lebanon

Lebanon is not only a regional center of media production but also the most liberal and free in the Arab world.

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Mediterranean Basin

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

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Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Mehlis report

The Mehlis Report is the result of the United Nations' investigation into the 14 February 2005 assassination of Lebanon's former prime minister Rafik al-Hariri.

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Metres above sea level

Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.

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Michel Aoun

Michel Naim Aoun (ميشال نعيم عون,; born 18 February 1935) is the current President of Lebanon.

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Michel Suleiman

Michel Suleiman (ميشال سليمان; born 21 November 1948) served as President of Lebanon from 2008 to 2014.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Migrant domestic workers in Lebanon

Lebanon has a gone through many stages in its absorbing of migrant workers, both before and after the Lebanese Civil War.

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Ministry of Education and Higher Education (Lebanon)

The Republic of Lebanon Ministry of Education & Higher Education (الجمهورية اللبنانية وزارة التربية والتعليم العالي) (en français: Ministère de l'éducation et l'éducation supérieure) is a government agency of Lebanon.

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Ministry of Tourism (Lebanon)

The Ministry of Tourism (وزارة السياحة) is a government ministry of Lebanon.

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Miniyeh-Danniyeh District

Miniyeh-Danniyeh District is a district in the North Governorate of Lebanon.

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Modern Standard Arabic

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.

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Mohamad Chatah

Mohamad Bahaa Chatah (محمد بهاء شطح; 27 March 1951 – 27 December 2013) was a Lebanese economist and diplomat.

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Mohammad Bannout

Mohammad Ali Bannout (محمد علي بنوت; born 17 December 1976, in Beirut, Lebanon), informally referred to as Moe Bannout, is a Lebanese IFBB professional bodybuilder.

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Monotheism

Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.

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Mormons

Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity, initiated by Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s.

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Mossad

Mossad (הַמוֹסָד,; الموساد,,; literally meaning "the Institute"), short for (המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, meaning "Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations"), is the national intelligence agency of Israel.

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Mount Hermon

Mount Hermon (جبل الشيخ or جبل حرمون / ALA-LC: Jabal al-Shaykh ("Mountain of the Sheikh") or Jabal Haramun; הר חרמון, Har Hermon) is a mountain cluster constituting the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range.

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Mount Lebanon

Mount Lebanon (جَبَل لُبْنَان, jabal lubnān, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation; ܛܘܪ ܠܒܢܢ) is a mountain range in Lebanon.

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Mount Lebanon Emirate

The Emirate of Mount Lebanon was an autonomous subdivision in the Ottoman Empire.

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Mount Lebanon Governorate

Mount Lebanon Governorate (محافظة جبل لبنان) is one of the eight governorates of Lebanon.

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Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate

The Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate (متصرفية جبل لبنان; Cebel-i Lübnan Mutasarrıflığı) was one of the Ottoman Empire's subdivisions following the Tanzimat reform.

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Mount Sannine

Mount Sannine (جبل صنين / ALA-LC: Jabal Șannīn) is a mountain in the Mount Lebanon range.

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Moustafa Farroukh

Moustafa Farroukh (مصطفى فروخ; 1901 – 1957) was one of Lebanon's most prominent painters of the 20th century.

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Multinational Force in Lebanon

The Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF) was an international peacekeeping force created in August 1982 following the 1981 U.S.-brokered ceasefire between the PLO and Israel to end their involvement in the conflict between Lebanon's pro-government and pro-Syrian factions.

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Murad IV

Murad IV (مراد رابع, Murād-ı Rābiʿ; 26/27 July 1612 – 8 February 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods.

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Music of Lebanon

The music of Lebanon has a long history.

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Muslim conquest of the Levant

The Muslim conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْإٍسْـلَامِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-Islāmiyyuash-Shām) or Arab conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْـعَـرَبِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-ʿArabiyyu Lish-Shām) occurred in the first half of the 7th century,"Syria." Encyclopædia Britannica.

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Nabatieh District

The Nabatieh District is a district in the Nabatieh Governorate of Lebanon.

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Nabatieh Governorate

Nabatieh Governorate (محافظة النبطية) is one of the eight governorates of Lebanon.

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Nabih Berri

Nabih Berri (نبيه بري; born 28 January 1938) is a Lebanese politician who has been the Speaker of the Parliament of Lebanon since 1992.

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Nahr al-Bared

Nahr al-Bared (نهر البارد, literally: Cold River) is a Palestinian refugee camp in northern Lebanon, 16 km from the city of Tripoli.

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Najib Mikati

Najib Azmi Mikati (نجيب ميقاتي; born 24 November 1955) is a Lebanese politician who served twice as the Prime Minister of Lebanon.

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Napoleonic Code

The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.

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Naqoura

Naqoura (Enn Nâqoura, Naqoura, An Nāqūrah) is a small city in southern Lebanon.

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National Pact

The National Pact (الميثاق الوطني) is an unwritten agreement that laid the foundation of Lebanon as a multiconfessional state, having shaped the country to this day.

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National Rugby League

The National Rugby League (NRL) is a league of professional men's rugby league teams in Australasia.

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Navigability

A body of water, such as a river, canal or lake, is navigable if it is deep, wide and slow enough for a vessel to pass or walk.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nejmeh SC

Nejmeh Sporting Club (نادي النجمة الرياضي), commonly known as Nejmeh SC, Nadi Al-Nejma Al-Riyadi or Najma Beirut, is a professional multi-sports club based in the Manara district of Ras Beirut, Beirut, the capital of Lebanon.

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Neolithic

The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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New Kingdom of Egypt

The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.

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Non-Aligned Movement

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.

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North Governorate

North Governorate (الشمال) is one of the governorates of Lebanon.

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Olympic Games

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.

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Organisation internationale de la Francophonie

Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.

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Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Turks

The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.

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Outline of Lebanon

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Lebanon: Lebanon – sovereign country located along the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea in Southwest Asia and the Middle East.

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Palestine (region)

Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.

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Palestine Liberation Organization

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.

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Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon

The Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon was a conflict initiated by Palestinian militants based in South Lebanon upon Israel since 1968 and upon Christian Lebanese factions since mid-1970s, which evolved into the wider Lebanese Civil War in 1975 and lasted until the expulsion of the Palestinian Liberation Organization from Lebanon in the 1982 Lebanon War.

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Palestinians in Lebanon

Palestinians in Lebanon include the Palestinian refugees, who fled to Lebanon during the 1948 Palestine war and their descendants, the Palestinian militias which resided in Lebanon in the 1970s and 1980s and Palestinian nationals who have recently moved to Lebanon.

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Palmyra Castle

Palmyra Castle, also known as Fakhr-al-Din al-Ma'ani Castle (قلعة فخر الدين المعني) or Tadmur Castle, is a castle overlooking Palmyra in the province of Homs, Syria.

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Pan Arab Games

The Arab Games (الألعاب العربية), also called the Pan Arab Games, are a regional multi-sport event held between nations from the Arab world.

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Panethnicity

Panethnicity is a political neologism used to group various ethnic groups together based on their related cultural origins; geographic, linguistic, religious, or 'racial' similarities are often used alone or in combination to draw panethnic boundaries.

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Paris of the East

The description Paris of the East has been liberally applied to a large number of locations, including: Urmia, Iran.

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Parliament of Lebanon

The Parliament of Lebanon (مجلس النواب Majlis an-Nuwwab; Chambre des députés) is the national parliament of Lebanon.

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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PBS

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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Perennial stream

A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river (channel) that has continuous flow in parts of its stream bed all year round during years of normal rainfall.

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Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council

The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5) are the five states which the UN Charter of 1945 grants a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Philip Khuri Hitti

Philip Khuri Hitti (Arabic: فيليب خوري حتي), (Shimlan 22 June 1886 – Princeton 24 December 1978) was a Lebanese American professor and scholar at Princeton and Harvard University, and authority on Arab and Middle Eastern history, Islam, and Semitic languages.

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Phoenicia

Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.

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Phoenicia under Assyrian rule

During the Middle Assyrian Empire (1392–1056 BC) and the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–605 BC), Phoenicia, what is today known as Lebanon and coastal Syria, came under Assyrian rule on several occasions.

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Phoenicia under Babylonian rule

Throughout her history, the lands known today as Lebanon came under foreign rule from various powers.

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Phoenicia under Hellenistic rule

The Persian Empire, including modern Lebanon, eventually fell to Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia.

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Phoenicia under Roman rule

The Phoenicia under Roman rule relates to the Roman control of Syro-Phoenician city states (in the area of modern Lebanon), that lasted from 64 BC to the Muslim conquests of the 7th century.

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Phoenician language

Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language.

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Physical geography

Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.

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Pierre Gemayel

Sheikh Pierre Gemayel (بيار الجميّل.) (6 November 1905 – 29 August 1984) (last name also spelt Jmayyel, Jemayyel or al-Jumayyil; Sheikh is an honorific title in Arab countries) was a Lebanese political leader.

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PLO in Lebanon

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) were based in Lebanon for a significant period of time (1960s-1982), using their set-up in the country to expand as an organization, gathering support and maintaining their armed struggle with Israel.

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Political freedom

Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.

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President of Lebanon

The President of the Lebanese Republic is the head of state of Lebanon.

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Prime Minister of Lebanon

The Prime Minister of Lebanon, officially the President of the Council of Ministers, is the head of government and the head of the Council of Ministers.

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Qurnat as Sawda'

Qurnat as Sawdā’ (القرنة السوداء) in Jabal al-Makmel Bsharri is the highest point in Lebanon and the Levant, at 3,088 meters above sea level.

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Rafic Hariri

Rafic Baha El Deen Al Hariri (رفيق بهاء الدين الحريري; 1 November 1944 – 14 February 2005) was a Lebanese business tycoon and the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on.

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Rafting

Rafting and white water rafting are recreational outdoor activities which use an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other body of water.

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Rain shadow

A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).

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Rashaya District

Rashaya District (قضاء راشيا) is an administrative district in the Beqaa Governorate of the Republic of Lebanon.

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Rashidun Caliphate

The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

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Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse

Raymond IV (1041 – 28 February 1105), sometimes called Raymond of Saint-Gilles or Raymond I of Tripoli, was a powerful noble in southern France and one of the leaders of the First Crusade (1096–99).

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Règlement Organique (Mount Lebanon)

The Règlement Organique ("Organic Regulation") was a series of international conventions, between 1860 and 1864, between the Ottoman Empire and the European Powers, which led to the creation of the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate.

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Recorded history

Recorded history or written history is a historical narrative based on a written record or other documented communication.

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Refugee

A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).

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Refugees of the Syrian Civil War

Refugees of the Syrian Civil War or Syrian refugees are citizens and permanent residents of Syrian Arab Republic, who have fled from their country since the onset of the Syrian Civil War in 2011 and have sought asylum in other parts of the world. In 2016, from an estimated pre-war population of 22 million, the United Nations (UN) identified 13.5 million Syrians requiring humanitarian assistance, of which more than 6 million are internally displaced within Syria, and around 5 million are refugees outside of Syria. The vast majority of the latter are hosted by countries neighboring Syria. Among countries of the Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan (3RP), a coordination platform including neighboring countries (with the exception of Israel) and Egypt, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) counted 5,165,502 registered refugees, as of August 2017. Turkey is the largest host country of registered refugees with over 3.5 million Syrian refugees. The UNHCR counted almost 1 million asylum applicants in Europe, as of August 2017. Humanitarian aid to internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Syria and Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries is planned largely through the UNHCR. By 2016, various nations had made pledges to the UNHCR to permanently resettle 170,000 registered refugees.

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Religious identity

Religious Identity is a specific type of identity formation.

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Reporters Without Borders

Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Republic

A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.

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Reserved political positions

Several politico-constitutional arrangements use reserved political positions, especially when endeavoring to ensure the rights of minorities or preserving a political balance of power.

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Riad Al Solh

Riad Al Solh (1894 – 17 July 1951) (رياض الصلح) was the first prime minister of Lebanon after the country's independence.

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Right of asylum

The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.

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Rock and Roll Hall of Fame

The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, located on the shore of Lake Erie in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, recognizes and archives the history of the best-known and most influential artists, producers, engineers, and other notable figures who have had some major influence on the development of rock and roll.

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Roda Antar

Roda Antar (رضا عنتر; born 12 September 1980 in Freetown) is a former Lebanese professional footballer who currently coaches Racing Beirut in the Lebanese Premier League.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman Rota

The Roman Rota, formally the Apostolic Tribunal of the Roman Rota (Tribunal Apostolicum Rotae Romanae), and anciently the Apostolic Court of Audience, is the highest appellate tribunal of the Catholic Church, with respect to both Latin-rite members and the Eastern-rite members and is, with respect to judicial trials conducted in the Catholic Church, the highest ecclesiastical court constituted by the Holy See.

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Roman–Persian Wars

The Roman–Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sasanian.

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Rugby league in Lebanon

The seeds of rugby league in Lebanon lie in Australia.

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Saad Hariri

Saad El-Din Rafik Al-Hariri (سعد الدين رفيق الحريري; born 18 April 1970) is a Lebanese politician who has been the Prime Minister of Lebanon since December 2016.

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Sabra and Shatila massacre

The Sabra and Shatila massacre was the killing of between 762 and 3,500 civilians, mostly Palestinians and Lebanese Shiites, by a militia close to the Kataeb Party, also called Phalange, a predominantly Christian Lebanese right-wing party in the Sabra neighborhood and the adjacent Shatila refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Saint Joseph University

Saint Joseph University (French: Université Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth, "USJ") is a private Catholic research university in Beirut, Lebanon, founded in 1875 by the Jesuits.

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Samir Bannout

Samir Bannout (Arabic: سمير بنوت, born November 7, 1955 in Beirut, Lebanon) is an IFBB professional bodybuilder.

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Samir Kassir

Samir Kassir (سمير قصير, May 1960 – 2 June 2005) was a Lebanese-French professor of history at Saint-Joseph University and journalist.

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Sandstone

Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.

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Sanjak-bey

Sanjak-bey, sanjaq-bey or -beg (meaning "Lord of the Standard") was the title given in the Ottoman Empire to a Bey (a high-ranking officer, but usually not a Pasha) appointed to the military and administrative command of a district (sanjak, in Arabic liwa'), answerable to a superior wāli or other provincial governor.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Second Punic War

The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides.

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Seljuk Empire

The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.

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Senegal

Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.

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Sharia

Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.

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Shebaa farms

Shebaa Farms, also spelled Sheba'a Farms (مزارع شبعا,; חוות שבעא, Havot Sheba‘a or הר דוב, Har Dov) is a small strip of disputed land at the intersection of the Lebanese-Syrian border and the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Sidon District

The Sidon District (قضاء صيدا) is a district within the South Governorate of Lebanon.

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Siege of Beirut

The Siege of Beirut took place in the summer of 1982, as part of the 1982 Lebanon War, which resulted from the breakdown of the cease-fire effected by the United Nations.

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Siege of Tyre (332 BC)

The Siege of Tyre was orchestrated by Alexander the Great in 332 BC during his campaigns against the Persians.

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Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.

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Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Skiing in Lebanon

Skiing in Lebanon has been a popular sport since an engineering student returning from studying in Switzerland brought back with him the sport of skiing to Lebanon in the early twentieth century.

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South Governorate

South Governorate (الجنوب; transliterated: al-Janub) is one of the governorates of Lebanon.

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Southern Lebanon

Southern Lebanon (Lebanese Arabic: Jnoub, meaning "south") is the area of Lebanon comprising the South Governorate and the Nabatiye Governorate.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Speaker (politics)

The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair.

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Special Tribunal for Lebanon

The Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL), also referred to as the Lebanon Tribunal or the Hariri Tribunal, is a tribunal of international character applying Lebanese criminal law to carry out the investigation and prosecution of those responsible for the 14 February 2005 assassination of Rafic Hariri, the former Lebanese prime minister, and the deaths of 21 others, as well as those responsible for connected attacks.

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Sporting Al Riyadi Beirut

Al Riyadi, also known as Riyadi Club and Sporting Club (النادي الرياضي بيروت An-Nadi Al Riyadi Beirut) is a Lebanese basketball club based in Manara, Beirut where men's and women's tournaments are held every year.

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State of Palestine

Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.

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Stream

A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel.

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Sudan

The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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Sydney

Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Syrian Civil War

The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.

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Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon

Between 2011 and 2017, fighting from the Syrian Civil War spilled over into Lebanon as opponents and supporters of the Syrian rebels travelled to Lebanon to fight and attack each other on Lebanese soil.

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Syrians in Lebanon

Syrians in Lebanon refers to the Syrian migrant workers and more recently to the Syrian refugees who fled to Lebanon during the Syrian Civil War.

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Taif Agreement

The Taif Agreement (اتفاقية الطائف / ittifāqiyat al-Ṭā’if) (also the or) was an agreement reached to provide "the basis for the ending of the civil war and the return to political normalcy in Lebanon".

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Tanakh

The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.

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Tannourine

Tannourine (تنورين, also Tannoureen, Tannorine) is a Lebanese municipality located in the Batroun District, part of the Mohafazah (Governorate) of North-Lebanon, 75 km from the capital Beirut.

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Tanzimat

The Tanzimât (lit) was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.

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Telephone numbers in Lebanon

No description.

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The Daily Star (Lebanon)

The Daily Star is a pan–Middle East newspaper in English that is edited in Beirut, Lebanon but deals with the whole Middle East.

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The Prophet (book)

The Prophet is a book of 26 prose poetry fables written in English by the Lebanese-American poet and writer Kahlil Gibran.

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The Washington Institute for Near East Policy

The Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., focused on the foreign policy of the United States as it pertains to the countries in the Near East.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Treaty of Sèvres

The Treaty of Sèvres (Traité de Sèvres) was one of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I. Hostilities had already ended with the Armistice of Mudros.

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Tripoli District

The Tripoli District is a small, but very densely populated district in the North Governorate of Lebanon.

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Tunisia

Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Tyre District

The Tyre District is a district in the South Governorate of Lebanon.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Unicameralism

In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

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United Arab Republic

The United Arab Republic (UAR; الجمهورية العربية المتحدة) was, between 1958 and 1971, a sovereign state in the Middle East, and between 1958 and 1961, a short-lived political union consisting of Egypt (including the occupied Gaza Strip) and Syria.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Charter

The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.

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United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine

The United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine (UNISPAL) is an online collection of texts of current and historical United Nations decisions and publications concerning the question of Palestine, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and other issues related to the Middle East situation.

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United Nations International Independent Investigation Commission

The United Nations International Independent Investigation Commission was established in April 2005 by Security Council Resolution 1595 to investigate the assassination of Rafic Hariri, the former Prime Minister of Lebanon on 14 February 2005.

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United Nations Population Fund

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, is a UN organization.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 1595

United Nations Security Council resolution 1595, adopted unanimously on 7 April 2005, after recalling its support for the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of Lebanon, the Council established a commission to assist Lebanese authorities in their investigation of the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafic Hariri in Beirut on 14 February 2005.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 is a resolution that was intended to resolve the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict.

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United States Agency for International Development

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.

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United States Forest Service

The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass.

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United States Marine Corps

The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.

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United States military aid

The United States government first recognized the usefulness of foreign aid as a tool of diplomacy in World War II.

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Vichy France

Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.

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Wadih El Safi

Wadih El Safi (وديع الصافي, born Wadi' Francis; November 1, 1921 – October 11, 2013) was a Lebanese singer, songwriter, composer and actor.

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Walid Eido

Walid Eido (وليد عيدو.

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Walid Raad

Walid Raad (Ra'ad) (Arabic: وليد رعد) (born 1967 in Chbanieh, Lebanon) is a contemporary media artist.

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War

War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.

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War of the Camps

The War of the Camps (Arabic: حرب المخيمات) was a subconflict within the 1984–1990 phase of the Lebanese Civil War, in which the Palestinian refugee camps in Beirut were besieged by the Shi'ite Amal militia.

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Water supply and sanitation in Lebanon

This article's last major overhaul was conducted in December 2013. Water supply and sanitation in Lebanon is characterized by a number of achievements and challenges.

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Webometrics Ranking of World Universities

The Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, also known as Ranking Web of Universities, is a ranking system for the world's universities based on a composite indicator that takes into account both the volume of the Web contents (number of web pages and files) and the visibility and impact of these web publications according to the number of external inlinks (site citations) they received.

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West Africa

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Western Beqaa District

Western Beqaa District (قضاء البقاع الغربي) is an administrative district in the Beqaa Governorate of the Republic of Lebanon.

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Wildfire

A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.

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Workforce

The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.

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World Values Survey

The World Values Survey (WVS) is a global research project that explores people’s values and beliefs, how they change over time and what social and political impact they have.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Youssef Bey Karam

Youssef Bey Boutros Karam (also Joseph Bey Karam) (May 15, 1823 – April 7, 1889) (Arabic يوسف بك كرم), was a Lebanese Maronite notable who fought in the 1860 civil war and led a rebellion in 1866-1867 against the Ottoman Empire rule in Mount Lebanon.

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Youssef Mohamad

Youssef Wasef Mohamad (يوسف واصف محمد, born 1 July 1980 in Beirut, Lebanon), known as "Dodo" is a Lebanese footballer who plays for Nejmeh in the Lebanese Premier League, and the Lebanese national team.

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Zahlé District

Zahlé District (قضاء زحلة) is an administrative district of the Beqaa Governorate of the Republic of Lebanon.

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Zgharta District

Zgharta District (زغرتا) is a district (qadaa) of the North Governorate, northern Lebanon.

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.lb

.lb is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Lebanon.

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1860 Mount Lebanon civil war

The 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war (also called the 1860 Civil War in Syria) was the culmination of a peasant uprising, which began in the north of Mount Lebanon as a rebellion of Maronite peasants against their Druze overlords and culminated in a massacre in Damascus.

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1948 Arab–Israeli War

The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.

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1958 Lebanon crisis

The 1958 Lebanon crisis was a Lebanese political crisis caused by political and religious tensions in the country that included a U.S. military intervention.

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1982 Lebanon War

The 1982 Lebanon War, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, or מבצע של"ג Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil or Mivtsa Sheleg) by the Israeli government, later known in Israel as the Lebanon War or the First Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון הראשונה, Milhemet Levanon Harishona), and known in Lebanon as "the invasion" (الاجتياح, Al-ijtiyāḥ), began on 6 June 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) invaded southern Lebanon, after repeated attacks and counter-attacks between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) operating in southern Lebanon and the IDF that had caused civilian casualties on both sides of the border.

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1983 Beirut barracks bombings

The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a suicide attack that occurred on October 23, 1983, in Beirut, Lebanon, during the Lebanese Civil War.

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2000 Rugby League World Cup

The 2000 Rugby League World Cup was held during October and November of that year in Great Britain, Ireland and France.

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2000s (decade)

The 2000s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 2000, and ended on December 31, 2009.

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2006 Hezbollah cross-border raid

The 2006 Hezbollah cross-border raid was a cross-border attack carried out by Lebanon-based Hezbollah militants on an Israeli military patrol on 12 July 2006 on Israeli territory.

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2006 Lebanon War

The 2006 Lebanon War, also called the 2006 Israel–Hezbollah War and known in Lebanon as the July War (حرب تموز, Ḥarb Tammūz) and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון השנייה, Milhemet Levanon HaShniya), was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon, Northern Israel and the Golan Heights.

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2006–08 Lebanese protests

The 2006–2008 Lebanese protests were a series of political protests and sit-ins that began on December 1, 2006,MPLBelgique.org (December 1, 2011).

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2007 Lebanon conflict

The 2007 Lebanon conflict began when fighting broke out between Fatah al-Islam, an Islamist militant organization, and the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) on May 20, 2007 in Nahr al-Bared, an UNRWA Palestinian refugee camp near Tripoli.

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2008 conflict in Lebanon

The 2008 conflict in Lebanon began on May 7, after Lebanon's 17-month-long political crisis spiraled out of control.

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2008 Rugby League World Cup

The 2008 Rugby League World Cup was the thirteenth staging of the Rugby League World Cup since its inauguration in 1954, and the first since the 2000 tournament.

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2009 European Cup

The 2009 European Cup, known as the rugbyleague.com European Cup due to sponsorship, was a rugby league football tournament.

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2009 Jeux de la Francophonie

The 2009 Jeux de la Francophonie, also known as VIèmes Jeux de la Francophonie (French for 6th Francophone Games), were held from September 27 to October 6 in Beirut, Lebanon.

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2013 Rugby League World Cup

The 2013 Rugby League World Cup was the fourteenth staging of the Rugby League World Cup and took place in England, Wales, France and Ireland.

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33rd parallel north

The 33rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 33 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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35th meridian east

The meridian 35° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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35th parallel north

The 35th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 35 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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37th meridian east

The meridian 37° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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Redirects here:

Administrative divisions of Lebanon, Administrative divisions of lebanon, Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Lubnānīyah, Al-Jumhūrīyyah al-Lubnānīyyah, Architecture of lebanon, Art in Lebanon, Environmental issues in Lebanon, Etymology of Lebanon, ISO 3166-1:LB, Languages of Lebanon, Lebanese Republic, Lebanese language, Lebanese literature, Lebannon, Lebanone, Lebnan, Lebnen, Liban, Libanese, Libanon, Libán, Literature of Lebanon, Lubnan, Lubnaniyah, Lubnān, Name of Lebanon, Republic of Lebanon, Republic of the Lebanon, Ryan Attiyeh, République libanaise, State of Lebanon, Subdivisions of Lebanon, The Lebanon, לבנאן, الجمهورية اللبنانية, لبنان.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lebanon

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