99 relations: Ancient Rome, Archbishop of Canterbury, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Birth certificate, Canon law of the Catholic Church, Capacity (law), Citizens United v. FEC, Civil and political rights, Civil law (legal system), Collegium (ancient Rome), Common law, Commonwealth realm, Company, Constitution of Italy, Cooperative, Corporate action, Corporate law, Corporate personhood, Corporation, Corporation sole, Council of Europe, Debt, Delict, Democracy, Due Process Clause, Entity, Equal Protection Clause, European Convention on the Recognition of the Legal Personality of International Non-Governmental Organisations, European Court of Human Rights, European economic interest grouping, European Union, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Ganges, General Principles of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China, Gilbert and Sullivan, H. A. L. Fisher, In forma pauperis, Incorporation (business), India, Industrial Revolution, Institution, Intergovernmental organization, International legal system, International organization, Investment trust, Juridical person, Jurisdiction, Law of agency, Law of obligations, ..., Lawsuit, Legal benefit, Legal fiction, Legal liability, Legal name, Legal person, Limited liability, Limited liability company, List of national legal systems, List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 118, Māori people, Municipality, Mutual fund, Natural person, Netscape Communications Corp. v. Konrad, New Zealand, New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990, Partnership, Paul v. Virginia, Personal jurisdiction, Personhood, Philosophy of law, Piercing the corporate veil, Pope Innocent IV, Portuguese language, Private company limited by guarantee, Private company limited by shares, Property, Public limited company, Religious order, Roman law, Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Co., Shareholder, Sherman Antitrust Act, Sole proprietorship, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Sovereign state, Statute, Supreme Court of the United States, The Crown, The Gondoliers, Tire, Trade union, Treaty of Lisbon, Unlimited company, Uttarakhand High Court, Voluntary association, Western law, Whanganui River. Expand index (49 more) » « Shrink index
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.
A birth certificate is a vital record that documents the birth of a child.
The canon law of the Catholic Church is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the Catholic Church to regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the Church.
The capacity of natural and juridical persons (legal persons) in general, determines whether they may make binding amendments to their rights, duties and obligations, such as getting married or merging, entering into contracts, making gifts, or writing a valid will.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission,, is a landmark U.S. constitutional law, campaign finance, and corporate law case dealing with regulation of political campaign spending by organizations.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
A collegium (plural collegia, "joined together"; English "college") was any association in ancient Rome with a legal personality.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and shares the same person, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as its head of state and reigning constitutional monarch, but retains a Crown legally distinct from the other realms.
A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.
The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana) was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against.
A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".
A corporate action is an event initiated by a public company that will bring an actual change to the securities—equity or debt—issued by the company.
Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses.
Corporate personhood is the legal notion that a corporation, separately from its associated human beings (like owners, managers, or employees), has at least some of the legal rights and responsibilities enjoyed by natural persons (physical humans).
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single ("sole") incorporated office, occupied by a single ("sole") natural person.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.
Delict (from Latin dēlictum, past participle of dēlinquere ‘to be at fault, offend’) is a term in civil law jurisdictions for a civil wrong consisting of an intentional or negligent breach of duty of care that inflicts loss or harm and which triggers legal liability for the wrongdoer; however, its meaning varies from one jurisdiction to another.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution each contain a due process clause.
An entity is something that exists as itself, as a subject or as an object, actually or potentially, concretely or abstractly, physically or not.
The Equal Protection Clause is part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
European Convention on the Recognition of the Legal Personality of International Non-Governmental Organisations
The European Convention on the Recognition of the Legal Personality of International Non-Governmental Organisations is an international treaty that sets the legal basis for the existence and work of international non-governmental organizations in Europe.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
A European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG) is a type of legal entity of the European corporate law created on 1985-07-25 under European Community (EC) Council Regulation 2137/85.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or to petition for a governmental redress of grievances.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
The General Principles of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中华人民共和国民法通则) is a law in the PRC that was promulgated in 1986 and came into force on January 1, 1987.
Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the dramatist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and the composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900) and to the works they jointly created.
Herbert Albert Laurens Fisher H.A.L. Fisher: A History of Europe, Volume II: From the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century to 1935, Glasgow: Fontana/Collins, 1984, p. i. (21 March 1865 – 18 April 1940) was an English historian, educator, and Liberal politician.
In forma pauperis (IFP or i.f.p.) is a Latin legal term meaning "in the character or manner of a pauper".
Incorporation is the formation of a new corporation (a corporation being a legal entity that is effectively recognized as a person under the law).
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
An intergovernmental organization or international governmental organisation (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states), or of other intergovernmental organizations.
The international legal system is the foundation for the conduct of international relations.
An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
An investment trust is a form of collective investment found mostly in the United Kingdom.
A juridical person is a non-human legal entity, in other words any organization that is not a single natural person but is authorized by law with duties and rights and is recognized as a legal person and as having a distinct identity.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
The law of agency is an area of commercial law dealing with a set of contractual, quasi-contractual and non-contractual fiduciary relationships that involve a person, called the agent, that is authorized to act on behalf of another (called the principal) to create legal relations with a third party.
The law of obligations is one branch of private law under the civil law legal system and so-called "mixed" legal systems.
A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.
Legal benefit is a legal term that means the obtaining by the promisor of that which he had no prior legal right to obtain.
A legal fiction is a fact assumed or created by courts which is then used in order to help reach a decision or to apply a legal rule.
In law, liable means "esponsible or answerable in law; legally obligated." Legal liability concerns both civil law and criminal law and can arise from various areas of law, such as contracts, torts, taxes, or fines given by government agencies.
Legal name is the name that identifies a person for legal, administrative and other official purposes.
A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.
Limited liability is where a person's financial liability is limited to a fixed sum, most commonly the value of a person's investment in a company or partnership.
A limited liability company (LLC) is the United States of America-specific form of a private limited company.
The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law or combinations of these.
This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 118 of the United States Reports.
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
A mutual fund is a professionally managed investment fund that pools money from many investors to purchase securities.
In jurisprudence, a natural person is a person (in legal meaning, i.e., one who has its own legal personality) that is an individual human being, as opposed to a legal person, which may be a private (i.e., business entity or non-governmental organization) or public (i.e., government) organization.
Netscape Communications Corp.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 (sometimes known by its acronym, NZBORA) is a statute of the Parliament of New Zealand setting out the rights and fundamental freedoms of anyone subject to New Zealand law as a Bill of rights.
A partnership is an arrangement where parties, known as partners, agree to cooperate to advance their mutual interests.
Paul v. Virginia,, is a U.S. corporate law case, of the United States Supreme Court.
Personal jurisdiction is a court's jurisdiction over the parties to a lawsuit, as opposed to subject-matter jurisdiction, which is jurisdiction over the law and facts involved in the suit.
Personhood is the status of being a person.
Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence that seeks to answer basic questions about law and legal systems, such as "What is law?", "What are the criteria for legal validity?", "What is the relationship between law and morality?", and many other similar questions.
Piercing the corporate veil or lifting the corporate veil is a legal decision to treat the rights or duties of a corporation as the rights or liabilities of its shareholders.
Pope Innocent IV (Innocentius IV; c. 1195 – 7 December 1254), born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
In British and Irish company law, a company limited by guarantee (LBG) is an alternative type of corporation used primarily for non-profit organisations that require legal personality.
A private company limited by shares is a class of private limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, Scotland, certain Commonwealth countries, and the Republic of Ireland.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
A public limited company (legally abbreviated to plc) is a type of public company under the United Kingdom company law, some Commonwealth jurisdictions, and the Republic of Ireland.
A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion, usually characterized by the principles of its founder's religious practice.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Company, 118 U.S. 394 (1886), is a United States corporate law case of the United States Supreme Court on taxation of railroad properties.
A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation.
The Sherman Antitrust Act (Sherman Act) is a landmark federal statute in the history of United States antitrust law (or "competition law") passed by Congress in 1890 under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison.
A sole proprietorship, also known as the sole trader or simply a proprietorship, is a type of enterprise that is owned and run by one natural person and in which there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business entity.
The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Supremus Ordo Militaris Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodius et Melitensis), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) or the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order traditionally of military, chivalrous and noble nature.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Gondoliers; or, The King of Barataria is a Savoy Opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert.
A tire (American English) or tyre (British English; see spelling differences) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).
An unlimited company or private unlimited company is a hybrid company (corporation) incorporated with or without a share capital (and similar to its limited company counterpart) but where the legal liability of the members or shareholders is not limited: that is, its members or shareholders have a joint, several and non-limited obligation to meet any insufficiency in the assets of the company to enable settlement of any outstanding financial liability in the event of the company's formal liquidation.
The Uttarakhand High Court is the High Court of the state of Uttarakhand in India.
A voluntary group or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, common-interest association,Prins HEL et al. (2010).. Cengage Learning. association, or society) is a group of individuals who enter into an agreement, usually as volunteers, to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose.
Western law refers to the legal traditions of Western culture.
The Whanganui River is a major river in the North Island of New Zealand.
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