34 relations: Adrien-Marie Legendre, Algebraic number theory, Artin reciprocity law, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Completely multiplicative function, Cubic reciprocity, Dirichlet character, Elliptic function, Euler's criterion, Fibonacci number, Gotthold Eisenstein, Hilbert symbol, Jacobi symbol, Kronecker symbol, Leopold Kronecker, Lucas sequence, MIT Press, Modular arithmetic, Multiplicative function, Number theory, Oxford University Press, Periodic sequence, Power residue symbol, Primality test, Prime number, Proofs of quadratic reciprocity, Quadratic Gauss sum, Quadratic reciprocity, Quadratic residue, Quartic reciprocity, Sine, Springer Science+Business Media, Square number, Wall–Sun–Sun prime.
Adrien-Marie Legendre (18 September 1752 – 10 January 1833) was a French mathematician.
Algebraic number theory is a branch of number theory that uses the techniques of abstract algebra to study the integers, rational numbers, and their generalizations.
The Artin reciprocity law, which was established by Emil Artin in a series of papers (1924; 1927; 1930), is a general theorem in number theory that forms a central part of global class field theory.
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß; Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields, including algebra, analysis, astronomy, differential geometry, electrostatics, geodesy, geophysics, magnetic fields, matrix theory, mechanics, number theory, optics and statistics.
In number theory, functions of positive integers which respect products are important and are called completely multiplicative functions or totally multiplicative functions.
Cubic reciprocity is a collection of theorems in elementary and algebraic number theory that state conditions under which the congruence x3 ≡ p (mod q) is solvable; the word "reciprocity" comes from the form of the main theorem, which states that if p and q are primary numbers in the ring of Eisenstein integers, both coprime to 3, the congruence x3 ≡ p (mod q) is solvable if and only if x3 ≡ q (mod p) is solvable.
In number theory, Dirichlet characters are certain arithmetic functions which arise from completely multiplicative characters on the units of \mathbb Z / k \mathbb Z. Dirichlet characters are used to define Dirichlet ''L''-functions, which are meromorphic functions with a variety of interesting analytic properties.
In complex analysis, an elliptic function is a meromorphic function that is periodic in two directions.
In number theory Euler's criterion is a formula for determining whether an integer is a quadratic residue modulo a prime.
In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers are the numbers in the following integer sequence, called the Fibonacci sequence, and characterized by the fact that every number after the first two is the sum of the two preceding ones: Often, especially in modern usage, the sequence is extended by one more initial term: By definition, the first two numbers in the Fibonacci sequence are either 1 and 1, or 0 and 1, depending on the chosen starting point of the sequence, and each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two.
Ferdinand Gotthold Max Eisenstein (16 April 1823 – 11 October 1852) was a German mathematician.
In mathematics, the Hilbert symbol or norm-residue symbol is a function (–, –) from K× × K× to the group of nth roots of unity in a local field K such as the fields of reals or p-adic numbers.
Jacobi symbol for various k (along top) and n (along left side).
In number theory, the Kronecker symbol, written as \left(\frac an\right) or (a|n), is a generalization of the Jacobi symbol to all integers n. It was introduced by.
Leopold Kronecker (7 December 1823 – 29 December 1891) was a German mathematician who worked on number theory, algebra and logic.
In mathematics, the Lucas sequences U_n(P,Q) and V_n(P, Q) are certain constant-recursive integer sequences that satisfy the recurrence relation where P and Q are fixed integers.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus (plural moduli).
In number theory, a multiplicative function is an arithmetic function f(n) of a positive integer n with the property that f(1).
Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In mathematics, a periodic sequence (sometimes called a cycle) is a sequence for which the same terms are repeated over and over: The number p of repeated terms is called the period (period).
In algebraic number theory the n-th power residue symbol (for an integer n > 2) is a generalization of the (quadratic) Legendre symbol to n-th powers.
A primality test is an algorithm for determining whether an input number is prime.
A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers.
In number theory, the law of quadratic reciprocity, like the Pythagorean theorem, has lent itself to an unusual number of proofs.
In number theory, quadratic Gauss sums are certain finite sums of roots of unity.
In number theory, the law of quadratic reciprocity is a theorem about modular arithmetic that gives conditions for the solvability of quadratic equations modulo prime numbers.
In number theory, an integer q is called a quadratic residue modulo n if it is congruent to a perfect square modulo n; i.e., if there exists an integer x such that: Otherwise, q is called a quadratic nonresidue modulo n. Originally an abstract mathematical concept from the branch of number theory known as modular arithmetic, quadratic residues are now used in applications ranging from acoustical engineering to cryptography and the factoring of large numbers.
Quartic or biquadratic reciprocity is a collection of theorems in elementary and algebraic number theory that state conditions under which the congruence x4 ≡ p (mod q) is solvable; the word "reciprocity" comes from the form of some of these theorems, in that they relate the solvability of the congruence x4 ≡ p (mod q) to that of x4 ≡ q (mod p).
In mathematics, the sine is a trigonometric function of an angle.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
In mathematics, a square number or perfect square is an integer that is the square of an integer; in other words, it is the product of some integer with itself.
In number theory, a Wall–Sun–Sun prime or Fibonacci–Wieferich prime is a certain kind of prime number which is conjectured to exist, although none are known.