30 relations: Battle of Resaena, Caracalla, Ctesiphon, Diocletian, Dux, Gordian III, Imperial Roman army, Iraq, Legio I Parthica, Legio II Parthica, Legio XV Apollinaris, List of Roman legions, Marian reforms, Mesopotamia, Notitia Dignitatum, Odaenathus, Osroene, Palmyrene Empire, Parthian Empire, Philip the Arab, Rhesaina, Roman Empire, Roman legion, Sasanian family tree, Satala, Septimius Severus, Severus Alexander, Shapur I, Taurus (astrology), Valerian (emperor).
The Battle of Resaena or Resaina, near present-day Ceylanpınar, Turkey, was fought in 243 AD between the forces of the Roman Empire, led by the Emperor Gordian III and the Praetorian Prefect Timesitheus against a Sassanid Empire army, led by King Shapur I. The Romans were victorious.
Caracalla (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD.
Ctesiphon (Κτησιφῶν; from Parthian or Middle Persian: tyspwn or tysfwn) was an ancient city located on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and about southeast of present-day Baghdad.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
Dux (plural: ducēs) is Latin for "leader" (from the noun dux, ducis, "leader, general") and later for duke and its variant forms (doge, duce, etc.). During the Roman Republic, dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops, including foreign leaders, but was not a formal military rank.
Gordian III (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius Augustus; 20 January 225 AD – 11 February 244 AD) was Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 AD.
The Imperial Roman army are the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Roman Empire from about 30 BC to 476 AD.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Legio prima Parthica (Latin for "1st Parthian Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 197 by the emperor Septimius Severus (r. 193-211) for his forthcoming war against Parthia.
Legio secunda Parthica ("Parthian-conquering Second Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 197 by the emperor Septimius Severus (r. 193-211), for his campaign against the Parthian Empire, hence the cognomen Parthica.
Legio quinta decima Apollinaris ("Apollo's Fifteenth Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was recruited by Octavian in 41/40 BC. The emblem of this legion was probably a picture of Apollo, or of one of his holy animals. XV Apollinaris is sometimes confused with two other legions with the same number: An earlier unit which was commanded by Julius Caesar and met its end in North Africa in 49 BC, and a later unit that was present at the Battle of Philippi on the side of the Second Triumvirate and then sent east.
This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion, primarily focusing on the Principate (early Empire, 27 BC – 284 AD) legions, for which there exists substantial literary, epigraphic and archaeological evidence.
The Marian reforms of 107 BC were a group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius, a statesman and general of the Roman Republic.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Notitia Dignitatum (Latin for "The List of Offices") is a document of the late Roman Empire that details the administrative organization of the Eastern and Western Empires.
Septimius Udhayna, Latinized as Odaenathus (Palmyrene:, spelled Oḏainaṯ; أذينة; 220 – 267 AD), was the founder king (Mlk) of the Palmyrene Kingdom centered at Palmyra, Syria.
Osroene, also spelled Osroëne and Osrhoene (مملكة الرها; ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܒܝܬ ܐܘܪܗܝ "Kingdom of Urhay"; Ὀσροηνή) and sometimes known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (now Şanlıurfa, Turkey), was a historical kingdom in Upper Mesopotamia, which was ruled by a dynasty of Arab origin.
The Palmyrene Empire was a splinter state centered at Palmyra which broke away from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
Marcus Julius Philippus (Marcus Julius Philippus Augustus 204 – 249 AD), also known commonly by his nickname Philip the Arab (Philippus Arabus, also known as Philip or Philip I), was Roman Emperor from 244 to 249.
Rhesaina (Rhesaena) was a city in the late Roman province of Mesopotamia Secunda and a bishopric that was a suffragan of Dara Rhesaina (Rhesaena, Resaena – numerous variations of the name appear in ancient authors) was an important town at the northern extremity of Mesopotamia, near the sources of the Chaboras (now the Khabur River. It was on the way from Carrhae to Nicephorium, about eighty miles from Nisibis and forty from Dara. Nearby, Gordian III fought the Persians in 243, at the battle of Resaena. It is now Ra's al-'Ayn, Syria. Its coins show that it was a Roman colony from the time of Septimius Severus. The Notitia dignitatum (ed. Boecking, I, 400) represents it as under the jurisdiction of the governor or Dux of Osrhoene. Hierocles (Synecdemus, 714, 3) also locates it in this province but under the name of Theodosiopolis; it had in fact obtained the favour of Theodosius the Great and taken his name. It was fortified by Justinian. In 1393 it was nearly destroyed by Tamerlane's troops.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
This is a family tree of the Sasanian emperors, their ancestors, and Sasanian princes/princesses.
Located in Turkey, the settlement of Satala (Սատաղ Satał), according to the ancient geographers, was situated in a valley surrounded by mountains, a little north of the Euphrates, where the road from Trapezus to Samosata crossed the boundary of the Roman Empire, when it was a bishopric, which remains a Latin Catholic titular see.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
Severus Alexander (Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus; c.207 - 19 March 235) was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235 and the last emperor of the Severan dynasty.
Shapur I (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩; New Persian: rtl), also known as Shapur I the Great, was the second shahanshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian Empire.
Taurus (Latin for "the Bull"; symbol:, Unicode: ♉) is the second astrological sign in the present zodiac.
Valerian (Publius Licinius Valerianus Augustus; 193/195/200260 or 264), also known as Valerian the Elder, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260 CE.