83 relations: Accommodation (eye), Amphibian, Anaerobic respiration, Anterior segment of eyeball, Aphakia, Aqueous humour, Basement membrane, BCL9, Bird, Camera lens, Capsule of lens, Cataract, Cataract surgery, Cell (biology), Cell nucleus, Cellular respiration, Chaperone (protein), Chondrichthyes, Ciliary muscle, Cornea, Crystallin, Cytoskeleton, Diabetes mellitus, Dioptre, Ectopia lentis, Ellipsoid, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endoplasmic reticulum, Epithelium, Evolution of the eye, Eye, Focal length, Focus (optics), Frog, Gap junction, Glucose, Glycosaminoglycan, Gradient-index optics, Hagfish, Homeostasis, Homology (biology), Human development (biology), Human eye, Hyaloid artery, Hyaloid canal, Intraocular lens, Iris (anatomy), Lamprey, Lens (optics), Lens placode, ..., Light, Mammal, Mitochondrion, Na+/K+-ATPase, Neuroectoderm, Nuclear sclerosis, Optic vesicle, Optical power, Organelle, Osmotic concentration, PAX6, Pentose phosphate pathway, Phacoemulsification, Prenatal development, Presbyopia, Primate, Protein, PYGO2, Real image, Refraction, Refractive index, Reptile, Retina, Simple cuboidal epithelium, Surface ectoderm, Teleost, Tunica vasculosa lentis, Type IV collagen, Ultraviolet, Visual perception, Vitreous body, Wnt signaling pathway, Zonule of Zinn. Expand index (33 more) » « Shrink index
Accommodation is the process by which the vertebrate eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2).
The anterior segment or anterior cavity is the front third of the eye that includes the structures in front of the vitreous humour: the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and lens.
Aphakia is the absence of the lens of the eye, due to surgical removal, a perforating wound or ulcer, or congenital anomaly.
The aqueous humour is a transparent, watery fluid similar to plasma, but containing low protein concentrations.
The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans.
B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BCL9 gene.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
A camera lens (also known as photographic lens or photographic objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically.
The lens capsule is a component of the globe of the eye.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.
Cataract surgery is the removal of the natural lens of the eye (also called "crystalline lens") that has developed an opacification, which is referred to as a cataract.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
In molecular biology, molecular chaperones are proteins that assist the covalent folding or unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of other macromolecular structures.
Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.
The ciliary muscle is a ring of smooth muscleSchachar, Ronald A. (2012). "Anatomy and Physiology." (Chapter 4). in the eye's middle layer (vascular layer) that controls accommodation for viewing objects at varying distances and regulates the flow of aqueous humour into Schlemm's canal. It changes the shape of the lens within the eye, not the size of the pupil which is carried out by the sphincter pupillae muscle and dilator pupillae.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
In anatomy, a crystallin is a water-soluble structural protein found in the lens and the cornea of the eye accounting for the transparency of the structure.
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A dioptre (British spelling) or diopter (American spelling) is a unit of measurement of the optical power of a lens or curved mirror, which is equal to the reciprocal of the focal length measured in metres.
Ectopia lentis is a displacement or malposition of the eye's crystalline lens from its normal location.
An ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
The evolution of the eye is attractive to study, because the eye distinctively exemplifies an analogous organ found in many animal forms.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly the system converges or diverges light.
In geometrical optics, a focus, also called an image point, is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge.
A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).
A gap junction may also be called a nexus or macula communicans.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit.
Gradient-index (GRIN) optics is the branch of optics covering optical effects produced by a gradual variation of the refractive index of a material.
Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Human development is the process of growing to maturity.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
The hyaloid artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery, which is itself a branch of the internal carotid artery.
Hyaloid canal (Cloquet's canal and Stilling's canal) is a small transparent canal running through the vitreous body from the optic nerve disc to the lens.
Intraocular lens (IOL) is a lens implanted in the eye as part of a treatment for cataracts or myopia.
In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.
Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
The Lens placode is a thickened portion of ectoderm which serves as the precursor to the lens.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
Neuroectoderm (or neural ectoderm or neural tube epithelium) is ectoderm which receives bone morphogenetic protein-inhibiting signals from proteins such as noggin, which leads to the development of the nervous system from this tissue.
Nuclear sclerosis is an age-related change in the density of the crystalline lens nucleus that occurs in all older animals.
The eyes begin to develop as a pair of diverticula from the lateral aspects of the forebrain.
Optical power (also referred to as dioptric power, refractive power, focusing power, or convergence power) is the degree to which a lens, mirror, or other optical system converges or diverges light.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity, is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per litre (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L).
Paired box protein Pax-6, also known as aniridia type II protein (AN2) or oculorhombin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX6 gene.
The pentose phosphate pathway (also called the phosphogluconate pathway and the hexose monophosphate shunt) is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis.
Phacoemulsification is a modern cataract surgery in which the eye's internal lens is emulsified with an ultrasonic handpiece and aspirated from the eye.
Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.
Presbyopia is a condition associated with the aging of the eye that results in progressively worsening ability to focus clearly on close objects.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pygopus homolog 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PYGO2 gene.
In optics, a real image is an image which is located in the plane of convergence for the light rays that originate from a given object.
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Simple cuboidal epithelium is a type of epithelium that consists of a single layer of cuboidal (cube-like) cells.
The surface ectoderm (or external ectoderm) forms the following structures.
The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.
The tunica vasculosa lentis is an extensive capillary network, spreading over the posterior and lateral surfaces of the lens of the eye.
Collagen IV (ColIV or Col4) is a type of collagen found primarily in the basal lamina.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
The vitreous body is the clear gel that fills the space between the lens and the retina of the eyeball of humans and other vertebrates.
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors.
The zonule of Zinn (Zinn's membrane, ciliary zonule) (after Johann Gottfried Zinn) is a ring of fibrous strands forming a zonule (little band) that connects the ciliary body with the crystalline lens of the eye.
Crystalline eye lens, Crystalline lens, Eye lens, Lens (eye), Lens (vision), Lens cortex, Lens disease, Lens diseases, Lens fiber, Lens nucleus, Lens of the eye, Lens, crystalline, Natural ocular lens.