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Lens (anatomy)

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The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina. [1]

83 relations: Accommodation (eye), Amphibian, Anaerobic respiration, Anterior segment of eyeball, Aphakia, Aqueous humour, Basement membrane, BCL9, Bird, Camera lens, Capsule of lens, Cataract, Cataract surgery, Cell (biology), Cell nucleus, Cellular respiration, Chaperone (protein), Chondrichthyes, Ciliary muscle, Cornea, Crystallin, Cytoskeleton, Diabetes mellitus, Dioptre, Ectopia lentis, Ellipsoid, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endoplasmic reticulum, Epithelium, Evolution of the eye, Eye, Focal length, Focus (optics), Frog, Gap junction, Glucose, Glycosaminoglycan, Gradient-index optics, Hagfish, Homeostasis, Homology (biology), Human development (biology), Human eye, Hyaloid artery, Hyaloid canal, Intraocular lens, Iris (anatomy), Lamprey, Lens (optics), Lens placode, ..., Light, Mammal, Mitochondrion, Na+/K+-ATPase, Neuroectoderm, Nuclear sclerosis, Optic vesicle, Optical power, Organelle, Osmotic concentration, PAX6, Pentose phosphate pathway, Phacoemulsification, Prenatal development, Presbyopia, Primate, Protein, PYGO2, Real image, Refraction, Refractive index, Reptile, Retina, Simple cuboidal epithelium, Surface ectoderm, Teleost, Tunica vasculosa lentis, Type IV collagen, Ultraviolet, Visual perception, Vitreous body, Wnt signaling pathway, Zonule of Zinn. Expand index (33 more) »

Accommodation (eye)

Accommodation is the process by which the vertebrate eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies.

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Amphibian

Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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Anaerobic respiration

Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2).

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Anterior segment of eyeball

The anterior segment or anterior cavity is the front third of the eye that includes the structures in front of the vitreous humour: the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and lens.

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Aphakia

Aphakia is the absence of the lens of the eye, due to surgical removal, a perforating wound or ulcer, or congenital anomaly.

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Aqueous humour

The aqueous humour is a transparent, watery fluid similar to plasma, but containing low protein concentrations.

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Basement membrane

The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans.

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BCL9

B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BCL9 gene.

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Bird

Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Camera lens

A camera lens (also known as photographic lens or photographic objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically.

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Capsule of lens

The lens capsule is a component of the globe of the eye.

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Cataract

A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.

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Cataract surgery

Cataract surgery is the removal of the natural lens of the eye (also called "crystalline lens") that has developed an opacification, which is referred to as a cataract.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

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Chaperone (protein)

In molecular biology, molecular chaperones are proteins that assist the covalent folding or unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of other macromolecular structures.

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Chondrichthyes

Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Ciliary muscle

The ciliary muscle is a ring of smooth muscleSchachar, Ronald A. (2012). "Anatomy and Physiology." (Chapter 4). in the eye's middle layer (vascular layer) that controls accommodation for viewing objects at varying distances and regulates the flow of aqueous humour into Schlemm's canal. It changes the shape of the lens within the eye, not the size of the pupil which is carried out by the sphincter pupillae muscle and dilator pupillae.

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Cornea

The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

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Crystallin

In anatomy, a crystallin is a water-soluble structural protein found in the lens and the cornea of the eye accounting for the transparency of the structure.

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Cytoskeleton

A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Dioptre

A dioptre (British spelling) or diopter (American spelling) is a unit of measurement of the optical power of a lens or curved mirror, which is equal to the reciprocal of the focal length measured in metres.

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Ectopia lentis

Ectopia lentis is a displacement or malposition of the eye's crystalline lens from its normal location.

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Ellipsoid

An ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.

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Epithelium

Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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Evolution of the eye

The evolution of the eye is attractive to study, because the eye distinctively exemplifies an analogous organ found in many animal forms.

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Eye

Eyes are organs of the visual system.

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Focal length

The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly the system converges or diverges light.

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Focus (optics)

In geometrical optics, a focus, also called an image point, is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge.

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Frog

A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).

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Gap junction

A gap junction may also be called a nexus or macula communicans.

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Glucose

Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glycosaminoglycan

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit.

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Gradient-index optics

Gradient-index (GRIN) optics is the branch of optics covering optical effects produced by a gradual variation of the refractive index of a material.

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Hagfish

Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).

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Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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Human development (biology)

Human development is the process of growing to maturity.

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Human eye

The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.

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Hyaloid artery

The hyaloid artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery, which is itself a branch of the internal carotid artery.

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Hyaloid canal

Hyaloid canal (Cloquet's canal and Stilling's canal) is a small transparent canal running through the vitreous body from the optic nerve disc to the lens.

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Intraocular lens

Intraocular lens (IOL) is a lens implanted in the eye as part of a treatment for cataracts or myopia.

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Iris (anatomy)

In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.

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Lamprey

Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.

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Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

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Lens placode

The Lens placode is a thickened portion of ectoderm which serves as the precursor to the lens.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Mammal

Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Na+/K+-ATPase

-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.

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Neuroectoderm

Neuroectoderm (or neural ectoderm or neural tube epithelium) is ectoderm which receives bone morphogenetic protein-inhibiting signals from proteins such as noggin, which leads to the development of the nervous system from this tissue.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nuclear sclerosis

Nuclear sclerosis is an age-related change in the density of the crystalline lens nucleus that occurs in all older animals.

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Optic vesicle

The eyes begin to develop as a pair of diverticula from the lateral aspects of the forebrain.

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Optical power

Optical power (also referred to as dioptric power, refractive power, focusing power, or convergence power) is the degree to which a lens, mirror, or other optical system converges or diverges light.

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Organelle

In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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Osmotic concentration

Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity, is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per litre (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L).

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PAX6

Paired box protein Pax-6, also known as aniridia type II protein (AN2) or oculorhombin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX6 gene.

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Pentose phosphate pathway

The pentose phosphate pathway (also called the phosphogluconate pathway and the hexose monophosphate shunt) is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis.

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Phacoemulsification

Phacoemulsification is a modern cataract surgery in which the eye's internal lens is emulsified with an ultrasonic handpiece and aspirated from the eye.

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Prenatal development

Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.

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Presbyopia

Presbyopia is a condition associated with the aging of the eye that results in progressively worsening ability to focus clearly on close objects.

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Primate

A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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PYGO2

Pygopus homolog 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PYGO2 gene.

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Real image

In optics, a real image is an image which is located in the plane of convergence for the light rays that originate from a given object.

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Refraction

Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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Reptile

Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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Retina

The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Simple cuboidal epithelium

Simple cuboidal epithelium is a type of epithelium that consists of a single layer of cuboidal (cube-like) cells.

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Surface ectoderm

The surface ectoderm (or external ectoderm) forms the following structures.

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Teleost

The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.

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Tunica vasculosa lentis

The tunica vasculosa lentis is an extensive capillary network, spreading over the posterior and lateral surfaces of the lens of the eye.

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Type IV collagen

Collagen IV (ColIV or Col4) is a type of collagen found primarily in the basal lamina.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Visual perception

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

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Vitreous body

The vitreous body is the clear gel that fills the space between the lens and the retina of the eyeball of humans and other vertebrates.

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Wnt signaling pathway

The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors.

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Zonule of Zinn

The zonule of Zinn (Zinn's membrane, ciliary zonule) (after Johann Gottfried Zinn) is a ring of fibrous strands forming a zonule (little band) that connects the ciliary body with the crystalline lens of the eye.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Crystalline eye lens, Crystalline lens, Eye lens, Lens (eye), Lens (vision), Lens cortex, Lens disease, Lens diseases, Lens fiber, Lens nucleus, Lens of the eye, Lens, crystalline, Natural ocular lens.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lens_(anatomy)

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