155 relations: Abbe number, Abrasion (mechanical), Achromatic lens, Afocal system, Anamorphic format, Anti-fog, Aperture, Apochromat, Aristophanes, Aspheric lens, Astigmatism, Astigmatism (optical systems), Axial symmetry, Axicon, Barlow lens, Binoculars, Bokeh, Book of Optics, Burning glass, Camera, Cardinal point (optics), Catadioptric system, Caustic (optics), Chester Moore Hall, Collimated light, Comet, Cone, Contact lens, Corrective lens, Curvature, Curved mirror, Cylindrical lens, Defocus aberration, Diffraction, Diffraction-limited system, Dioptre, Dispersion (optics), Distortion (optics), Egyptian hieroglyphs, Electromagnetic radiation, Emerald, England, Eugenius of Palermo, Explosive lens, Extended hemispherical lens, Eyepiece, F-number, Fabrication and testing of optical components, Far-sightedness, Fluorite, ..., Focal length, Focus (optics), Fresnel lens, Gladiator, Glass, Glasses, Gradient-index optics, Gravitational lens, Grinding (abrasive cutting), Human eye, Ibn al-Haytham, Ibn Sahl (mathematician), Image, Image sensor, Infinity, Infrared, John Dollond, Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, Laser diode, Lens (anatomy), Lens (geometry), Lens (optics), Lens (plant), Lens antenna, Lenticular lens, Lenticular printing, Lentil, Light beam, List of lens designs, Long-focus lens, Luneburg lens, Magnification, Magnifying glass, Meniscus corrector, Metamaterial, Microlens, Microscope, Microwave, Molding (process), Monocular, Moon, Movie projector, Multiplicative inverse, Nature (journal), Near-sightedness, Negative-index metamaterial, Nero, Netherlands, Nimrud lens, Numerical aperture, Open-source model, Optical aberration, Optical axis, Optical coating, Optical lens design, Optical medium, Optical microscope, Optical power, Optical telescope, Optics, Optics (Ptolemy), Petzval field curvature, Photochromic lens, Photographic film, Physical Review Letters, Plastic, Plate scale, Pliny the Elder, Point source, Point spread function, Polishing, Presbyopia, Prism, Prosthesis, Ptolemy, Radar, Radio astronomy, Ray tracing (physics), Ray transfer matrix analysis, Reading stone, Real image, Refracting telescope, Refraction, Refractive index, Retina, Schmidt corrector plate, Science (journal), Seneca the Younger, Sensor, Sign convention, Simple lens, Solar cell, Sun, Sunglasses, Superlens, The Clouds, Thin lens, Toric lens, Transparency and translucency, Trigonometric functions, Virtual image, Visby lenses, Visible spectrum, Visual impairment, Wide-angle lens. Expand index (105 more) » « Shrink index
In optics and lens design, the Abbe number, also known as the V-number or constringence of a transparent material, is a measure of the material's dispersion (variation of refractive index versus wavelength), with high values of V indicating low dispersion.
Abrasion is the process of scuffing, scratching, wearing down, marring, or rubbing away.
An achromatic lens or achromat is a lens that is designed to limit the effects of chromatic and spherical aberration.
In optics an afocal system (a system without focus) is an optical system that produces no net convergence or divergence of the beam, i.e. has an infinite effective focal length.
Anamorphic format is the cinematography technique of shooting a widescreen picture on standard 35 mm film or other visual recording media with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio.
Anti-fog agents, also known as anti-fogging agents and treatments, are chemicals that prevent the condensation of water in the form of small droplets on a surface which resemble fog.
In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.
An apochromat, or apochromatic lens (apo), is a photographic or other lens that has better correction of chromatic and spherical aberration than the much more common achromat lenses.
Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης,; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens.
An aspheric lens or asphere is a lens whose surface profiles are not portions of a sphere or cylinder.
Astigmatism is a type of refractive error in which the eye does not focus light evenly on the retina.
An optical system with astigmatism is one where rays that propagate in two perpendicular planes have different foci.
Axial symmetry is symmetry around an axis; an object is axially symmetric if its appearance is unchanged if rotated around an axis.
An axicon is a specialized type of lens which has a conical surface.
The Barlow lens, named after Peter Barlow, is a diverging lens which, used in series with other optics in an optical system, increases the effective focal length of an optical system as perceived by all components that are after it in the system.
Binoculars or field glasses are two telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects.
In photography, bokeh (— also sometimes pronounced as) is the aesthetic quality of the blur produced in the out-of-focus parts of an image produced by a lens.
The Book of Optics (Kitāb al-Manāẓir; Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva; Italian: Deli Aspecti) is a seven-volume treatise on optics and other fields of study composed by the medieval Arab scholar Ibn al-Haytham, known in the West as Alhazen or Alhacen (965– c. 1040 AD).
A burning glass or burning lens is a large convex lens that can concentrate the sun's rays onto a small area, heating up the area and thus resulting in ignition of the exposed surface.
A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both.
In Gaussian optics, the cardinal points consist of three pairs of points located on the optical axis of a rotationally symmetric, focal, optical system.
A catadioptric optical system is one where refraction and reflection are combined in an optical system, usually via lenses (dioptrics) and curved mirrors (catoptrics).
In optics, a caustic or caustic network is the envelope of light rays reflected or refracted by a curved surface or object, or the projection of that envelope of rays on another surface.
Chester Moore Hall (9 December 1703, Leigh, Essex, England – 17 March 1771, Sutton, Surrey) was a British lawyer and inventor who produced the first achromatic lenses in 1729 or 1733 (accounts differ).
Collimated light is light whose rays are parallel, and therefore will spread minimally as it propagates.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
A cone is a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base (frequently, though not necessarily, circular) to a point called the apex or vertex.
A contact lens, or simply contact, is a thin lens placed directly on the surface of the eye.
A corrective lens is a lens typically worn in front of the eye to improve vision.
In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.
A curved mirror is a mirror with a curved reflecting surface.
A cylindrical lens is a lens which focuses light into a line instead of a point, as a spherical lens would.
In optics, defocus is the aberration in which an image is simply out of focus.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
The resolution of an optical imaging system a microscope, telescope, or camera can be limited by factors such as imperfections in the lenses or misalignment.
A dioptre (British spelling) or diopter (American spelling) is a unit of measurement of the optical power of a lens or curved mirror, which is equal to the reciprocal of the focal length measured in metres.
In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.
In geometric optics, distortion is a deviation from rectilinear projection; a projection in which straight lines in a scene remain straight in an image.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Emerald is a precious gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Eugenius of Palermo (also Eugene) (Eugenius Siculus, Εὐγενἠς Εὐγένιος ὁ τῆς Πανόρμου, Eugenio da Palermo; 1130 – 1202) was an amiratus (admiral) of the Kingdom of Sicily in the late twelfth century.
An explosive lens—as used, for example, in nuclear weapons—is a highly specialized shaped charge.
The extended hemispherical lens is a commonly used lens for millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation.
An eyepiece, or ocular lens, is a type of lens that is attached to a variety of optical devices such as telescopes and microscopes.
The f-number of an optical system (such as a camera lens) is the ratio of the system's focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil.
Optical fabrication and testing spans an enormous range of manufacturing procedures and optical test configurations.
Far-sightedness, also known as hyperopia, is a condition of the eye in which light is focused behind, instead of on, the retina.
Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.
The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly the system converges or diverges light.
In geometrical optics, a focus, also called an image point, is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge.
A Fresnel lens is a type of compact lens originally developed by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel for lighthouses.
A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spectacles, are devices consisting of glass or hard plastic lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes, typically using a bridge over the nose and arms which rest over the ears.
Gradient-index (GRIN) optics is the branch of optics covering optical effects produced by a gradual variation of the refractive index of a material.
A gravitational lens is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light from the source as the light travels towards the observer.
Grinding is an abrasive machining process that uses a grinding wheel as the cutting tool.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ibn Sahl (full name Abū Saʿd al-ʿAlāʾ ibn Sahl أبو سعد العلاء ابن سهل; c. 940–1000) was a Muslim Persian mathematician and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age, associated with the Buwayhid court of Baghdad.
An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.
An image sensor or imaging sensor is a sensor that detects and conveys the information that constitutes an image.
Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
John Dollond FRS (10 June O.S. (21 June N.S.) 170630 November 1761) was an English optician, known for his successful optics business and his patenting and commercialization of achromatic doublets.
The Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on sol-gel materials.
A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which the laser beam is created at the diode's junction.
The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.
In 2-dimensional geometry, a lens is a convex set bounded by two circular arcs joined to each other at their endpoints.
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
Lens is a genus of the legume family mostly known for its edible seeds, which are referred to as lentils.
Lens antennas are microwave antennas constructed with single or multiple lenses.
A lenticular lens is an array of magnifying lenses, designed so that when viewed from slightly different angles, different images are magnified.
Lenticular printing is a technology in which lenticular lenses (a technology that is also used for 3D displays) are used to produce printed images with an illusion of depth, or the ability to change or move as the image is viewed from different angles.
The lentil (Lens culinaris or Lens esculenta) is an edible pulse.
A light beam or beam of light is a directional projection of light energy radiating from a light source.
This list covers optical lens designs grouped by tasks or overall type.
In photography, a long-focus lens is a camera lens which has a focal length that is longer than the diagonal measure of the film or sensor that receives its image.
A Luneburg lens (originally Lüneburg lens, often incorrectly spelled Luneberg lens) is a spherically symmetric gradient-index lens.
Magnification is the process of enlarging the appearance, not physical size, of something.
A magnifying glass (called a hand lens in laboratory contexts) is a convex lens that is used to produce a magnified image of an object.
A meniscus corrector is a negative meniscus lens that is used to correct spherical aberration in image-forming optical systems such as catadioptric telescopes.
A metamaterial (from the Greek word μετά meta, meaning "beyond") is a material engineered to have a property that is not found in nature.
A microlens is a small lens, generally with a diameter less than a millimetre (mm) and often as small as 10 micrometres (µm).
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix.
A monocular is a modified refracting telescope used to magnify the images of distant objects by passing light through a series of lenses and usually prisms, the application of prisms resulting in a lightweight, compact telescope.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
A movie projector is an opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen.
In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Near-sightedness, also known as short-sightedness and myopia, is a condition of the eye where light focuses in front of, instead of on, the retina.
Negative-index metamaterial or negative-index material (NIM) is a metamaterial whose refractive index for an electromagnetic wave has a negative value over some frequency range.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The Nimrud lens, also called Layard lens, is a 3000-year-old piece of rock crystal, which was unearthed in 1850 by Austen Henry Layard at the Assyrian palace of Nimrud, in modern-day Iraq.
In optics, the numerical aperture (NA) of an optical system is a dimensionless number that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can accept or emit light.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
Aberration in optics refers to a defect in a lens such that light is not focused to a point, but is spread out over some region of space, and hence an image formed by a lens with aberration is blurred or distorted, with the nature of the distortion depending on the type of aberration.
An optical axis is a line along which there is some degree of rotational symmetry in an optical system such as a camera lens or microscope.
An optical coating is one or more thin layers of material deposited on an optical component such as a lens or mirror, which alters the way in which the optic reflects and transmits light.
Optical lens design is the process of designing a lens to meet a set of performance requirements and constraints, including cost and manufacturing limitations.
An optical medium is material through which electromagnetic waves propagate.
The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.
Optical power (also referred to as dioptric power, refractive power, focusing power, or convergence power) is the degree to which a lens, mirror, or other optical system converges or diverges light.
An optical telescope is a telescope that gathers and focuses light, mainly from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, to create a magnified image for direct view, or to make a photograph, or to collect data through electronic image sensors.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Ptolemy's Optics (2nd century) is a (partially lost) work on geometrical optics, dealing with reflection, refraction, and colour.
Petzval field curvature, named for Joseph Petzval, describes the optical aberration in which a flat object normal to the optical axis (or a non-flat object past the hyperfocal distance) cannot be brought properly into focus on a flat image plane.
Photochromic lenses are optical lenses that darken on exposure to specific types of light of sufficient intensity, most commonly ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
The plate scale of a telescope connects the angular separation of an object with the linear separation of its image at the focal plane If focal length f is measured in mm, the plate scale in radians per mm is given by angular separation θ and the linear separation of the image at the focal plane s, or by simply the focal length f: since Plate scale is usually expressed in arc-seconds per mm: where f is in mm, or expressed in arc-seconds per pixel after further division through the pixel scale.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
A point source is a single identifiable localised source of something.
The point spread function (PSF) describes the response of an imaging system to a point source or point object.
Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by rubbing it or using a chemical action, leaving a surface with a significant specular reflection (still limited by the index of refraction of the material according to the Fresnel equations.) In some materials (such as metals, glasses, black or transparent stones), polishing is also able to reduce diffuse reflection to minimal values.
Presbyopia is a condition associated with the aging of the eye that results in progressively worsening ability to focus clearly on close objects.
In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light.
In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, "addition, application, attachment") is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies.
In physics, ray tracing is a method for calculating the path of waves or particles through a system with regions of varying propagation velocity, absorption characteristics, and reflecting surfaces.
Ray transfer matrix analysis (also known as ABCD matrix analysis) is a type of ray tracing technique used in the design of some optical systems, particularly lasers.
A reading stone was an approximately hemispherical lens that was placed on top of text to magnify the letters so that people with presbyopia could read it more easily.
In optics, a real image is an image which is located in the plane of convergence for the light rays that originate from a given object.
A refracting telescope (also called a refractor) is a type of optical telescope that uses a lens as its objective to form an image (also referred to a dioptric telescope).
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
A Schmidt corrector plate is an aspheric lens which is designed to correct the spherical aberration in the spherical primary mirror it is combined with.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
In physics, a sign convention is a choice of the physical significance of signs (plus or minus) for a set of quantities, in a case where the choice of sign is arbitrary.
In optics, a simple lens or singlet lens is a lens consisting of a single simple element.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunglasses or sun glasses (informally called shades) are a form of protective eyewear designed primarily to prevent bright sunlight and high-energy visible light from damaging or discomforting the eyes.
A superlens, or super lens, is a lens which uses metamaterials to go beyond the diffraction limit.
The Clouds (Νεφέλαι Nephelai) is a Greek comedy play written by the celebrated playwright Aristophanes.
In optics, a thin lens is a lens with a thickness (distance along the optical axis between the two surfaces of the lens) that is negligible compared to the radii of curvature of the lens surfaces.
A toric lens is a lens with different optical power and focal length in two orientations perpendicular to each other.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.
In optics, a virtual image is an image formed when the outgoing rays from a point on an object always diverge.
The Visby lenses are a collection of lens-shaped manufactured objects made of rock crystal (quartz) found in several Viking graves on the island of Gotland, Sweden, and dating from the 11th or 12th century.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
In photography and cinematography, a wide-angle lens refers to a lens whose focal length is substantially smaller than the focal length of a normal lens for a given film plane.
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