377 relations: Abigail Bakan, Adolph Joffe, Alan Woods (political theorist), Albert Sarraut, Aleksandra Sokolovskaya, Alexander Kerensky, Alexander Kolchak, Alexander Parvus, Alexander Shliapnikov, Alexei Rykov, All-Russian Central Executive Committee, Almaty, Amherst Internment Camp, Anarchism, Anton Denikin, Ash heap of history, Asymmetric warfare, Atheism, Austria-Hungary, Édouard Daladier, Balkan Wars, Baltic Fleet, Barbizon, Barrier troops, Battle of Warsaw (1920), Büyükada, Bereslavka, Ukraine, Berezovo, Berlin, Black Sea, Bloody Sunday (1905), Bolsheviks, Bourgeoisie, Brest, Belarus, Bureaucratic collectivism, Carlos Ramírez Sandoval, Caucasus, Central Committee elected by the 6th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks), Central Control Commission of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Central Powers, Cheka, Chen Duxiu, Chiang Kai-shek, Christian Rakovsky, Christopher Hitchens, Claude Lefort, Communist International, Communist League, Communist Party of China, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, ..., Communist Party USA, Congress of Soviets, Constantinople, Cossacks, Council of People's Commissars, Council of People's Commissars (Ukraine), Coyoacán, Czechoslovak Legion, David Alfaro Siqueiros, David North (socialist), Degenerated workers' state, Dewey Commission, Dialectical materialism, Diego Rivera, Dmitri Volkogonov, Don River (Russia), Elena Stasova, Emma Goldman, Ephraim Sklyansky, Estonia, Fanny Kaplan, Farrell Dobbs, February Revolution, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Felix Dzerzhinsky, Finland, Fourth International, Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance, Frank Orren Lowden, Free Press (publisher), Frida Kahlo, Frida Kahlo Museum, Friedrich Engels, Gatchina, General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Georgi Plekhanov, Georgy Chicherin, Georgy Gapon, Georgy Pyatakov, Gestapo, Glasnost, GNU Free Documentation License, Grand Duchy of Finland, Great Purge, Grigori Sokolnikov, Grigory Zinoviev, Group of Democratic Centralism, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Harvard University Press, Hønefoss, Heir presumptive, Henry Abramson, History of the Russian Revolution, House Un-American Activities Committee, Hurum, Hypertension, Ice axe, Ice pick, International Institute of Social History, International Socialism (magazine), International Viewpoint, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Iosif Grigulevich, Isaac Deutscher, Iskra, Ivan Sytin, Ivar Smilga, James P. 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Abigail "Abbie" B. Bakan (born 1954) is a former Professor of Political Studies at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Adolph Abramovich Joffe (Адо́льф Абра́мович Ио́ффе, alternative transliterations Adolf Ioffe or, rarely, Yoffe) (10 October 1883 in Simferopol – 16 November 1927 in Moscow) was a Communist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and a Soviet diplomat of Karaite descent.
Alan Woods (born 23 October 1944) is a British Trotskyist political theorist and author.
Albert-Pierre Sarraut (28 July 1872 – 26 November 1962) was a French Radical politician, twice Prime Minister during the Third Republic.
Aleksandra Lvovna Sokolovskaya (1872 – c. 1938) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and Leon Trotsky's first wife.
Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский,; Russian: Александръ Ѳедоровичъ Керенскій; 4 May 1881 – 11 June 1970) was a Russian lawyer and revolutionary who was a key political figure in the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak CB (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, – 7 February 1920) was an Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer who served in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War.
Alexander Lvovich Parvus born Israel Lazarevich Gelfand (1867-1924), was a Marxist theoretician, revolutionary, and a controversial activist in the Social Democratic Party of Germany.
Alexander Gavrilovich Shliapnikov (Алекса́ндр Гаври́лович Шля́пников) (August 30, 1885 – September 2, 1937) was a Russian communist revolutionary, metalworker, and trade union leader.
Alexei Ivanovich Rykov (25 February 188115 March 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician most prominent as Premier of Russia and the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1929 and 1924 to 1930 respectively.
The All-Russian Central Executive Committee (Vserossiysky Centralny Ispolnitelny Komitet (VTsIK)), was the highest legislative, administrative, and revising body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR) from 1917 until 1937.
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
Amherst Internment Camp was an internment camp that existed from 1914 to 1919 in Amherst, Nova Scotia.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anton Ivanovich Denikin (p; 8 August 1947) was a Russian Lieutenant General in the Imperial Russian Army (1916) and afterwards a leading general of the White movement in the Russian Civil War.
The phrase "ash heap of history" (or "dustbin of history") literarily speaking refers to ghost towns or artifacts that have lost their relevance.
Asymmetric warfare (or asymmetric engagement) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Édouard Daladier (18 June 1884 – 10 October 1970) was a French "radical" (i.e. centre-left) politician and the Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War.
The Balkan Wars (Balkan Savaşları, literally "the Balkan Wars" or Balkan Faciası, meaning "the Balkan Tragedy") consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913.
The Baltic Fleet (Балтийский флот) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Baltic Sea.
Barbizon is a commune (town) in the Seine-et-Marne department in north-central France.
Barrier troops, blocking units, or anti-retreat forces are troops that are placed behind the front lines during a battle in order to shoot any soldiers attempting to retreat or escape from the battle.
The Battle of Warsaw refers to the decisive Polish victory in 1920 during the Polish–Soviet War.
Büyükada (Πρίγκηπος or Πρίγκιπος, rendered Prinkipos or Prinkipo) is the largest of the nine so-called Princes' Islands in the Sea of Marmara, near Istanbul, with an area of about.
Bereslavka (Береславка) is a village in Bobrynets Raion, Kirovohrad Oblast, Ukraine.
Berezovo (Березово) or Beryozovo (Берёзово) is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bloody Sunday or Red Sunday (p) is the name given to the events of Sunday, in St Petersburg, Russia, when unarmed demonstrators led by Father Georgy Gapon were fired upon by soldiers of the Imperial Guard as they marched towards the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
Bureaucratic collectivism is a theory of class society.
Carlos Ramirez Sandoval (4 November 1939 - 29 January 2016) was born in Morelia in the state of Michoacán, Mexico.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central Committee elected by the 6th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks)
The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected by the 6th Congress, and sat from 3 August 1917 until 8 March 1918.
The Central Control Commission (Комитет партийного контроля, Komitet Partiynogo Kontrolya) was a supreme disciplinary body within the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (Всероссийская Чрезвычайная Комиссия), abbreviated as VChK (ВЧК, Ve-Che-Ka) and commonly known as Cheka, (from the initialism ChK) was the first of a succession of Soviet secret police organizations.
Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) was a Chinese revolutionary socialist, educator, philosopher, and author, who co-founded the Chinese Communist Party (with Li Dazhao) in 1921, serving from 1921 to 1927 as its first General Secretary.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
Christian Rakovsky (– September 11, 1941) was a Bulgarian socialist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and Soviet diplomat; he was also noted as a journalist, physician, and essayist.
Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.
Claude Lefort (21 April 1924 in Paris – 3 October 2010 in Paris) was a French philosopher and activist.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Communist League (German: Bund der Kommunisten) was an international political party established on June 1, 1847 in London, England.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party USA (CPUSA) is a communist political party in the United States established in 1919 after a split in the Socialist Party of America.
The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and several other Soviet republics from 1917–36 and again from 1989-91.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
The Council of People's Commissars (Совет народных комиссаров or Совнарком, translit. Soviet narodnykh kommissarov or Sovnarkom, also as generic SNK) was a government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution in 1917.
Council of People's Commissars of the Ukrainian SSR (Рада Народних Комісарів УРСР) or the Radnarkom (Раднарком) was the highest governing body of executive power in Ukrainian SSR from January 1919 to 1946.
Coyoacán is a borough (delegación) of Mexico City and the former village which is now the borough’s “historic center.” The name comes from Nahuatl and most likely means “place of coyotes,” when the Aztecs named a pre-Hispanic village on the southern shore of Lake Texcoco which was dominated by the Tepanec people.
The Czechoslovak Legion (Československé legie in Czech and Slovak) were volunteer armed forces composed predominantly of Czechs with a small number of Slovaks (approximately 8 percent) fighting together with the Entente powers during World War I. Their goal was to win the Allied Powers' support for the independence of Bohemia and Moravia from the Austrian Empire and of Slovak territories from the Kingdom of Hungary, which were then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
David Alfaro Siqueiros (born José de Jesús Alfaro Siqueiros, December 29, 1896, in Chihuahua – January 6, 1974, in Cuernavaca, Morelos) was a Mexican social realist painter, better known for his large murals in fresco.
David North (born 1950) is an American Trotskyist.
In Trotskyist political theory, a degenerated workers' state is a dictatorship of the proletariat in which the working class's democratic control over the state has given way to control by a bureaucratic clique.
The Dewey Commission (officially the "Commission of Inquiry into the Charges Made against Leon Trotsky in the Moscow Trials") was initiated in March 1937 by the American Committee for the Defense of Leon Trotsky.
Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature developed in Europe and based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957) was a prominent Mexican painter.
Dmitri Antonovich Volkogonov (Дми́трий Анто́нович Волкого́нов) (22 March 1928 – 6 December 1995) was a Soviet/Russian historian and colonel general who was head of the Soviet military's psychological warfare department.
The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia and the 5th longest river in Europe.
Elena Dmitrievna Stasova (p; 3 October 1873 – 31 December 1966) was a Russian communist revolutionary who became a political functionary working for the Communist International (Comintern).
Emma Goldman (1869May 14, 1940) was an anarchist political activist and writer.
Ephraim Markovich Sklyansky (Эфраим Маркович Склянский) (- August 27, 1925) was a Soviet revolutionary and statesman.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Fanya Yefimovna Kaplan (Фа́нни Ефи́мовна Капла́н; real name Feiga Haimovna Roytblat, Фейга Хаимовна Ройтблат; February 10, 1890 – September 3, 1918) was a member of the Socialist Revolutionary Party who allegedly tried to assassinate Vladimir Lenin.
Farrell Dobbs (July 25, 1907 – October 31, 1983) was an American Trotskyist, trade unionist, politician, and historian.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Russian: Фе́ликс Эдму́ндович Дзержи́нский; Polish: Feliks Dzierżyński; 20 July 1926), nicknamed Iron Felix, was a Polish and Soviet Bolshevik revolutionary, leader and statesman.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Fourth International (FI) is a revolutionary socialist international organisation consisting of followers of Leon Trotsky, or Trotskyists, with the declared goal of helping the working class overthrow capitalism and work toward international communism.
The Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance was a bilateral treaty between the two countries with the aim of enveloping Nazi Germany in 1935 in order to reduce the threat from central Europe.
Frank Orren Lowden (January 26, 1861 – March 20, 1943) was a Republican Party politician who served as the 25th Governor of Illinois and as a United States Representative from Illinois.
Free Press was a book publishing imprint of Simon & Schuster.
Frida Kahlo de Rivera (born Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo y Calderón; July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican artist who painted many portraits, self-portraits, and works inspired by the nature and artifacts of Mexico.
The Frida Kahlo Museum (Spanish: Museo Frida Kahlo), also known as the Blue House (La Casa Azul) for the structure's cobalt-blue walls, is a historic house museum and art museum dedicated to the life and work of Mexican artist Frida Kahlo.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Gatchina (Га́тчина) is a town and the administrative center of Gatchinsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
The General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia (אַלגעמײַנער ײדישער אַרבעטער בּונד אין ליטע פוילין און רוסלאַנד, Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Litah, Poyln un Rusland), generally called The Bund (בונד, cognate to Bund, meaning federation or union) or the Jewish Labour Bund, was a secular Jewish socialist party in the Russian Empire, active between 1897 and 1920.
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries.
Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (a; 29 November 1856 – 30 May 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician.
Georgy Vasilyevich Chicherin (24 November 1872– 7 July 1936) was a Marxist revolutionary and a Soviet politician.
Father Georgy Apollonovich Gapon (Гео́ргий Аполло́нович Гапо́н; —) was a Russian Orthodox priest and a popular working class leader before the Russian Revolution of 1905.
Georgy (Yury) Leonidovich Pyatakov (Георгий Леонидович Пятаков; August 6, 1890 – January 30, 1937) was a Bolshevik revolutionary leader and a Politician during the Russian Revolution.
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
The GNU Free Documentation License (GNU FDL or simply GFDL) is a copyleft license for free documentation, designed by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) for the GNU Project.
The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
Grigori Yakovlevich Sokolnikov (born Girsh Yankelevich Brilliant; 1888–1939) was a Russian old Bolshevik revolutionary, economist, and Soviet politician.
Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (– August 25, 1936), born Hirsch Apfelbaum, known also under the name Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky, was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician.
The Group of Democratic Centralism, sometimes called the Group of 15, the Decists, or the Decemists, was a dissenting faction within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the early 1920s.
Halifax, officially known as the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hønefoss is a town and the administrative center of the municipality of Ringerike in Buskerud county, Norway.
An heir presumptive or heiress presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent, male or female, or of a new heir presumptive with a better claim to the position in question.
Henry (Hillel) Abramson (born 1963) was the former Dean for Academic Affairs and Student Services at Touro College's Miami branch (Touro College South).
The History of the Russian Revolution by Leon Trotsky is a three-volume book on the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC, or House Committee on Un-American Activities, or HCUA) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives.
Hurum is a municipality in Buskerud county, Norway.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
An ice axe is a multi-purpose hiking and climbing tool used by mountaineers both in the ascent and descent of routes that involve frozen conditions with snow and/or ice.
An ice pick is a tool used to break up, pick at, or chip at ice.
The International Institute of Social History (IISG) is one of the largest archives for labour, left and social history in the world.
International Socialism is a British-based quarterly journal established in 1960 and published in London by the Socialist Workers Party which discusses socialist theory.
International Viewpoint is the English-language online magazine of the Trotskyist reunified Fourth International.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.
Iosif Romualdovich Grigulevich (Иосиф Ромуальдович Григулевич; May 5, 1913 – June 2, 1988) was a Soviet NKVD Operative between 1937 and 1953, when he took a leading role in assassinating Communist and Bolshevik individuals who were not loyal to Joseph Stalin.
Isaac Deutscher (3 April 1907 – 19 August 1967) was a Polish writer, journalist and political activist who moved to the United Kingdom at the outbreak of World War II.
Iskra (И́скра,, Spark) was a political newspaper of Russian socialist emigrants established as the official organ of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP).
Ivan Dmitrievich Sytin (Иван Дмитриевич Сытин; 18511934) was the son of a Soligalich peasant who built the largest publishing house in pre-revolutionary Russia.
Ivar Tenisovich Smilga (Ivars Smilga), И́вар Тени́сович Сми́лга (1892–1938) was a Bolshevik leader in, and member of the Left Opposition in the Soviet Union.
James Patrick "Jim" Cannon (February 11, 1890 – August 21, 1974) was an American Trotskyist and a leader of the Socialist Workers Party.
Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki (Iosif Romanovich while in the Russian military; sometimes also Dowbór-Muśnicki; 25 October 1867 – 26 October 1937) was a Russian military officer and Polish general, serving with the Imperial Russian and then Polish armies.
Jean Louis Maxime van Heijenoort (July 23, 1912 – March 29, 1986) was a pioneer historian of mathematical logic.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johan Nygaardsvold (6 September 1879 – 13 March 1952) was a Norwegian politician from the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of Norway from 1935 to 1945.
John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.
Jonas Lie (31 December 1899 – 11 May 1945) was a Norwegian councillor of state in the Nasjonal Samling government of Vidkun Quisling in 1940, then acting councillor of state 1940–1941, and Minister of Police between 1941 and 1945 in the new Quisling government.
Joseph Leroy Hansen (June 16, 1910 – January 18, 1979), was an American Trotskyist and leading figure in the Socialist Workers Party.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Judas Iscariot (died AD) was a disciple and one of the original Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ.
Jukums Vācietis (Иоаким Иоакимович Вацетис, Ioakim Ioakimovich Vatsetis; 11 November 1873 – 28 July 1938) was a Latvian Soviet military commander.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Julius Martov or L. Martov (born: Yuliy Osipovich Tsederbaum/Zederbaum) (24 November 1873 – 4 April 1923) was a Russian politician and revolutionary who became the leader of the Mensheviks in early 20th-century Russia.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Karl Berngardovich Radek (31 October 1885 – 19 May 1939) was a Marxist active in the Polish and German social democratic movements before World War I and an international Communist leader in the Soviet Union after the Russian Revolution.
Kerensky–Krasnov uprising was an attempt by Alexander Kerensky to regain power after the Bolsheviks overthrew his Provisional Government in Petrograd.
Kherson is a city in southern Ukraine.
The Kherson Governorate (1802–1922) (Херсонская губерния, translit.: Khersonskaya guberniya; Херсонська губернія, translit.: Khersons`ka huberniya) or Government of Kherson was a guberniya, or administrative territorial unit, between the Dnieper and Dniester Rivers, of the Russian Empire.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
The Kirov Plant, Kirov Factory or Leningrad Kirov Plant (LKZ) (Kirovskiy Zavod) is a major Russian machine-building manufacturing plant in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Konrad Gustav Knudsen (19 August 1890 - 16 June 1959) was a Norwegian painter, journalist, and parliamentarian.
The Kornilov affair, or the Kornilov putsch, was an attempted military coup d'état by the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, General Lavr Kornilov, from September 10 to 13 1917 (August 27–30 old style) against the Russian Provisional Government headed by Aleksander Kerensky and the Petrograd Soviet of Soldiers' and Workers' Deputies.
The Kronstadt rebellion (Kronshtadtskoye vosstaniye) involved a major unsuccessful uprising against the Bolsheviks in March 1921, during the later years of the Russian Civil War.
Kropyvnytskyi (Kropyvnyc'kyj) is a city in central Ukraine on the Inhul river, and is the administrative center of the Kirovohrad Oblast.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
The notion of the Labor army (трудовая армия, трудармия) was introduced in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War in 1920.
The Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet, A/Ap), formerly the Norwegian Labour Party, is a social-democratic political party in Norway.
Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.
Latvian riflemen (Latviešu strēlnieki, Латышские стрелки) were originally a military formation of the Imperial Russian Army assembled starting 1915 in Latvia in order to defend Baltic territories against Germans in World War I. Initially the battalions were formed by volunteers, and from 1916 by conscription among the Latvian population.
Lázaro Cárdenas del Río (May 21, 1895 – October 19, 1970) was a general in the Constitutionalist Army during the Mexican Revolution and a statesman who served as President of Mexico between 1934 and 1940.
Left communism is the range of communist viewpoints held by the communist left, which criticizes the political ideas and practices espoused—particularly following the series of revolutions which brought the First World War to an end—by Bolsheviks and by social democrats.
The Left Opposition was a faction within the Bolshevik Party from 1923 to 1927, headed de facto by Leon Trotsky.
The Party of Left Socialist-Revolutionaries was a revolutionary socialist political party formed during the Russian Revolution.
Lenin's Testament is the name given to a document (supposedly; perhaps generated by his secretary who was also his wife: Nadezhda Krupskaya) "written" (he was partially paralyzed and severely ill due to successive strokes) or dictated by Vladimir Lenin in the last weeks of 1922 and the first week of 1923.
Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.
The Leon Trotsky House Museum (Museo Casa de Leon Trotsky) is a museum honoring Leon Trotsky and an organization that works to promote political asylum, located in the Coyoacán borough of Mexico City.
Leonid Borisovich Krasin (Леони́д Бори́сович Кра́син; – 24 November 1926) was a Russian engineer, social entrepreneur and Soviet Bolshevik politician and diplomat.
Leonid Petrovich Serebryakov (Russian: Леонид Петрович Серебряков) (11 June 1890 - 1 February 1937) was a Russian politician and Bolshevik victim of Joseph Stalin's Great Purge.
Lessons of October (Russian: Уроки Октября) is a polemical essay of about 60 printed pages in length by Leon Trotsky, first published in Moscow in October 1924 as the preface to the third volume of his Collected Works. The essay was harshly critical of the purported revolutionary failings of Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev, two key members of the collective leadership which briefly ruled Soviet Russia in the months after the death of V.I. Lenin.
Lev Borisovich Kamenev (born Rozenfeld; – 25 August 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician.
Lev Lvovich Sedov (Лев Львович Седов, also known as Leon Sedov; 24 February 1906 – 16 February 1938) was the son of the Russian Communist leader Leon Trotsky and his second wife Natalia Sedova.
The following is a chronological list of books by Leon Trotsky, a Marxist theoretician, including hardcover and paperback books and pamphlets published during his life and posthumously during the years immediately following his assassination in the summer of 1940.
This is a list of people appearing on the cover of ''Time'' magazine in the 1920s.
This is a list of people appearing on the cover of ''Time'' magazine in the 1930s.
This is a list of Trotskyist internationals.
The following is a List of Trotskyist organizations by country.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Martin Dies Jr. (November 5, 1900 – November 14, 1972) was a Texas politician and a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Marxists Internet Archive (also known as MIA or Marxists.org) is a non-profit website that hosts a multilingual library (created in 1990) of the works of Marxist, communist, socialist, and anarchist writers, such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Rosa Luxemburg, Che Guevara, Mikhail Bakunin, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, as well as that of writers of related ideologies, and even unrelated ones (for instance, Sun Tzu and Adam Smith).
Matvey Ivanovich Skobelev (Матве́й Ива́нович Ско́белев; November 9, 1885, Baku – July 29, 1938, Moscow) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and politician.
Max Forrester Eastman (January 4, 1883 – March 25, 1969) was an American writer on literature, philosophy and society, a poet and a prominent political activist.
Alexei Maximovich Peshkov (Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в or Пе́шков; – 18 June 1936), primarily known as Maxim (Maksim) Gorky (Макси́м Го́рький), was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist.
The Medvedev Forest massacre was a mass execution in the Soviet Union carried out by the NKVD on September 11, 1941.
The Mensheviks (меньшевики) were a faction in the Russian socialist movement, the other being the Bolsheviks.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
The Mezhraiontsy (p), usually translated as the "Interdistrictites," were members of a small independent faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), which existed between 1913 and 1917.
Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch-Bruyevich (Михаи́л Дми́триевич Бонч-Бруе́вич; – 3 August 1956) was an Imperial Russian and Soviet military commander, Lieutenant General (1944).
Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze (2 February 1885 – 31 October 1925) was a Bolshevik leader during and just prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Mikhail Mikhailovich Lashevich (Михаил Михайлович Лашевич; 1884 in Odessa, Russian Empire – 30 August 1928 in Harbin, China), also known under the name Gaskovich, born of a Jewish family was a Soviet military and party leader, and member of Bolshevik Russian Social Democratic Labour Party since 1901.
Mikhail Ivanovich Tereshchenko (Михаи́л Ива́нович Тере́щенко; Михайло Іванович Терещенко) (18 March 1886, in Kiev – 1 April 1956, in Monaco) was the foreign minister of Russia from 18 May 1917 to 7 November 1917.
Mikhail Pavlovich Tomsky (Russian: Михаи́л Па́влович То́мский, born Mikhail Pavlovich Yefremovsometimes transliterated as Efremov; Михаи́л Па́влович Ефре́мов; 31 October 1880 – 22 August 1936) was a factory worker, trade unionist and Bolshevik leader.
Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Михаи́л Никола́евич Тухаче́вский; – June 12, 1937) was a leading Soviet military leader and theoretician from 1918 to 1937.
The Military Revolutionary Committee (Военно-революционный комитет, Voyennо-revolyutsionny komitet), was the name for military organs created by Bolsheviks Party organizations under the soviets in preparation for the October Revolution (October 1917 – March 1918).
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
The Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union refers to the head of the Ministry of Defence who was responsible for defence of the communist Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 to 1922 and the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991.
This is a list of foreign ministers of Tsardom of Russia, Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Soviet Union, and Russian Federation.
The Ministry of External Relations (MER) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Министерство иностранных дел СССР), formed on 16 July 1923, was one of the most important government offices in the Soviet Union.
Mobilization, in military terminology, is the act of assembling and readying troops and supplies for war.
Moisei Solomonovich Uritsky (Моисей Соломонович Урицкий; &ndash) was a Bolshevik revolutionary leader in Russia.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
The Moscow Trials were a series of trials held in the Soviet Union at the instigation of Joseph Stalin between 1936 and 1938 against so-called Trotskyists and members of Right Opposition of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
The Moscow-Kazan railway was opened in 1893.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
My Life: An Attempt at an Autobiography (Russian: Моя Жизнь) is the name of the Russian revolutionary Communist leader Leon Trotsky's autobiography.
Mykolaiv (Микола́їв), also known as Nikolaev or Nikolayev (Никола́ев), is a city in southern Ukraine, the administrative center of the Mykolaiv Oblast.
Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary, politician, and the wife of Vladimir Lenin from 1898 until his death in 1924.
Nahum Isaakovich Eitingon, or Naum Isaakovič Ejtingon (Наум Исаакович Эйтингон, נחום אייטינגון), also known as Leonid Aleksandrovich Eitingon (Леонид Александрович Эйтингон), Ekho Moskvy (Moscow Echo) 06.09.2009: Interview of Nikita Petrov by Yevgeny Kiselyov (in Russian) - "As his immediate superior for many years, General Pavel Sudoplatov, recalled that, in the Lubyanka, Eitingon was known among his friends as Leonid Aleksandrovich; already in the 1920s, almost all Jewish Chekists took Russian names so as not to emphasize their national origin." (6 December 1899, Shkloŭ, Mogilev Governorate – 3 May 1981, Moscow), was a Soviet intelligence officer, who has been described by Yevgeny Kiselyov as one of the organisers and managers of the state terrorism system under Joseph Stalin and later a victim thereof.
The Narodniks (народники) were a politically conscious movement of the Russian middle class in the 1860s and 1870s, some of whom became involved in revolutionary agitation against tsarism.
Narva (Нарва) is the third largest city in Estonia.
Nasjonal Samling (NS; literally "National Union") was a Norwegian far-right party active from 1933 to 1945.
Natalia Ivanovna Sedova (Ната́лья Ива́новна Седо́ва; April 5, 1882 Romny, Russian Empire– January 23, 1962, Corbeil-Essonnes, Paris, France) is best known as the second wife of Leon Trotsky, the Russian revolutionary.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction." The institute has conducted an in-depth study of addiction according to its biological, behavioral and social components.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The New American Library (NAL) is an American publisher based in New York, founded in 1948.
The New Economic Policy (NEP, Russian новая экономическая политика, НЭП) was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin in 1921 as a temporary expedient.
Newton Diehl Baker Jr. (December 3, 1871December 25, 1937) was an American lawyer, Georgist,Noble, Ransom E. "Henry George and the Progressive Movement." The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, vol.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (– 15 March 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary, Soviet politician and prolific author on revolutionary theory.
Nikolai Vasilyevich Krylenko (p; May 2, 1885 – July 29, 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet politician.
Nikolai Ilyich Podvoisky (Николай Ильич Подвойский) (February 4 (16), 1880 – July 28, 1948) was a Russian revolutionary.
Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Никола́й Никола́евич Юде́нич) (5 October 1933) was a commander of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. He was a leader of the anti-communist White movement in Northwestern Russia during the Civil War.
Nikoloz Semyonovich Chkheidze (ნიკოლოზ (კარლო) ჩხეიძე; Никола́й (Карло) Семёнович Чхеи́дзе), commonly known as Karlo Chkheidze (9 March 1864 – 13 June, 1926), was a Georgian social democratic politician.
Nikolay Nikolayevich Krestinsky (Никола́й Никола́евич Крести́нский; 13 October 1883 – 15 March 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet politician.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
Nora Volkow (born 27 March 1956) is a Mexican-born naturalized American psychiatrist.
Norderhov is a former municipality located within Ringerike in Buskerud county, Norway.
The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the Nationalists, against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.
Novy Mir (Но́вый Ми́р,, New World) was a magazine published by Russian social democratic émigrés in New York City in 1916–1917 until their return to Russia after the February Revolution of 1917.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
Olav Andreas Scheflo (9 September 1883 - 25 June 1943) was a Norwegian Communist politician and journalist.
Old Bolshevik (ста́рый большеви́к, stary bolshevik), also Old Bolshevik Guard or Old Party Guard, became an unofficial designation for those who were members of the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Olga Davidovna Kameneva (Ольга Давыдовна Каменева, Ольга Давидiвна Каменева; 1883 – 11 September 1941) (née Bronstein — Бронштейн) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
The Operation Faustschlag ("Operation Fist Punch"), also known as the Eleven Days' War,Mawdsley (2007), p. 35 was a Central Powers offensive against the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) in World War I. It was the last major action on the Eastern Front.
The Order of Lenin (Orden Lenina), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was established by the Central Executive Committee on April 6, 1930.
The Order of the Red Banner (transl) was the first Soviet military decoration.
The Orgburo (Оргбюро́), also known as the Organisational Bureau (организационное бюро), of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union existed from 1919 to 1952, until it was abolished at the 19th Congress of the Communist Party and its functions were transferred to the enlarged Secretariat.
Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål (Oslo universitetssykehus, Ullevål), formerly Ullevål University Hospital (Ullevål universitetssykehus) in Oslo, Norway is one of the four main campuses of Oslo University Hospital.
Our Revolution (Наша революция) is a book by Leon Trotsky, published in 1906.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Party discipline is the ability of a parliamentary group of a political party to get its members to support the policies of their party leadership.
Paul Joseph Le Blanc (born 1947) is an American historian and activist.
Pavel Efimovich Dybenko (Павел Ефимович Дыбенко), (February 16, 1889 – July 29, 1938) was a Soviet revolutionary and a leading officer.
Pavel Nikolayevich Miliukov (p; 31 March 1943) was a Russian historian and liberal politician.
Lieutenant General Pavel Anatolyevich Sudoplatov (Пáвел Aнатóльевич Cудоплáтов; July 7, 1907 – September 26, 1996) was a member of the intelligence services of the Soviet Union who rose to the rank of lieutenant general.
Permanent revolution is a term within Marxist theory, coined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels by at least 1850 but which has since become most closely associated with Leon Trotsky.
The Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies (Петроградский Совет рабочих и солдатских депутатов, Petrogradskiy soviet rabochikh i soldatskikh deputatov) was a city council of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), the capital of the Russian Empire.
Pierre Frank (24 October 1905, Paris – 18 April 1984, Paris) was a French Trotskyist leader.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
A politburo or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.
The Politburo (p, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS) was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
In the military, a political commissar or political officer (or politruk, from политический руководитель, "political leader"), is a supervisory officer responsible for the political education (ideology) and organization of the unit they are assigned to, and intended to ensure civilian control of the military.
A political revolution, in the Trotskyist theory, is an upheaval in which the government is replaced, or the form of government altered, but in which property relations are predominantly left intact.
Poltava (Полтава; Полтава) is a city located on the Vorskla River in central Ukraine.
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Pravda (a, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
The Prosecutor General of Russia (also Attorney General of Russia, Генеральный Прокурор Российской Федерации) heads the system of official prosecution in courts known and heads the Office of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation (Генеральная прокуратура Российской Федерации).
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
Puyi or Pu Yi (7 February 190617 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.
Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov (Пётр Николаевич Краснов; September 22 (September 10 old style), 1869 – January 17, 1947), sometimes referred to in English as Peter Krasnov, was a Don Cossack historian and officer, promoted to Lieutenant General of the Russian army when the revolution broke out in 1917, and one of the leaders of the counter-revolutionary White movement afterwards.
A radiogram is a formal written message transmitted by radio.
Jaime Ramón Mercader del Río (7 February 1913 – 18 October 1978),Photograph of more commonly known as Ramón Mercader, was a Spanish communist and NKVD agent who assassinated the Russian Bolshevik revolutionary Leon Trotsky in Mexico City in August 1940.
Raymond Molinier (1904–1994) was a leader of the Trotskyist movement in France and a pioneer of the Fourth International.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Red Guards (Красная гвардия) were paramilitary volunteer formations consisting mainly of factory workers, peasants, cossacks and partially of soldiers and sailors for "protection of the soviet power".
The Red Terror was a period of political repression and mass killings carried out by Bolsheviks after the beginning of the Russian Civil War in 1918.
Rehabilitation (реабилитация, transliterated in English as reabilitatsiya or academically rendered as reabilitacija) was a term used in the context of the former Soviet Union, and the Post-Soviet states.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
The Revolutionary Military Council (Revolutionary Military Council), sometimes called the Revolutionary War Council or Revvoyensoviet (Реввоенсовет), was the supreme military authority of Soviet Russia and later the Soviet Union.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
Richard Edgar Pipes (Ryszard Pipes; July 11, 1923 – May 17, 2018) was a Polish American academic who specialized in Russian history, particularly with respect to the Soviet Union, who espoused a strong anti-communist point of view throughout his career.
Joseph Stalin was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953.
Robert John Service (born 29 October 1947) is a British historian, academic, and author who has written extensively on the history of the Soviet Union, particularly the era from the October Revolution to Stalin's death.
Robert Sheldon Harte (1915 – 24 May 1940) was an American Communist who worked as one of Leon Trotsky’s assistants and bodyguards in Coyoacán, Mexico.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Royan (in Saintongeais dialect) is a commune in the south-west of France, located in the department of Charente-Maritime (Nouvelle-Aquitaine region).
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Provisional Government (Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917.
The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP;, Rossiyskaya sotsial-demokraticheskaya rabochaya partiya (RSDRP)), also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist political party in Minsk, Belarus.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saint Petersburg Soviet of Workers' Delegates was a workers' council, or soviet, in Saint Petersburg in 1905.
The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (p; Sakha Öröspüübülükete), simply Sakha (Yakutia) (Саха (Якутия); Sakha Sire), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
Salekhard (Салеха́рд; Khanty: Пуӆңават, Pułñawat; Саляʼ харад, Salja’ harad - lit. house on a peninsula) is a town and the administrative center of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia.
The Second International (1889–1916), the original Socialist International, was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889.
A secret treaty is "an international agreement in which the contracting parties have agreed, either in the treaty instrument or separately, to conceal its existence or at least its substance from other states and the public." According to one compilation of secret treaties published in 2004, there have been 593 secret treaties negotiated by 110 countries and independent political entities since the year 1521.
Sergei Lvovich Sedov (1908–1937) was Leon Trotsky's younger son by his second wife, Natalia Sedova, and an engineer.
Sergey Sergeyevich Kamenev (Серге́й Серге́евич Ка́менев; April 4 (16), 1881 – August 25, 1936), was a Soviet military leader with the Komandarm 1st rank.
Sergei Mironovich Kirov (born Kostrikov; – 1 December 1934) was a prominent early Bolshevik leader in the Soviet Union.
The Shanghai massacre of April 12, 1927, known commonly as the April 12 Incident, was the violent suppression of Communist Party of China (CPC) organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Chiang Kai-shek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party, or KMT).
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Simone Weil (3 February 1909 – 24 August 1943) was a French philosopher, mystic, and political activist. The mathematician Andre Weil was her brother. After her graduation from formal education, Weil became a teacher. She taught intermittently throughout the 1930s, taking several breaks due to poor health and to devote herself to political activism, work that would see her assisting in the trade union movement, taking the side of the Anarchists known as the Durruti Column in the Spanish Civil War, and spending more than a year working as a labourer, mostly in auto factories, so she could better understand the working class. Taking a path that was unusual among twentieth-century left-leaning intellectuals, she became more religious and inclined towards mysticism as her life progressed. Weil wrote throughout her life, though most of her writings did not attract much attention until after her death. In the 1950s and 1960s, her work became famous in continental Europe and throughout the English-speaking world. Her thought has continued to be the subject of extensive scholarship across a wide range of fields. A meta study from the University of Calgary found that between 1995 and 2012 over 2,500 new scholarly works had been published about her. Albert Camus described her as "the only great spirit of our times".
The Social Democratic Party of Austria (Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, SPÖ) is a social-democratic political party in Austria and alongside the People's Party one of the two traditional major parties.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (also rendered as Swiss Socialist Party; Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz, SP; Parti socialiste suisse, PS; Partito Socialista Svizzero; Partida Socialdemocrata de la Svizra) is a political party in Switzerland.
Socialism in one country (sotsializm v odnoi strane) was a theory put forth by Joseph Stalin and Nikolai Bukharin in 1924 which was eventually adopted by the Soviet Union as state policy.
The Socialist Workers Party (SWP) is a far-left political party in Britain.
The Socialist Workers Party (SWP) is a communist party in the United States.
Soviets (singular: soviet; sovét,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Special Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness—A Soviet Spymaster is the autobiography of Pavel Sudoplatov, who was a member of the intelligence services of the Soviet Union who rose to the rank of lieutenant general.
SS Kristianiafjord was the first ship in the fleet of the Norwegian America Line, built by Cammell Laird in Birkenhead, UK.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
A standing ovation is a form of applause where members of a seated audience stand up while applauding after extraordinary performances of particularly high acclaim.
The State Political Directorate (also translated as the State Political Administration) (GPU) was the intelligence service and secret police of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) from February 6, 1922 to December 29, 1922 and the Soviet Union from December 29, 1922 until November 15, 1923.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
Surzhyk refers to a range of mixed (macaronic) sociolects of Ukrainian and Russian languages used in certain regions of Ukraine and adjacent lands.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Tampico is a city and port in the southeastern part of the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Russian News Agency TASS (Informatsionnoye agentstvo Rossii TASS), abbr.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Edward "Ted" Grant (born Isaac Blank; 9 July 1913 – 20 July 2006) was a South African Trotskyist who spent most of his adult life in Britain.
The Age is a daily newspaper that has been published in Melbourne, Australia, since 1854.
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U.S. state of New York.
The Declaration of 46 was a secret letter sent by a group of 46 leading Soviet communists to the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party on 15 October 1923.
The Development of Capitalism in Russia was an early economic work by Lenin written whilst he was in exile in Siberia.
The Forward (Forverts), formerly known as The Jewish Daily Forward, is an American magazine published monthly in New York City for a Jewish-American audience.
The Revolution Betrayed: What Is the Soviet Union and Where Is It Going? (Преданная революция: Что такое СССР и куда он идет?) is a book published in 1937 by the exiled Soviet Bolshevik leader Leon Trotsky.
Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was an American lawyer, prosecutor, and politician.
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Trade unions in the Soviet Union, headed by the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions (VTsSPS), had a complex relationship with industrial management, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and the Soviet government, given that the Soviet Union was ideologically supposed to be a state in which the members of the working class ruled the country and managed themselves.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
Trial in absentia is a criminal proceeding in a court of law in which the person who is subject to it is not physically present at those proceedings.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
Trotsky's train was the personal armoured train of Leon Trotsky, the Soviet People's Commissar of Defense.
Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky.
Trygve Halvdan Lie (16 July 1896 – 30 December 1968) was a Norwegian politician, labour leader, government official and author.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tula (p) is an industrial city and the administrative center of Tula Oblast, Russia, located south of Moscow, on the Upa River.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
A united front is an alliance of groups against their common enemies, figuratively evoking unification of previously separate geographic fronts and/or unification of previously separate armies into a front—the name often refers to a political and/or military struggle carried out by revolutionaries, especially in revolutionary socialism, communism or anarchism.
The United Opposition (sometimes also called the Joint Opposition) was a group formed in the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) in early 1926, when the Left Opposition led by Leon Trotsky, merged with the New Opposition led by Grigory Zinoviev and his close ally Lev Kamenev, in order to strengthen opposition against the Joseph Stalin led Centre.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
Ust-Kut (Усть-Кут) is a town and the administrative center of Ust-Kutsky District in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located from Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast.
Vadim Zakharovich Rogovin (Вади́м Заха́рович Рого́вин) (10 May 1937 in Moscow – 25 September 1998 in Moscow) was a Russian Marxist (Trotskyist by David North) historian and sociologist, Ph.D. in philosophy, Leading Researcher at the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the author of Was There An Alternative?, the 7-volume study of Stalin era between 1923 and 1940, with an emphasis on the Trotskyist opposition.
In the context of the theory of Marxist–Leninist revolutionary struggle, vanguardism is a strategy whereby the most class-conscious and politically advanced sections of the proletariat or working class, described as the revolutionary vanguard, form organizations in order to draw larger sections of the working class towards revolutionary politics and serve as manifestations of proletarian political power against its class enemies.
Variations on the Death of Trotsky is a short one-act comedy-drama written by David Ives for the series of one-act plays titled All in the Timing.
Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling (18 July 1887 – 24 October 1945) was a Norwegian military officer and politician who nominally headed the government of Norway during the occupation of the country by Nazi Germany during World War II.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (né Skryabin; 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin.
Walter Ze'ev Laqueur (born 26 May 1921) is an American historian, journalist and political commentator.
War communism or military communism (Военный коммунизм, Voyennyy kommunizm) was the economic and political system that existed in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War from 1918 to 1921.
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.
Westport is an affluent town located in Connecticut, along Long Island Sound within Connecticut's Gold Coast in Fairfield County, Connecticut.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
William Signius Knudsen (March 25, 1879 – April 27, 1948) was a leading automotive industry executive and an American general during World War II.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The Winter Palace (p, Zimnij dvorets) in Saint Petersburg, Russia, was, from 1732 to 1917, the official residence of the Russian monarchs.
The Workers' Opposition (Рабочая оппозиция) was a faction of the Russian Communist Party that emerged in 1920 as a response to the perceived over-bureaucratisation that was occurring in Soviet Russia.
Worker's Truth (Rabochaya Pravda) was Russian socialist opposition group which was founded in 1921.
The World Socialist Web Site (WSWS) is an international socialist news site that is the online news and information center of the International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI).
Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov (Яков Михайлович Свердлов; 3 June 1885 – 16 March 1919) known by pseudonyms "Andrei", "Mikhalych", "Max", "Smirnov", "Permyakov"; was a Bolshevik party administrator and chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yevgeni Alekseyevich Preobrazhensky (p; 1886–1937) was a Russian revolutionary and economist.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
The Zimmerwald Conference was held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, from 5 to 8 September 1915.
Zinaida Lvovna Volkova (née Bronstein; Зинаи́да Льво́вна Во́лкова; 27 March 1901 – 5 January 1933) was a Russian Marxist.
The 10th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was held during March 8–16, 1921 in Moscow.
The 10th Politburo and the 10th Secretariat of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) were elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 10th Central Committee, in the immediate aftermath of the 10th Congress.
The 11th Politburo and the 11th Secretariat of the Russian Communist Party (bolsheviks) were elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee, in the immediate aftermath of the 11th Congress.
The 12th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was held during 17–25 April 1923 in Moscow.
The 12th Politburo and 12th Secretariat of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) were elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 12th Central Committee, in the immediate aftermath of the 12th Congress.
The 13th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was held during 23–31 May 1924 in Moscow.
The 13th Politburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was elected by the 13th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 13th Congress.
The 14th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was held during 18–31 December 1925 in Moscow.
The 14th Politburo and the 14th Secretariat of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) were elected by the 14th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 14th Congress.
The 15th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was held during 2–19 December 1927 in Moscow.
The 1st Congress of the RSDLP (Russian: Российская социал-демократическая рабочая партия, РСДРП) was held between March 13–March 15 (March 1–March 3, O.S.) 1898 in Minsk, Russian Empire (now Belarus) in secrecy.
The 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was held during July 30–August 23 (July 17–August 10, O.S.) 1903, starting in Brussels, Belgium (until August 6) and ending in London.
The 5th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was held in London between May 13 and June 1, 1907.
The 6 February 1934 crisis was an anti-parliamentarist street demonstration in Paris organized by multiple far-right leagues that culminated in a riot on the Place de la Concorde, near the seat of the French National Assembly.
The 7th Bureau and the 7th Secretariat of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) were elected by a Session of the 7th Central Committee in the immediate aftermath of the 7th Congress.
The 8th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (b) was held in Moscow 18–23 March 1919.
The 8th Politburo and the 8th Secretariat of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) were elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 8th Central Committee in the immediate aftermath of the 8th Congress.
The 9th Politburo, the 9th Secretariat and the 9th Orgburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) were elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 9th Central Committee, in the immediate aftermath of the 9th Congress.
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