283 relations: Adam and Eve, Adding machine, Adoration of the Magi (Leonardo), Aerial perspective, Alastair Sooke, Albrecht Dürer, Altarpiece, Amboise, Anatomy, Anchiano, Ancient Greek sculpture, Andrea del Sarto, Andrea del Verrocchio, Angelica Kauffman, Annunciation, Anonimo Gaddiano, Antonello da Messina, Antonio da Correggio, Antonio da Sangallo the Elder, Antonio del Pollaiolo, Aorta, Architecture, Aristotle, Armoured fighting vehicle, Arno, Astronomy, Atherosclerosis, Baldassare Castiglione, Bargello, Bartolomeo Colleoni, Battle of Cascina (Michelangelo), Bayezid II, Beatrice d'Este, Benois Madonna, Benvenuto Cellini, Bernard Berenson, Bernardino Luini, Bernardo Bandini Baroncelli, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Biblioteca Nacional de España, Bill Gates, Biomechanics, Bobbin, Bologna, Bosporus, Botany, British Library, Bronze, Cartography, Cecilia Gallerani, ..., Cennino Cennini, Cesare Borgia, Cesena, Channel 4, Charles II d'Amboise, Charles VIII of France, Château d'Amboise, Chiaroscuro, Christie's, Circulatory system, Cirrhosis, Civil law notary, Classical architecture, Clos Lucé, Codex Arundel, Codex Atlanticus, Codex Leicester, Codex on the Flight of Birds, Codex Urbinas, Concentrated solar power, Constantinople, Cortile del Belvedere, Cristoforo Landino, Cultural icon, David (Michelangelo), David (Verrocchio), Davinciite, De divina proportione, De pictura, Dissection, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Donatello, Donato Bramante, Double hull, Early Netherlandish painting, Emanuel Winternitz, Engineering, Equestrian statue, Equestrian statue of Gattamelata, Expulsion from the Garden of Eden, Fetus, Filippo Lippi, Florence, Fluid dynamics, Fra Angelico, Francesco I Sforza, Francesco Melzi, Francis I of France, Fresco, Galileo Galilei, Geology, Geometry, Ghirlandaio, Giorgio Vasari, Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis, Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio, Giovanni Bellini, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Gold leaf, Golden Horn, Guild of Saint Luke, Hamlet (place), Helen Gardner (art historian), Helicopter, Helicopter rotor, Henry Fuseli, High Renaissance, Hippolyte Taine, History, History of aviation, Holy Family, Horse and Rider (Leonardo da Vinci), Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova, House of Medici, Hugo van der Goes, Human body, Human skeleton, Humorism, Ichnology, Imola, Interchange (de Kooning), International Mineralogical Association, Invention, Isaac Newton, Italian Renaissance, Italian Renaissance painting, Italian scudo, Italian War of 1499–1504, Italians, Italy, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Jerome, John Argyropoulos, John the Baptist, Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Hungary, Kite (bird), Lady with an Ermine, Last Supper, Latin, Legitimacy (family law), Leon Battista Alberti, Leonardo da Vinci, A Memory of His Childhood, Leonardo da Vinci: The Flights of the Mind, Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport, Leonardo's horse, Leonardo's robot, Les Femmes d'Alger, List of Italian painters, List of rulers of Milan, List of vegetarians, Literature, Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, Lombardy, Lorenzo de' Medici, Lorenzo di Credi, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Louvre, Luca della Robbia, Luca Pacioli, Ludovico Sforza, Lyon, Lyre, Madonna (art), Madonna of the Carnation, Mantua, Marcantonio della Torre, Marco d'Oggiono, Marsilio Ficino, Mary, mother of Jesus, Masaccio, Mathematics, Matteo Bandello, Matthias Corvinus, Maurizio Seracini, Medical Renaissance, Medusa (Leonardo da Vinci painting), Metallurgy, Michelangelo, Milan, Milan Cathedral, Military engineering, Mino da Fiesole, Mirror writing, Mona Lisa, Muscle, Museo Nazionale Scienza e Tecnologia Leonardo da Vinci, Music, National Gallery, Natural philosophy, Neoplatonism, Niccolò Machiavelli, Nicolas Poussin, Notary, Oil paint, Oil painting, Optics, Ornithopter, Oxford University Press, Pablo Picasso, Painting, Palazzo Vecchio, Paleontology, Paolo Uccello, Paolo Veronese, Parachute, Pazzi conspiracy, Penance, Peter Paul Rubens, Physiognomy, Piero della Francesca, Pietro Perugino, Polymath, Pontormo, Pope Alexander VI, Pope Leo X, Portinari Altarpiece, Prior, Raphael, Raphael (archangel), Renaissance humanism, Renaissance technology, Republic of Florence, Sacraments of the Catholic Church, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Salaì, Salvator Mundi (Leonardo), Sandro Botticelli, Santa Maria delle Grazie (Milan), Santissima Annunziata, Florence, Science, Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci, Sculpture, Sex organ, Sfumato, Sigmund Freud, Sistine Chapel, Sodomy, St. Jerome in the Wilderness (Leonardo), St. John the Baptist (Leonardo), Steam cannon, Sultan, Tank, Tempera, Tendon, Terracotta, The Baptism of Christ (Verrocchio), The Battle of Anghiari (painting), The Last Supper (Leonardo da Vinci), The Virgin and Child with St Anne and St John the Baptist, The Virgin and Child with St. Anne (Leonardo), Theophilus Presbyter, Theotokos, Time (magazine), Tintoretto, Tobias and the Angel (Verrocchio), Tuscany, Uffizi, Ultimate tensile strength, Valdichiana, Vebjørn Sand Da Vinci Project, Venice, Ventricular system, Victoria and Albert Museum, Vinci, Tuscany, Vineyard, Viola organista, Virgin of the Rocks, Vitruvian Man, Walter Isaacson, Willem de Kooning, Windsor Castle, Writing. 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Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman.
An adding machine was a class of mechanical calculator, usually specialized for bookkeeping calculations.
The Adoration of the Magi is an early painting by Leonardo da Vinci.
Aerial perspective or atmospheric perspective refers to the effect the atmosphere has on the appearance of an object as it is viewed from a distance.
Alastair Sooke (born 1981) is an English art critic and broadcaster, most notable for reporting and commenting on art for the British media and writing and presenting documentaries on art and art history for BBC television and radio.
Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.
An altarpiece is an artwork such as a painting, sculpture or relief representing a religious subject made for placing behind the altar of a Christian church.
Amboise is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Anchiano is a village (frazione) in the comune of Vinci, Tuscany, central Italy.
Ancient Greek sculpture is the sculpture of ancient Greece.
Andrea del Sarto (1486–1530) was an Italian painter from Florence, whose career flourished during the High Renaissance and early Mannerism.
Andrea del Verrocchio (1435 – 1488), born Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' Cioni, was an Italian painter, sculptor, and goldsmith who was a master of an important workshop in Florence.
Maria Anna Angelika Kauffmann (30 October 1741 – 5 November 1807), usually known in English as Angelica Kauffman, was a Swiss Neoclassical painter who had a successful career in London and Rome.
The Annunciation (from Latin annuntiatio), also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation.
An anonymous author known as the Anonimo Gaddiano, Anonimo Magliabechiano, or Anonimo Fiorentino ("the anonymous Florentine") is the author of the Codice Magliabechiano or Magliabechiano, a manuscript with 128 pages of text, probably from the 1530s and 1540s, and now in the Central National Library of Florence (Magliab. XVII, 17).
Antonello da Messina, properly Antonello di Giovanni di Antonio, but also called Antonello degli Antoni and Anglicized as Anthony of Messina (1430February 1479), was an Italian painter from Messina, Sicily, active during the Italian Renaissance.
Antonio Allegri da Correggio (August 1489 – March 5, 1534), usually known as Correggio, was the foremost painter of the Parma school of the Italian Renaissance, who was responsible for some of the most vigorous and sensuous works of the 16th century.
Antonio da Sangallo the Elder (c. 1453December 27, 1534) was an Italian Renaissance architect who specialized in the design of fortifications.
Antonio del Pollaiuolo (17 January 1429/14334 February 1498), also known as Antonio di Jacopo Pollaiuolo or Antonio Pollaiuolo, was an Italian painter, sculptor, engraver and goldsmith during the Italian Renaissance.
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities.
The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
Baldassare Castiglione (December 6, 1478 – February 2, 1529),Dates of birth and death, and cause of the latter, from, Italica, Rai International online.
The Bargello, also known as the Palazzo del Bargello, Museo Nazionale del Bargello, or Palazzo del Popolo (Palace of the People), is a former barracks and prison, now an art museum, in Florence, Italy.
Bartolomeo Colleoni (1400 – 2 November 1475) was an Italian condottiero, who became captain-general of the Republic of Venice.
The Battle of Cascina is a lost artwork by Michelangelo.
Bayezid II (3 December 1447 – 26 May 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i s̱ānī, Turkish: II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512.
Beatrice d'Este (29 June 1475 – 3 January 1497), was duchess of Bari and Milan by marriage to Ludovico Sforza (known as "il Moro").
Madonna and Child with Flowers, otherwise known as the Benois Madonna, could be one of two Madonnas Leonardo da Vinci had commented on having started in October 1478.
Benvenuto Cellini (3 November 150013 February 1571) was an Italian goldsmith, sculptor, draftsman, soldier, musician, and artist who also wrote a famous autobiography and poetry.
Bernard Berenson (June 26, 1865 – October 6, 1959) was an American art historian specializing in the Renaissance.
Bernardino Luini (c. 1480/82 – June 1532) was a North Italian painter from Leonardo's circle.
Bernardo Bandini Baroncelli (15 January 1420-29 December 1479) was an Italian merchant and one of the instigators of the Pazzi Conspiracy.
The Biblioteca Ambrosiana is a historic library in Milan, Italy, also housing the Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, the Ambrosian art gallery.
The Biblioteca Nacional de España (National Library of Spain) is a major public library, the largest in Spain, and one of the largest in the world.
William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, investor, author, philanthropist, humanitarian, and principal founder of Microsoft Corporation.
Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics.
A bobbin is a spindle or cylinder, with or without flanges, on which wire, yarn, thread or film is wound.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
Cecilia Gallerani (1473–1536), born in Siena, Italy, was the favourite and most celebrated of the many mistresses of Ludovico Sforza, known as Lodovico il Moro, Duke of Milan.
Cennino d'Andrea Cennini (c. 1360 – before 1427) was an Italian painter influenced by Giotto.
Cesare Borgia (Catalan:; César Borja,; 13 September 1475 – 12 March 1507), Duke of Valentinois, was an Italian condottiero, nobleman, politician, and cardinal with Aragonese origin, whose fight for power was a major inspiration for The Prince by Machiavelli.
Cesena (Cisêna) is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, south of Ravenna and west of Rimini, on the Savio River, co-chief of the Province of Forlì-Cesena.
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
Charles d'Amboise, Seigneur de Chaumont (1473 – 11 February 1511) was a French nobleman, who acted as French governor of Milan (1503–1511) during the reign of Louis XII and as a French commander during the War of the League of Cambrai.
Charles VIII, called the Affable, l'Affable (30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498.
The royal Château at Amboise is a château located in Amboise, in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France.
Chiaroscuro (Italian for light-dark), in art, is the use of strong contrasts between light and dark, usually bold contrasts affecting a whole composition.
Christie's is a British auction house.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Civil-law notaries, or Latin notaries, are agents of noncontentious private civil law who draft, take, and record instruments for private parties and are vested as public officers with the authentication power of the State.
Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of Vitruvius.
The Château du Clos Lucé (or simply Clos Lucé) is a large château in the city of Amboise, France.
Codex Arundel, (British Library, Arundel, 263) is a bound collection of pages of notes written by Leonardo da Vinci and dating mostly from between 1480 and 1518.
The Codex Atlanticus (Atlantic Codex) is a twelve-volume, bound set of drawings and writings (in Italian) by Leonardo da Vinci, the largest such set; its name indicates the large paper used to preserve original da Vinci notebook pages, which was that used for atlases.
The Codex Leicester (also briefly known as Codex Hammer) is a collection of scientific writings by Leonardo da Vinci.
Codex on the Flight of Birds is a relatively short codex of circa 1505 by Leonardo da Vinci.
A Treatise on Painting is a collection of Leonardo da Vinci's writings entered in his notebooks under the general heading "On Painting".
Concentrated solar power (also called concentrating solar power, concentrated solar thermal, and CSP) systems generate solar power by using mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Cortile del Belvedere, (ENG: the Belvedere Courtyard) was a major architectural work of the High Renaissance at the Vatican Palace in Rome.
Cristoforo Landino (1424 in Pratovecchio, Casentino, Florence – 24 September 1498 in Borgo alla Collina, Casentino) was an Italian humanist and an important figure of the Florentine Renaissance.
A cultural icon is an artifact that is identified by members of a culture as representative of that culture.
David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture created in marble between 1501 and 1504 by the Italian artist Michelangelo.
Andrea del Verrocchio's bronze statue of David was most likely made between 1473 and 1475.
Davinciite is a very rare mineral of the eudialyte group, with the simplified formula Na12K3Ca6Fe32+Zr3(Si26O73OH)Cl2.
De divina proportione (On the Divine Proportion) is a book on mathematics written by Luca Pacioli and illustrated by Leonardo da Vinci, composed around 1498 in Milan and first printed in 1509.
De pictura (English: "On Painting") is a treatise written by the Italian architect and art theorist Leon Battista Alberti.
Dissection (from Latin dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization) is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure.
Domenico Ghirlandaio (2 June 1448 – 11 January 1494) was an Italian Renaissance painter born in Florence.
Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (c. 1386 – 13 December 1466), better known as Donatello, was an Italian Renaissance sculptor from Florence.
Donato Bramante (1444 – 11 April 1514), born as Donato di Pascuccio d'Antonio and also known as Bramante Lazzari, was an Italian architect.
A double hull is a ship hull design and construction method where the bottom and sides of the ship have two complete layers of watertight hull surface: one outer layer forming the normal hull of the ship, and a second inner hull which is some distance inboard, typically by a few feet, which forms a redundant barrier to seawater in case the outer hull is damaged and leaks.
Early Netherlandish painting is the work of artists, sometimes known as the Flemish Primitives, active in the Burgundian and Habsburg Netherlands during the 15th- and 16th-century Northern Renaissance; especially in the flourishing cities of Bruges, Ghent, Mechelen, Louvain, Tournai and Brussels, all in contemporary Belgium.
Emanuel Winternitz (1898–1983) was the first curator of the Department of Musical Instruments at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
An equestrian statue is a statue of a rider mounted on a horse, from the Latin "eques", meaning "knight", deriving from "equus", meaning "horse".
The Equestrian Statue of Gattamelata is a sculpture by Italian early Renaissance artist Donatello, dating from 1453, located in the Piazza del Santo in Padua, Italy, today.
The Expulsion from the Garden of Eden (Cacciata dei progenitori dall'Eden) is a fresco by the Italian Early Renaissance artist Masaccio.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Fra' Filippo Lippi, O.Carm. (c. 1406 – 8 October 1469), also called Lippo Lippi, was an Italian painter of the Quattrocento (15th century).
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
Fra Angelico (born Guido di Pietro; February 18, 1455) was an Early Italian Renaissance painter described by Vasari in his Lives of the Artists as having "a rare and perfect talent".
Francesco I Sforza (23 July 1401 – 8 March 1466) was an Italian condottiero, the founder of the Sforza dynasty in Milan, Italy, and was the fourth Duke of Milan from 1450 until his death.
Francesco Melzi, or Francesco de Melzi, (c. 1491 – 1568/70) was an Italian painter born into a family of the Milanese nobility in Lombardy.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
Ghirlandaio is the surname of a family of Renaissance Italian painters.
Giorgio Vasari (30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.
Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis (Preda, c. 1455 – Milan, c. 1508) was an Italian Renaissance painter, illuminator and designer of coins active in Milan.
Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (or Beltraffio) (Milan 1466 or 1467 – 1516) was an Italian painter of the High Renaissance from Lombardy, who worked in the studio of Leonardo da Vinci.
Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430 – 26 November 1516) was an Italian Renaissance painter, probably the best known of the Bellini family of Venetian painters.
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (24 February 1463 – 17 November 1494) was an Italian Renaissance nobleman and philosopher.
Gold leaf is gold that has been hammered into thin sheets by goldbeating and is often used for gilding.
The Golden Horn (Altın Boynuz; Χρυσόκερας, Chrysókeras; Sinus Ceratinus), also known by its modern Turkish name as Haliç, is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Guild of Saint Luke was the most common name for a city guild for painters and other artists in early modern Europe, especially in the Low Countries.
A hamlet is a small human settlement.
Helen Gardner (1878–1946) was an American art historian and educator.
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.
A helicopter main rotor or rotor system is the combination of several rotary wings (rotor blades) and a control system that generates the aerodynamic lift force that supports the weight of the helicopter, and the thrust that counteracts aerodynamic drag in forward flight.
Henry Fuseli (German: Johann Heinrich Füssli; 7 February 1741 – 17 April 1825) was a Swiss painter, draughtsman and writer on art who spent much of his life in Britain.
In art history, the High Renaissance is the period denoting the apogee of the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance.
Hippolyte Adolphe Taine (21 April 1828 – 5 March 1893) was a French critic and historian.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The history of aviation extends for more than two thousand years, from the earliest forms of aviation such as kites and attempts at tower jumping to supersonic and hypersonic flight by powered, heavier-than-air jets.
The Holy Family consists of the Child Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and Saint Joseph.
This article is about a wax sculpture.
The Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova (i.e. Ospedale di Santa Maria Nuova in Italian) is the oldest hospital still active in Florence, Italy.
The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.
Hugo van der Goes (probably Ghent c. 1430/1440 – Auderghem 1482) was one of the most significant and original Flemish painters of the late 15th century.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body.
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
Ichnology is the branch of geology and biology that deals with traces of organismal behavior, such as footprints and burrows.
Imola (Jômla or Jemula) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Bologna, located on the river Santerno, in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
Interchange, also known as Interchanged, is an oil on canvas painting by the Dutch-American abstract expressionist painter Willem de Kooning (1904–1997).
The International Mineralogical Association (IMA) is an international group of 38 national societies.
An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
Italian Renaissance painting is the painting of the period beginning in the late 13th century and flourishing from the early 15th to late 16th centuries, occurring in the Italian peninsula, which was at that time divided into many political areas.
The scudo (pl. scudi) was the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century.
The Second Italian War (1499–1504), sometimes known as Louis XII's Italian War or the War over Naples, was the second of the Italian Wars; it was fought primarily by Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon, with the participation of several Italian powers.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
John Argyropoulos (Ἰωάννης Ἀργυρόπουλος Ioannis Argyropoulos; Giovanni Argiropulo; surname also spelt Argyropulus, or Argyropulos, or Argyropulo; c. 1415 – 26 June 1487) was a lecturer, philosopher and humanist, one of the émigré Greek scholars who pioneered the revival of Classical learning in 15th-century Italy.
John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
Kite is a common name for certain birds of prey in the family Accipitridae, particularly in subfamilies Milvinae, Elaninae, and Perninae.
Lady with an Ermine (Dama con l'ermellino; Dama z gronostajem) is a painting by Leonardo da Vinci from around 1489–1490 and one of Poland's national treasures.
The Last Supper is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law, is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce.
Leon Battista Alberti (February 14, 1404 – April 25, 1472) was an Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man.
Leonardo da Vinci and A Memory of His Childhood (Eine Kindheitserinnerung des Leonardo da Vinci) is a 1910 essay by Sigmund Freud about Leonardo da Vinci's childhood.
Leonardo da Vinci: Flights of the Mind is a 2004 biography of Leonardo da Vinci by Charles Nicholl.
Leonardo da Vinci International Airport (Fiumicino – Aeroporto Internazionale Leonardo da Vinci) or simply Rome Fiumicino Airport, also known as just Fiumicino Airport, is an international airport in Rome and the major airport in Italy.
Leonardo's Horse (also known as Gran Cavallo) is a sculpture that was commissioned of Leonardo da Vinci in 1482 by Duke of Milan Ludovico il Moro, but not completed.
Leonardo's robot, or Leonardo's mechanical knight (Italian: Robot di Leonardo or Automa cavaliere, lit. "Automaton knight"), was a humanoid automaton designed and possibly constructed by Leonardo da Vinci around the year 1495.
Les Femmes d'Alger ("Women of Algiers") is a series of 15 paintings and numerous drawings by the Spanish cubist artist Pablo Picasso.
Following is a list of Italian painters (in alphabetical order) who are notable for their art.
The following is a list of rulers of Milan from the 13th century to 1814, after which it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia by the Congress of Vienna.
This is a list of notable people who have adhered to a vegetarian diet at some point during their life.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (Le Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, e architettori), also known as The Lives (Le Vite), is a series of artist biographies written by 16th-century Italian painter and architect Giorgio Vasari, which is considered "perhaps the most famous, and even today the most-read work of the older literature of art", "some of the Italian Renaissance's most influential writing on art", and "the first important book on art history".
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
Lorenzo de' Medici (1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic and the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance culture in Italy.
Lorenzo di Credi (c. 1459 – January 12, 1537) was an Italian Renaissance painter and sculptor, known for his paintings on religious subjects.
Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378 – 1 December 1455), born Lorenzo di Bartolo, was a Florentine Italian artist of the Early Renaissance best known as the creator of the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery, called by Michelangelo the Gates of Paradise.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
Luca della Robbia (1399/1400–1482) was an Italian sculptor from Florence.
Fra Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli (sometimes Paccioli or Paciolo; 1447–1517) was an Italian mathematician, Franciscan friar, collaborator with Leonardo da Vinci, and a seminal contributor to the field now known as accounting.
Ludovico Maria Sforza (also known as Ludovico il Moro; 27 July 1452 – 27 May 1508), was Duke of Milan from 1494, following the death of his nephew Gian Galeazzo Sforza, until 1499.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
The lyre (λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods.
A Madonna is a representation of Mary, either alone or with her child Jesus.
The Madonna of the Carnation, a.k.a. Madonna with Vase or Madonna with Child, is a Renaissance oil painting by Leonardo da Vinci created around 1478-1480.
Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.
Marcantonio della Torre (1481–1511) was a Renaissance Professor of Anatomy who lectured at the University of Pavia and at the University of Padua.
Marco d'Oggiono (c. 1470 – c. 1549) was an Italian Renaissance painter and a chief pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, many of whose works he copied.
Marsilio Ficino (Latin name: Marsilius Ficinus; 19 October 1433 – 1 October 1499) was an Italian scholar and Catholic priest who was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Masaccio (December 21, 1401 – summer 1428), born Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone, was a Florentine artist who is regarded as the first great Italian painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Matteo Bandello (Mathieu Bandel; 1480 – 1562) was an Italian writer, soldier, monk, and later, a Bishop mostly known for his novellas.
Matthias Corvinus, also called Matthias I (Hunyadi Mátyás, Matija Korvin, Matia Corvin, Matej Korvín, Matyáš Korvín), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1458 to 1490.
Maurizio Seracini (16 December 1946) is a diagnostician of Italian art.
The Medical Renaissance, from 1400 to 1700 CE, is the period of progress in European medical knowledge, and a renewed interest in the ancient ideas of the Greeks and Romans.
Medusa is either of two paintings described in Giorgio Vasari's Life of Leonardo da Vinci as being among Leonardo's earliest works.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Milan Cathedral (Duomo di Milano; Lombard: Domm de Milan) is the cathedral church of Milan, Lombardy, Italy.
Military engineering is loosely defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport and communications.
Mino da Fiesole (c. 1429 – July 11, 1484), also known as Mino di Giovanni, was an Italian sculptor from Poppi, Tuscany.
Mirror writing is formed by writing in the direction that is the reverse of the natural way for a given language, such that the result is the mirror image of normal writing: it appears normal when it is reflected in a mirror.
The Mona Lisa (Monna Lisa or La Gioconda, La Joconde) is a half-length portrait painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci that has been described as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world".
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
The Museo nazionale della Scienza e della Tecnologia "Leonardo da Vinci" in Milan is the largest science and technology museum in Italy, and is dedicated to Italian painter and scientist Leonardo da Vinci.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
Nicolas Poussin (June 1594 – 19 November 1665) was the leading painter of the classical French Baroque style, although he spent most of his working life in Rome.
A notary is a person licensed by the government to perform acts in legal affairs, in particular witnessing signatures on documents.
Oil paint is a type of slow-drying paint that consists of particles of pigment suspended in a drying oil, commonly linseed oil.
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
An ornithopter (from Greek ornithos "bird" and pteron "wing") is an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
The Palazzo Vecchio ("Old Palace") is the town hall of Florence, Italy.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Paolo Uccello (1397 – 10 December 1475), born Paolo di Dono, was an Italian painter and mathematician who was notable for his pioneering work on visual perspective in art.
Paolo Caliari, known as Paolo Veronese (1528 – 19 April 1588), was an Italian Renaissance painter, based in Venice, known for large-format history paintings of religion and mythology, such as The Wedding at Cana (1563) and The Feast in the House of Levi (1573).
A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag (or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift).
The Pazzi conspiracy (italic) was a plot by members of the Pazzi family and others to displace the de' Medici family as rulers of Renaissance Florence.
Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.
Physiognomy (from the Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature" and gnomon meaning "judge" or "interpreter") is the assessment of character or personality from a person's outer appearance, especially the face often linked to racial and sexual stereotyping.
Piero della Francesca (c. 1415 – 12 October 1492) was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.
Pietro Perugino (c. 1446/1452 – 1523), born Pietro Vannucci, was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbrian school, who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
Jacopo Carucci (May 24, 1494 – January 2, 1557), usually known as Jacopo da Pontormo, Jacopo Pontormo or simply Pontormo, was an Italian Mannerist painter and portraitist from the Florentine School.
Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo de Borja (de Borja, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death.
Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.
The Portinari Altarpiece or Portinari Triptych (c. 1475) is an oil on wood triptych painting by the Flemish painter Hugo van der Goes representing the Adoration of the Shepherds.
Prior, derived from the Latin for "earlier, first", (or prioress for nuns) is an ecclesiastical title for a superior, usually lower in rank than an abbot or abbess.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
Raphael (Hebrew: רָפָאֵל, translit. Rāfāʾēl, lit. 'It is God who heals', 'God Heals', 'God, Please Heal'; Ραφαήλ, ⲣⲁⲫⲁⲏⲗ, رفائيل) is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
Renaissance technology is the set of European artifacts and inventions which span the Renaissance period, roughly the 14th century through the 16th century.
The Republic of Florence, also known as the Florentine Republic (Repubblica Fiorentina), was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany.
There are seven sacraments of the Catholic Church, which according to Catholic theology were instituted by Jesus and entrusted to the Church.
Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France.
Gian Giacomo Caprotti da Oreno, better known as Salaì ("The Devil", lit. "The little unclean one") (1480 – before 10 March 1524), was an Italian artist and pupil of Leonardo da Vinci from 1490 to 1518.
Salvator Mundi is a painting of Christ as Salvator Mundi (Latin for "Savior of the World") by Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci, dated to.
Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), known as Sandro Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.
Santa Maria delle grazie ("Holy Mary of Grace") is a church and Dominican convent in Milan, northern Italy, included in the UNESCO World Heritage sites list.
The Basilica della Santissima Annunziata (Basilica of the Most Holy Annunciation) is a Renaissance-style, Roman Catholic minor basilica in Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) was an Italian polymath, regarded as the epitome of the "Renaissance Man", displaying skills in numerous diverse areas of study.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
Sfumato is a painting technique for softening the transition between colours.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
The Sistine Chapel (Sacellum Sixtinum; Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in Vatican City.
Sodomy is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but it may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity.
St Jerome in the Wilderness (c. 1480) is an unfinished painting by Leonardo da Vinci, now in the Vatican Museums, Rome.
A steam cannon is a cannon that launches a projectile using only heat and water, or using a ready supply of high-pressure steam from a boiler.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.
Tempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigments mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size).
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
The Baptism of Christ is a painting finished around 1475 in the studio of the Italian Renaissance painter Andrea del Verrocchio and generally ascribed to him and his pupil Leonardo da Vinci.
The Battle of Anghiari (1505) is a lost painting by Leonardo da Vinci, at times referred to as "The Lost Leonardo", which some commentators believe to be still hidden beneath one of the later frescoes in the Salone dei Cinquecento (Hall of the Five Hundred) in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence.
The Last Supper (Il Cenacolo or L'Ultima Cena) is a late 15th-century mural painting by Leonardo da Vinci housed by the refectory of the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan.
The Virgin and Child with St Anne and St John the Baptist, sometimes called The Burlington House Cartoon, is a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci.
The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne is an oil painting by Leonardo da Vinci depicting St Anne, her daughter the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus.
Theophilus Presbyter (fl. c. 1070–1125) is the pseudonymous author or compiler of a Latin text containing detailed descriptions of various medieval arts, a text commonly known as the Schedula diversarum artium ("List of various arts") or De diversis artibus ("On various arts"), probably first compiled between 1100 and 1120.
Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, mother of God, used especially in Eastern Christianity.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tintoretto (born Jacopo Comin, late September or early October, 1518 – May 31, 1594) was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Venetian school.
Tobias and the Angel is an altar painting, finished around 1470–1475, attributed to the workshop of the Italian Renaissance painter Andrea del Verrocchio.
Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).
The Uffizi Gallery (italic) is a prominent art museum located adjacent to the Piazza della Signoria in the Historic Centre of Florence in the region of Tuscany, Italy.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
The Val di Chiana, Valdichiana, or Chiana Valley is an alluvial valley of central Italy, lying on the territories of the provinces of Arezzo and Siena in Tuscany and the provinces of Perugia and Terni in Umbria.
The Vebjørn Sand da Vinci Project built a laminated-wood parabolic-arch pedestrian bridge in Norway over European route E18 in Ås, Norway, in 2001.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.
The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the world's largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 2.3 million objects.
Vinci is a town – officially a "city" (città) – and comune of Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region of Tuscany.
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice.
The viola organista is a musical instrument designed by Leonardo da Vinci.
The Virgin of the Rocks (sometimes the Madonna of the Rocks) is the name of two paintings by Leonardo da Vinci, of the same subject, and of a composition which is identical except for several significant details.
The Vitruvian Man (Le proporzioni del corpo umano secondo Vitruvio, which is translated to "The proportions of the human body according to Vitruvius"), or simply L'Uomo Vitruviano, is a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci around 1490.
Walter Isaacson (born May 20, 1952)Millie Ball, The Times-Picayune, December 11, 2011.
Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was a Dutch abstract expressionist artist.
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
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