338 relations: Afghanistan, Agriculture in the Soviet Union, Alcoholism, Alexander Dubček, Alexander Shelepin, Alexei Kosygin, Ambassador, Anastas Mikoyan, Anatoly Dobrynin, Andrei Gromyko, Andrei Kirilenko (politician), Andrei Sinyavsky, Andrey Andreyevich Andreyev, Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, Anti-Party Group, Arab world, Argentina, Arms control, Arteriosclerosis, Artificial cardiac pacemaker, Attack on Camp Holloway, Attempted assassination of Leonid Brezhnev, Authoritarianism, Awards and decorations received by Leonid Brezhnev, Baikonur Cosmodrome, BBC Online, Black Sea, Branded Entertainment Network, Brezhnev Doctrine, Brezhnev's trilogy, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Cambodia, Cambodian–Vietnamese War, Carpathian Military District, Caucasus, Central Committee, Central Committee elected by the 19th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Central Committee elected by the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Central Committee elected by the 23rd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Central Committee elected by the 24th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Central Committee elected by the 25th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Central Committee elected by the 26th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Central European University Press, Central Intelligence Agency, Central nervous system, Cereal, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Civil service, Cold War, ..., Collective farming, Collective leadership, Communist Party of China, Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Communist Party of Kazakhstan, Communist Party of Moldova, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communist state, Consensus decision-making, Consumer goods in the Soviet Union, Corruption, Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union, Crimea, Cult of personality, Cultural Revolution, Czechoslovakia, Dacha, Détente, Death and state funeral of Leonid Brezhnev, Death by natural causes, Decentralization, Demographics of Russia, Dimitri Gladki, Diplomacy, Dissident, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dmitry Ustinov, Dnipro, Dnipropetrovsk Regional Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine, East Berlin, East Germany, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Front (World War II), Economic stability, Economy of the Soviet Union, Edward Elgar Publishing, Edward Gierek, Eighth five-year plan (Soviet Union), Eleventh five-year plan (Soviet Union), Era of Stagnation, Erich Honecker, Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, First World, Fodder, Foreign relations of the Soviet Union, Frol Kozlov, Fyodor Kulakov, Galina Brezhneva, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Gennady Voronov, Georgia (country), Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, Georgy Malenkov, Gerald Ford, Glassboro Summit Conference, Gold Star, Gout, Government of the Soviet Union, Great Purge, Grigorii Khanin, Gross national income, Gross national product, Hanoi, Harvard University Press, Head of government, Head of state, Henry Kissinger, Hero of the Soviet Union, History of psychiatric institutions, History of the Soviet Union (1964–82), History of the steel industry (1970–present), Ho Chi Minh, Hoover Institution, Hungarian People's Republic, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Hypnotic, Insomnia, Intelligentsia, International trade, Investment, James R. 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Johnson, President of the United States, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, Printed media in the Soviet Union, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Red Army, Red Square, Reformism, Revisionism (Marxism), Revolutionary socialism, Richard Nixon, Routledge, Russian Empire, Russian political jokes, Russian Revolution, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russians, Saur Revolution, Scandinavia, Second World, Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Sino-Soviet border conflict, Socialist fraternal kiss, Solidarity (Polish trade union), South Vietnam, Southern Front (Soviet Union), Soviet Armed Forces, Soviet Army, Soviet Central Asia, Soviet reaction to the Polish crisis of 1980–1981, Soviet space program, Soviet Union, Soviet Union–United States relations, Soviet–Afghan War, Sovnarkhoz, Standard of living, State Duma, Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, Stroke, Sugar beet, Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, Suspense, Tashkent, Taylor & Francis, Tekhnikum, Tenth five-year plan (Soviet Union), The Bodley Head, The Heritage Foundation, The St. Petersburg Times, Think tank, Totalitarianism, Trade unions in the Soviet Union, Transcaucasian Front, Ukraine, Ukrainians, Ukrayinska Pravda, Unemployment, United Nations Security Council, United States Department of Commerce, United States Department of State, United States dollar, United States Secret Service, University of British Columbia Press, University of California Press, University of North Carolina Press, University of Pittsburgh Press, University Press of Kentucky, Viet Cong, Vietnam, Vietnam War, Viktoria Brezhneva, Virgin Lands Campaign, Vladimir Lenin, Vladimir Semichastny, Vladimir Zhirinovsky, Vocational education, Voluntarism (action), W. 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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agriculture in the Soviet Union was mostly collectivized, with some limited cultivation of private plots.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Alexander Dubček (27 November 1921 – 7 November 1992) was a Slovak politician who served as the First secretary of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) (de facto leader of Czechoslovakia) from January 1968 to April 1969.
Alexander Nikolayevich Shelepin (18 August 1918 – 24 October 1994) was a Soviet politician and security and intelligence officer.
Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (p; – 18 December 1980) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.
An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment.
Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan (25 November 1895 – 21 October 1978) was a Soviet Armenian revolutionary, Old Bolshevik and statesman during the mandates of Lenin, Stalin, Khrushchev and Brezhnev.
Anatoly Fyodorovich Dobrynin (Анатолий Фёдорович Добрынин, 16 November 1919 – 6 April 2010) was a Russian statesman and a Soviet diplomat and politician.
Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko (Андре́й Андре́евич Громы́ко; Андрэ́й Андрэ́евіч Грамы́ка; – 2 July 1989) was a Soviet communist politician during the Cold War.
Andrei Pavlovich Kirilenko (p; – 12 May 1990) was a Soviet statesman from the start to the end of the Cold War.
Andrei Donatovich Sinyavsky (Андре́й Дона́тович Синя́вский, 8 October 1925 in Moscow – 25 February 1997 in Paris) was a Russian writer, dissident, political prisoner, emigrant, Professor of Sorbonne University, magazine founder and publisher.
Andrey Andreyevich Andreyev (Андре́й Андре́евич Андре́ев; 30 October 1895 – 5 December 1971) was a Soviet Communist politician who rose to power during the rule of Joseph Stalin, joining the Politburo as a candidate member in 1926 and as a full member in 1932.
The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty or ABMT) (1972—2002) was an arms control treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against ballistic missile-delivered nuclear weapons.
The Anti-Party Group (r) was a group within the leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union that unsuccessfully attempted to depose Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary of the Party in June 1957.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Arms control is a term for international restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation and usage of small arms, conventional weapons, and weapons of mass destruction.
Arteriosclerosis is the thickening, hardening and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries.
A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker) is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart.
The attack on Camp Holloway occurred during the early hours of February 7, 1965, in the early stages of the Vietnam War.
An assassination attempt was made upon Leonid Brezhnev on 22 January 1969, when a deserter from the Soviet Army, Viktor Ilyin, fired shots at a motorcade carrying the Soviet leader through Moscow.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
The following is a full list of awards and decorations of Leonid Brezhnev, Soviet president and statesman, sorted into two sections; foreign and domestic.
Baikonur Cosmodrome (translit; translit) is a spaceport located in an area of southern Kazakhstan leased to Russia.
BBC Online, formerly known as BBCi, is the BBC's online service.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Branded Entertainment Network (BEN) is a Los Angeles-based advertising and licensing agency.
The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet foreign policy, first and most clearly outlined by Sergei Kovalev in a September 26, 1968 Pravda article entitled Sovereignty and the International Obligations of Socialist Countries.
The Brezhnev's trilogy (Трилогия Брежнева) (1978–79) was a series of three memoirs published under name of Leonid Brezhnev.
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is a nontechnical academic journal, published by Taylor and Francis that covers global security and public policy issues related to the dangers posed by nuclear threats, weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and emerging technologies and biological hazards.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Cambodian–Vietnamese War, otherwise known in Vietnam as the "Counter-offensive on the Southwestern border" ("Chiến dịch Phản công Biên giới Tây-Nam) was an armed conflict between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Democratic Kampuchea.
The Carpathian Military District was a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces during the Cold War and subsequently of the Armed Forces of Ukraine during the early Post-Soviet period.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central Committee was the common designation of a standing administrative body of communist parties, analogous to a board of directors, whether ruling or non-ruling in the 20th century and of the surviving communist states in the 21st century.
The 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 19th Congress, and was in session from 1952 until 1956.
The 20th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 20th Congress, and was in session from 1956 until 1961.
The 23rd Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 23rd Congress, and was in session from 1966 until 1971.
The 24th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 24th Congress, and was in session from 1971 until 1976.
The 25th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 25th Congress, and was in session from 1976 until 1981.
The 26th Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 26th Congress, and was in session from 1981 until 1986.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was de jure the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) between Party Congresses.
Following the founding of the Central European University by George Soros, the Central European University Press was established in 1993.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
Collective leadership is a distribution of power within an organisational structure.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Czech and Slovak: Komunistická strana Československa, KSČ) was a Communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992.
The Communist Party of Kazakhstan (CPK) (Қазақстан Коммунистік партиясы; Коммунистическая партия Казахстана) is a banned political party in Kazakhstan.
The Communist Party of Moldova (Romanian:, PCM; Moldovan Cyrillic: Партидул Комунист ал Молдовей; Коммунистическая партия Молдавии) was one of the fourteen republic-level parties that formed the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.
The industry of the Soviet Union was usually divided into two major categories.
Corruption is a form of dishonesty undertaken by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit.
The Council of Ministers of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (p; sometimes abbreviated to Sovmin or referred to as the Soviet of Ministers), was the de jure government comprising the highest executive and administrative body of the Soviet Union from 1946 until 1991.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
A dacha (a) is a seasonal or year-round second home, often located in the exurbs of Russian and other post-Soviet cities.
Détente (meaning "relaxation") is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation.
On 10 November 1982, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, the third General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and the fifth leader of the Soviet Union, died aged 75 after suffering a heart attack following years of serious ailments.
A death by natural causes, as recorded by coroners and on death certificates and associated documents, is the end result of an illness or an internal malfunction of the body not directly caused by external forces, typically due to old age.
Decentralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group.
The demographics of Russia is about the demographic features of the population of the Russian Federation including population growth, population density, ethnic composition, education level, health, economic status and other aspects.
Dmytro Hladkyi (1911–1959) was a Moldavian SSR politician.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
A dissident, broadly defined, is a person who actively challenges an established doctrine, policy, or institution.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Dmitriy Fyodorovich Ustinov (Дмитрий Фёдорович Устинов; 30 October 1908 – 20 December 1984) was Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union from 1976 until his death.
Dnipro (Дніпро), until May 2016 Dnipropetrovsk (Дніпропетро́вськ) also known as Dnepropetrovsk (Днепропетро́вск), is Ukraine's fourth largest city, with about one million inhabitants.
The Dnipropetrovsk Regional Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine, commonly referred to as the Dnipropetrovsk CPU obkom, was the position of highest authority in the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, in the Ukrainian SSR of the Soviet Union.
East Berlin existed from 1949 to 1990 and consisted of the Soviet sector of Berlin established in 1945.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Economic stability is the absence of excessive fluctuations in the macroeconomy.
The economy of the Soviet Union (экономика Советского Союза) was based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, industrial manufacturing and centralized administrative planning.
Edward Elgar Publishing is a global publisher of academic books, journals and online resources in the social sciences and law.
Edward Gierek (6 January 1913 – 29 July 2001) was a Polish communist politician.
The Eighth Five-Year Plan of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a set of production goals and guidelines for administering the economy from 1966 to 1970—part of a series of such plans used by the USSR from 1928 until its dissolution.
The Eleventh Five-Year Plan, or the 11th Five-Year Plan, of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a set of goals designed to strengthen the country's economy between 1981 and 1985.
The Era of Stagnation (Период застоя, Stagnation Period, also called the Brezhnevian Stagnation) was the period in the history of the Soviet Union which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982) and continued under Yuri Andropov (1982–1984) and Konstantin Chernenko (1984–1985).
Erich Honecker (25 August 1912 – 29 May 1994) was a German politician who, as the General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party, led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until the weeks preceding the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. From 1976 onward he was also the country's official head of state as chairman of the State Council following Willi Stoph's relinquishment of the post. Honecker's political career began in the 1930s when he became an official of the Communist Party of Germany, a position for which he was imprisoned during the Nazi era. Following World War II, he was freed and soon relaunched his political activities, founding the youth organisation the Free German Youth in 1946 and serving as the group's chairman until 1955. As the Security Secretary of the Party’s Central Committee in the new East German state, he was the prime organiser of the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961 and, in this function, bore responsibility for the "order to fire" along the Inner German border. In 1971, he initiated a political power struggle that led, with Soviet support, to his replacing Walter Ulbricht as First Secretary of the Central Committee and as chairman of the state's National Defense Council. Under his command, the country adopted a programme of "consumer socialism" and moved toward the international community by normalising relations with West Germany and also becoming a full member of the UN, in what is considered one of his greatest political successes. As Cold War tensions eased in the late 1980s under perestroika and glasnost, the liberal reforms of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Honecker refused all but cosmetic changes to the East German political system, citing the continual hardliner attitudes of Kim Il-sung and Fidel Castro, whose respective regimes of North Korea and Cuba had been critical of reforms, leaders who ruthlessly suppressed opposition. As anticommunist protests grew, Honecker begged the USSR to intervene and suppress the protests to maintain communist rule in East Germany like the Prague Spring of 1968 and the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; Gorbachev refused. Honecker was forced to resign by his party in October 1989 in a bid to improve the government's image before the public. Honecker's eighteen years at the helm of the soon-to-collapse German Democratic Republic came to an end. Following German reunification, he sought asylum in the Chilean embassy in Moscow in 1991 but was extradited back to Germany a year later to stand trial for his role in the human rights abuses committed by the East German government. However, the proceedings were abandoned due to illness and he was freed from custody to travel to join his family in exile in Chile, where he died in May 1994 from liver cancer.
The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (Estonian SSR or ESSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik ENSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика ЭССР, Estonskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika ESSR), also known as Soviet Estonia or Estonia was an unrecognized republic of the Soviet Union, administered by a subordinate of the Government of the Soviet Union.
The concept of First World originated during the Cold War and included countries that were generally aligned with NATO and opposed to the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs.
At the time of the founding of the Soviet Union (the USSR) in 1922, most governments internationally regarded the Soviet state as a pariah because of its advocacy of communism, and thus most states did not give it diplomatic recognition.
Frol Romanovich Kozlov (Фрол Рома́нович Козло́в; – 30 January 1965) was a Soviet politician, and a Hero of Socialist Labor (1961).
Fyodor Davydovich Kulakov (Фёдор Давыдович Кулаков) (4 February 1918 – 17 July 1978) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.
Galina Leonidovna Brezhneva (Галина Леонидовна Брежнева; 18 April 1928 – 30 June 1998) was the daughter of Soviet politician and longtime General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev and Viktoria Brezhneva.
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries.
Gennady Ivanovich Voronov (Генна́дий Ива́нович Во́ронов; Rameshki, Tver Governorate, – Moscow, 1 April 1994) was a Soviet-Russian statesman who was from 1962 to 1971 the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian SFSR, literally meaning Premier or Prime Minister.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Georgia, formally the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian SSR; tr; Gruzinskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), was one of the republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.
Georgy Maximilianovich Malenkov (– 14 January 1988) was a Soviet politician who succeeded Joseph Stalin as Premier of the Soviet Union, holding this position from 1953 to 1955.
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.
The Glassboro Summit Conference, usually just called the Glassboro Summit, was the 23–25 June 1967 meeting of the heads of government of the United States and the Soviet Union—President Lyndon B. Johnson and Premier Alexei Kosygin, respectively—for the purpose of discussing Soviet Union–United States relations in Glassboro, New Jersey.
The Gold Star medal (медаль «Золотая Звезда» medal “Zolotaya Zvezda”) is a special insignia that identifies recipients of the title "Hero" in the Soviet Union and some of its allies, and several post-Soviet states.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
Grigorii Isaakovich Khanin (Григорий Исаакович Ханин; born 11 June 1937) is a Russian economist (Doctor of economic sciences) best known for his 1987 recalculation of official Soviet economic growth statistics.
The gross national income (GNI) is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP), plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents (Todaro & Smith, 2011: 44) (all figures in millions of US dollars).
Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
The title Hero of the Soviet Union (translit) was the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, awarded personally or collectively for heroic feats in service to the Soviet state and society.
The rise of the lunatic asylum and its gradual transformation into, and eventual replacement by, the modern psychiatric hospital, explains the rise of organised, institutional psychiatry.
The history of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, referred to as the Brezhnev Era, covers the period of Leonid Brezhnev's rule of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
The global steel industry has been going through major changes since 1970.
Hồ Chí Minh (Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California.
The Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a one-party socialist republic (communist state) from 20 August 1949 to 23 October 1989.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
The intelligentsia (/ɪnˌtelɪˈdʒentsiə/) (intelligentia, inteligencja, p) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead in shaping the culture and politics of their society.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.
James Robert Millar (1936 – November 30, 2008) was an American political scientist and economist.
János Kádár (26 May 1912 – 6 July 1989) was a Hungarian communist leader and the General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, presiding over the country from 1956 until his retirement in 1988.
Jerry Fincher Hough (born 1935) is the James B. Duke Professor of Political Science at Duke University.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Kamianske (Кам'янське,; Каменское), formerly Dniprodzerzhynsk, is an industrial city in the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast of Ukraine, and a port on the Dnieper.
The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic was one of the transcontinental constituent republics of the Soviet Union from 1936-1991 in northern Central Asia.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
The Khrushchev Thaw (or Khrushchev's Thaw; p or simply ottepel)William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, London: Free Press, 2004 refers to the period from the early 1950s to the early 1960s when repression and censorship in the Soviet Union were relaxed, and millions of Soviet political prisoners were released from Gulag labor camps due to Nikita Khrushchev's policies of de-Stalinization and peaceful coexistence with other nations.
Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov (Kliment Jefremovič Vorošilov; Климент Охрімович Ворошилов, Klyment Okhrimovyč Vorošylov), popularly known as Klim Voroshilov (Клим Вороши́лов, Klim Vorošilov) (4 February 1881 – 2 December 1969), was a prominent Soviet military officer and politician during the Stalin era.
A kolkhoz (p) was a form of collective farm in the Soviet Union.
Kommersant (Коммерса́нтъ,, The Businessman, often shortened to Ъ) is a nationally distributed daily newspaper published in Russia mostly devoted to politics and business.
The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Всесою́зный ле́нинский коммунисти́ческий сою́з молодёжи (ВЛКСМ)), usually known as Komsomol (Комсомо́л, a syllabic abbreviation of the Russian kommunisticheskiy soyuz molodyozhi), was a political youth organization in the Soviet Union.
Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko (p, 24 September 1911 – 10 March 1985) was a Soviet politician and the fifth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
The former government of Alexei Kosygin was dissolved following the Soviet legislative election of 1979.
Burials in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis in Moscow began in November 1917, when 240 pro-Bolshevik victims of the October Revolution were buried in mass graves at Red Square.
Kursky District (Ку́рский райо́н) is an administrativeResolution #489 and municipalLaw #48-ZKO district (raion), one of the twenty-eight in Kursk Oblast, Russia.
Kutuzovsky Prospekt (Куту́зовский проспе́кт) is a major radial avenue in Moscow, Russia, named after Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov, leader of Russian field army during the French invasion of Russia.
Land management is the process of managing the use and development (in both urban and rural settings) of land resources.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
The Lenin Prize (Ленинская премия, Leninskaya premiya) is one of the awards re-introduced in April 2018 in the Ulyanovsk Oblast, Russia, presented to individuals for accomplishments relating to science, literature, arts, architecture, and technology.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
Levada-Center is a Russian independent, non-governmental polling and sociological research organization.
Liberalization (or liberalisation) is a general term for any process whereby a state lifts restrictions on some private individual activities.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
Light industry is industries that usually are less capital-intensive than heavy industry and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented, as it typically produces smaller consumer goods.
The Lincoln Continental is a series of luxury cars produced by Lincoln, a division of the American automaker Ford Motor Company.
Below is a list of office-holders.
The Constitution of the Soviet Union recognised the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and the earlier Central Executive Committee (CEC) of the Congress of Soviets as the highest organs of state authority in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
Under the 1977 Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), the Chairman of the Council of Ministers was the head of government and the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet was the head of state.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
M.E. Sharpe, Inc., an academic publisher, was founded by Myron Sharpe in 1958 with the original purpose of publishing translations from Russian in the social sciences and humanities.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Marshal of the Soviet Union (Маршал Советского Союза) was the highest military rank of the Soviet Union, below Generalissimus of the Soviet Union.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
McFarland & Company, Inc. is an independent book publisher based in Jefferson, North Carolina that specializes in academic and reference works, as well as general interest adult nonfiction.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
Michael Kort (born 1944) is an American historian, academic, and author who studies and has written extensively about the history of the Soviet Union.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov (Михаи́л Андре́евич Су́слов; 25 January 1982) was a Soviet statesman during the Cold War.
The Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union refers to the head of the Ministry of Defence who was responsible for defence of the communist Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 to 1922 and the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991.
The Ministry of Health (MOH) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Министерство здравоохранения СССР), formed on 15 March 1946, was one of the most important government offices in the Soviet Union.
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (shortly: Moldavian SSR, abbr.: MSSR; Republica Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească, in Cyrillic alphabet: Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ; Молда́вская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика Moldavskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known to as Soviet Moldavia or Soviet Moldova, was one of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union existed from 1940 to 1991.
The Mongolian People's Republic (Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU)), commonly known as Outer Mongolia, was a unitary sovereign socialist state which existed between 1924 and 1992, coterminous with the present-day country of Mongolia in East Asia.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
My God, Help Me to Survive This Deadly Love («Господи! Помоги мне выжить среди этой смертной любви» Gospodi! Pomogi mne vyzhit' sredi etoy smertnoy lyubvi, Mein Gott, hilf mir, diese tödliche Liebe zu überleben), sometimes referred to as the Fraternal Kiss (Bruderkuss), is a graffiti painting on the Berlin wall by Dmitri Vrubel, one of the best known of the Berlin wall graffiti paintings.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (NSA) or at times informally termed the NSC Advisor,The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 1.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Net Material Product (NMP) was the main macroeconomic indicator used for monitoring growth in national accounts of socialist countries during the Soviet era.
The New Economic Mechanism (NEM) was a major economic reform launched in the People's Republic of Hungary in 1968.
Nicolae Coval (Camenca, December 19, 1904 – Chişinău, January 15, 1970) was a Moldavian SSR politician.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikolay Grigoryevich Ignatov (Никола́й Григо́рьевич Игна́тов; 3(16) May 1901 – 14 November 1966) was a prominent Soviet politician during the 1950s.
Nikolai Viktorovich Podgorny (p, Микола Вікторович Підгорний; – 12 January 1983) was a Soviet Ukrainian statesman during the Cold War.
Nikolai Aleksandrovich Tikhonov (Николай Александрович Тихонов; Kharkiv, – Moscow, 1 June 1997) was a Soviet Russian-Ukrainian statesman during the Cold War.
The Ninth Five-Year Plan of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a set of economic goals designed to strengthen the country's economy between 1971 and 1975.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
Novorossiysk (p) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Operation Flaming Dart was a U.S. and (South) Republic of Vietnam Air Force military operation, conducted in two parts, during the Vietnam War.
The Order of Lenin (Orden Lenina), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was established by the Central Executive Committee on April 6, 1930.
The Order of Victory (translit) was the highest military decoration awarded for World War II service in the Soviet Union, and one of the rarest orders in the world.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Panteleimon Kondrat'evich Ponomarenko (Пантелеймо́н Кондра́тьевич Пономаре́нко, Пантэляймон Кандрацьевіч Панамарэнка; 18 January 1984) was a general in the Red Army before becoming a Soviet administrator in Belarus and then Kazakhstan.
Pearson Education (see also Pearson PLC) is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
The Penguin Group is a trade book publisher and part of Penguin Random House.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
Pitsunda or Bichvinta (ბიჭვინთა; Пиҵунда; Пицунда) is a resort town in the Gagra district of Abkhazia.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
The Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP; Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR) was the Communist party which governed the Polish People's Republic from 1948 to 1989.
A politburo or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.
The Politburo (p, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS) was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
There was systematic political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, based on the interpretation of political opposition or dissent as a psychiatric problem.
In the military, a political commissar or political officer (or politruk, from политический руководитель, "political leader"), is a supervisory officer responsible for the political education (ideology) and organization of the unit they are assigned to, and intended to ensure civilian control of the military.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
The politics of Afghanistan consists of the council of ministers, provincial governors and the national assembly, with a president serving as the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Afghan Armed Forces.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.
Pravda (a, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.
The Premier of the Soviet Union (Глава Правительства СССР) was the head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
The presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson began on November 22, 1963, when Johnson became the 36th President of the United States upon the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, and ended on January 20, 1969.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (Президиум Верховного Совета or Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta) was a Soviet governmental institution – a permanent body of the Supreme Soviets (parliaments).
Printed media in the Soviet Union, i.e., newspapers, magazines and journals, were under strict control of the Communist Party and the Soviet state.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Red Square (ˈkrasnəjə ˈploɕːətʲ) is a city square (plaza) in Moscow, Russia.
Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement.
Within the Marxist movement, the word revisionism is used to refer to various ideas, principles and theories that are based on a significant revision of fundamental Marxist premises.
Revolutionary socialism is the socialist doctrine that social revolution is necessary in order to bring about structural changes to society.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian political jokes (or, rather, Russophone political jokes) are a part of Russian humour and can be naturally grouped into the major time periods: Imperial Russia, Soviet Union and finally post-Soviet Russia.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
The Saur Revolution (إنقلاب ثور or ۷ ثور (literally 7th Saur); د ثور انقلاب), also called the April Revolution or April Coup, was a coup d'état (or self-proclaimed revolution) led by the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) against the rule of Afghan President Mohammed Daoud Khan on 27–28 April 1978.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
The Second World is the former industrial socialist states (formally the Eastern Bloc) largely encompassing territories under the influence of the Soviet Union.
The Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), often referred to as the Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee, had responsibility for the central administration of the party as opposed to drafting government policy (which was usually handled by the Politburo).
The Sino-Soviet border conflict was a seven-month undeclared military conflict between the Soviet Union and China at the height of the Sino-Soviet split in 1969.
The socialist fraternal kiss or socialist fraternal embrace is a special form of greeting between the statesmen of Communist countries.
Solidarity (Solidarność, pronounced; full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"—Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność”) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 and comprised the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Southern Front was a Front – a roughly Army group sized formation – of the Soviet Army during the Second World War.
The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union (Russian: Вооружённые Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Vooruzhonnyye Sily Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Вооружённые Силы Советского Союза) refers to the armed forces of the Russian SFSR (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1912–1991) from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991.
The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.
Soviet Central Asia refers to the section of Central Asia formerly controlled by the Soviet Union, as well as the time period of Soviet administration (1918–1991).
The Polish crisis of 1980–1981, associated with the emergence of the Solidarity mass movement in Poland, challenged the Soviet Union's control over its satellite states in the Eastern Bloc.
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The relations between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) succeeded the previous relations from 1776 to 1917 and predate today's relations that began in 1992.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
Sovnarkhoz (совнархоз, совет народного хозяйства, sovet narodnogo khozyaystva, "Council of National Economy"), usually translated as Regional Economic Soviet, was an organization of the Soviet Union to manage a separate economic region.
Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.
The State Duma (r), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Госду́ма (Gosduma), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation.
The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) were two rounds of bilateral conferences and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of arms control.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.
The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments.
Suspense is a feeling of fascination and excitement mixed with apprehension, tension, and anxiety developed from an unpredictable, mysterious, and rousing source of entertainment.
Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Tekhnikum (Техникум) is a type of vocational school in Russian Empire, Soviet Union, as well as in modern Russia and some other post-Soviet states.
The Tenth Five-Year Plan, or the 10th Five-Year Plan of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a set of goals designed to strengthen the country's economy between 1976 and 1980.
The Bodley Head is an English publishing house, founded in 1887 and existing as an independent entity until the 1970s.
The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.
A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organisation that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Trade unions in the Soviet Union, headed by the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions (VTsSPS), had a complex relationship with industrial management, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and the Soviet government, given that the Soviet Union was ideologically supposed to be a state in which the members of the working class ruled the country and managed themselves.
Transcaucasian Front or Transcaucasus Front (Закавказский Фронт) was a front of the Red Army during the Second World War.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Ukrayinska Pravda (Українська правда, literally Ukrainian Truth) is a popular Ukrainian Internet newspaper, founded by Georgiy R. Gongadze in April, 2000 (the day of the Ukrainian constitutional referendum).
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Secret Service (also USSS or Secret Service) is a federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting the nation's leaders.
The University of British Columbia Press (UBC Press) is a university press that is part of the University of British Columbia.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina.
The University of Pittsburgh Press is a scholarly publishing house and a major American university press, part of the University of Pittsburgh.
The University Press of Kentucky (UPK) is the scholarly publisher for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and was organized in 1969 as successor to the University of Kentucky Press.
The National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam) also known as the Việt Cộng was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF) – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War, eventually emerging on the winning side.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Viktoria Petrovna Brezhneva (Викто́рия Петро́вна Бре́жнева; 11 December 1908 – 5 July 1995) was the wife of Soviet politician and longtime General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev.
The Virgin Lands Campaign (Освое́ние целины́, Osvoyeniye tseliny; Tyn' i'gery') was Nikita Khrushchev’s 1953 plan to dramatically boost the Soviet Union’s agricultural production in order to alleviate the food shortages plaguing the Soviet populace.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladimir Yefimovich Semichastny (Влади́мир Ефи́мович Семича́стный, January 15, 1924 – January 12, 2001) was a Soviet politician, who served as Chairman of the KGB from November 1961 to May 1967.
Vladimir Volfovich Zhirinovsky (Влади́мир Во́льфович Жирино́вский; né Eidelstein (Эйдельште́йн); born 25 April 1946) is a Russian ultranationalist politician of Ashkenazi origin and leader of the LDPR party (formerly Liberal Democratic Party of Russia).
Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in various jobs, such as a trade, a craft, or as a technician.
Voluntarism, sometimes referred to as voluntary action, is the principle that individuals are free to choose goals and how to achieve them within the bounds of certain societal and cultural constraints, as opposed to actions that are coerced or predetermined.
This article covers the history of Afghanistan since the communist military coup on 27 April 1978, known as the Saur Revolution, when the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) took power.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, officially known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by five Warsaw Pact nations – the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany and Poland – on the night of 20–21 August 1968.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States during the early 1970s, following a break-in by five men at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972, and President Richard Nixon's administration's subsequent attempt to cover up its involvement.
Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Westview Press was an American publishing house.
Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (6 July 1923 – 25 May 2014) was a Polish military officer and politician.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yekaterinburg (p), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, at the boundary between Asia and Europe.
The Yekaterinoslav Governorate (Екатеринославская губернія; translit.: Yekaterinoslavskaya guberniya; Катеринославська губернія) or Government of Yekaterinoslav was a governorate in the Russian Empire.
Yevgeniy Ivanovich Chazov (born 10 June 1929) (Евгений Иванович Чазов) is a prominent physician of the Soviet Union and Russia, specializing in cardiology, Chief of the Fourth Directorate of the Ministry of Health of the USSR, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, a recipient of numerous awards and decorations, Soviet, Russian, and foreign.
Yuli Markovich Daniel (a; 15 November 1925 — 30 December 1988) was a Soviet dissident writer, poet, translator, and political prisoner.
Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (p; – 9 February 1984) was a Soviet politician and the fourth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Yuri Leonidovich Brezhnev (Юрий Леонидович Брежнев; 31 March 1933 – 3 August 2013) was the son of Soviet politician and longtime General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev and Viktoria Brezhneva.
The Zaporizhia Regional Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine, commonly referred to as the Zaporizhia CPU obkom, was the position of highest authority in the Zaporizhia Oblast, in the Ukrainian SSR of the Soviet Union.
Zavidovo (Зави́дово) is a village (selo) in Konakovsky District of Tver Oblast, Russia.
Zbigniew Kazimierz "Zbig" Brzezinski (March 28, 1928 – May 26, 2017) was a Polish-American diplomat and political scientist.
The 18th Army of the Soviet Union's Red Army was formed on 21 June 1941 on the basis of HQ Kharkov Military District and armies of the Kiev Special Military District.
The 1965 Soviet economic reform, sometimes called the Kosygin reform or Liberman reform, were a set of planned changes in the economy of the Soviet Union (USSR).
The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad (r), was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia.
The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles (LA), California, United States.
The 19th Presidium of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 19th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 19th Congress.
The 1st Ukrainian Front (Russian: Пéрвый Укрáинский фронт; Пе́рший Украї́нський фронт Péršyj Ukraḯns’kyj front) was a front—a force the size of a Western Army group—of the Soviet Union's Red Army during the Second World War.
The 20th Presidium of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 20th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 20th Congress.
The 20th Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 20th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 20th Congress.
A member of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was a member of the nomenklatura, the country's de facto ruling class.
The 22nd Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 22nd Central Committee in the aftermath of the 22nd Congress.
The 23rd Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 23rd Central Committee in the aftermath of the 23rd Congress.
The 23rd Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 23rd Central Committee in the aftermath of the 23rd Congress.
The 24th Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 24th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 24th Congress.
The 24th Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 24th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 24th Congress.
The 25th Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 25th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 25th Congress.
The 25th Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 25th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 25th Congress.
The 26th Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 26th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 26th Congress.
The 26th Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was elected by the 26th Central Committee in the aftermath of the 26th Congress.
The 4th Ukrainian Front (Четве́ртий Украї́нський фронт Četvértyj Ukraḯns’kyj front) was a front (a roughly army group-sized formation) of the Red Army during World War II.
Brechnev, Brejnev, Breshneu, Breshnev, Brezhnev, Brezhnev, Leonid Ilyich, Brezhnevian, Breznev, Brežněv, L. I. Brezhnev, Leonid Breshnev, Leonid Brezhniev, Leonid Breznev, Leonid Brežnev, Leonid I. Brezhnev, Leonid Ilich Brezhnev, Leonid Iljic Breznev, Leonid Iljitsch Breschnew, Leonid Iljič Brežnev, Leonid Ilych Brezhnev, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, Леони́д Бре́жнев, Леони́д Ильи́ч Бре́жнев, Леонид Ильич Брежнев, Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, Леоні́д Бре́жнєв.