63 relations: Anatoly Vershik, Approximation theory, Computational science, Economist, Friedrich Hayek, Functional analysis, George Dantzig, Germans, Government of the Soviet Union, Gradient method, Grigorii Fichtenholz, Gunnar Myrdal, History of the Jews in Russia, Infinite-dimensional optimization, Iterative method, John R. Isbell, Kantorovich inequality, Kantorovich theorem, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Liberty Fund, Linear programming, List of economists, List of Nobel Memorial Prize laureates in Economics, List of Russian mathematicians, Mathematical analysis, Mathematical optimization, Mathematician, Mathematics, Military Engineering-Technical University, Milton Friedman, Moscow, Newton's method, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Normed vector space, Novodevichy Cemetery, Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk State University, Numerical analysis, OpenOffice.org, Operator theory, Order of the Patriotic War, Plywood, Probability measure, Probability theory, Rate of convergence, Riesz space, Road of Life, Russia, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Empire, ..., Russians, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg State University, Semën Samsonovich Kutateladze, Siege of Leningrad, Soviet Union, Svetlozar Rachev, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Tjalling Koopmans, Transportation theory (mathematics), USSR State Prize, Vladimir Smirnov (mathematician), Wasserstein metric. Expand index (13 more) »

## Anatoly Vershik

Anatoly Moiseevich Vershik (Анато́лий Моисе́евич Ве́ршик; born on 28 December 1933 in Leningrad) is a Soviet and Russian mathematician.

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## Approximation theory

In mathematics, approximation theory is concerned with how functions can best be approximated with simpler functions, and with quantitatively characterizing the errors introduced thereby.

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## Computational science

Computational science (also scientific computing or scientific computation (SC)) is a rapidly growing multidisciplinary field that uses advanced computing capabilities to understand and solve complex problems.

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## Economist

An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.

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## Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.

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## Functional analysis

Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense.

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## George Dantzig

George Bernard Dantzig (November 8, 1914 – May 13, 2005) was an American mathematical scientist who made important contributions to operations research, computer science, economics, and statistics.

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## Germans

Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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## Government of the Soviet Union

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.

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## Gradient method

In optimization, gradient method is an algorithm to solve problems of the form with the search directions defined by the gradient of the function at the current point.

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## Grigorii Fichtenholz

Grigorii Mikhailovich Fichtenholz (or Fikhtengolts) (Григо́рий Миха́йлович Фихтенго́льц) (June 5, 1888 in Odessa – June 26, 1959 in Leningrad) was a Russian mathematician working on real analysis and functional analysis.

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## Gunnar Myrdal

Karl Gunnar Myrdal (6 December 1898 – 17 May 1987) was a Swedish economist and sociologist.

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## History of the Jews in Russia

Jews in the Russian Empire have historically constituted a large religious diaspora; the vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest population of Jews in the world.

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## Infinite-dimensional optimization

In certain optimization problems the unknown optimal solution might not be a number or a vector, but rather a continuous quantity, for example a function or the shape of a body.

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## Iterative method

In computational mathematics, an iterative method is a mathematical procedure that uses an initial guess to generate a sequence of improving approximate solutions for a class of problems, in which the n-th approximation is derived from the previous ones.

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## John R. Isbell

John Rolfe Isbell (October 27, 1930 – August 6, 2005) was an American mathematician, for many years a professor of mathematics at the University at Buffalo (SUNY).

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## Kantorovich inequality

In mathematics, the Kantorovich inequality is a particular case of the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, which is itself a generalization of the triangle inequality.

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## Kantorovich theorem

The Kantorovich theorem (Newton-Kantorovich theorem) is a mathematical statement on the convergence of Newton's method.

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## Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin

Kuzma Sergeevich Petrov-Vodkin, (November 5, 1878 – February 15, 1939) was an important Russian and Soviet painter and writer.

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## Liberty Fund

Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.

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## Linear programming

Linear programming (LP, also called linear optimization) is a method to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a mathematical model whose requirements are represented by linear relationships.

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## List of economists

This is an incomplete alphabetical list by surname of notable economists, experts in the social science of economics, past and present.

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## List of Nobel Memorial Prize laureates in Economics

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially known as The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Swedish: Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to researchers in the field of economic sciences.

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## List of Russian mathematicians

This list of Russian mathematicians includes the famous mathematicians from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.

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## Mathematical analysis

Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.

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## Mathematical optimization

In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.

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## Mathematician

A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

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## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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## Military Engineering-Technical University

The Saint Petersburg Military Engineering-Technical University (Nikolaevsky) (Санкт-Петербургский Военный инженерно-технический университет, VITU), previously known as the Saint Petersburg Nikolaevsky Engineering Academy, was established in 1810 under Alexander I.

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## Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.

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## Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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## Newton's method

In numerical analysis, Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method), named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson, is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function.

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## Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.

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## Normed vector space

In mathematics, a normed vector space is a vector space over the real or complex numbers, on which a norm is defined.

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## Novodevichy Cemetery

Novodevichy Cemetery (Новоде́вичье кла́дбище, Novodevichye kladbishche) is the most famous cemetery in Moscow.

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## Novosibirsk

Novosibirsk (p) is the third-most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg.

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## Novosibirsk State University

Novosibirsk State University (NSU) is one of the leading Russian higher-education establishments, located in Novosibirsk, a cultural and industrial center of Siberia.

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## Numerical analysis

Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).

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## OpenOffice.org

OpenOffice.org (OOo), commonly known as OpenOffice, is a discontinued open-source office suite.

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## Operator theory

In mathematics, operator theory is the study of linear operators on function spaces, beginning with differential operators and integral operators.

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## Order of the Patriotic War

The Order of the Patriotic War (Орден Отечественной войны) is a Soviet military decoration that was awarded to all soldiers in the Soviet armed forces, security troops, and to partisans for heroic deeds during the German-Soviet War, known by the former-Soviet Union as the Great Patriotic War.

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## Plywood

Plywood is a sheet material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer that are glued together with adjacent layers having their wood grain rotated up to 90 degrees to one another.

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## Probability measure

In mathematics, a probability measure is a real-valued function defined on a set of events in a probability space that satisfies measure properties such as countable additivity.

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## Probability theory

Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability.

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## Rate of convergence

In numerical analysis, the speed at which a convergent sequence approaches its limit is called the rate of convergence.

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## Riesz space

In mathematics, a Riesz space, lattice-ordered vector space or vector lattice is a partially ordered vector space where the order structure is a lattice.

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## Road of Life

The Road of Life (Доро́га жи́зни, doroga zhizni) was the ice road winter transport route across the frozen Lake Ladoga, which provided the only access to the besieged city of Leningrad while the perimeter in the siege was maintained by the German Army Group North and the Finnish Defence Forces.

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## Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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## Russian Academy of Sciences

The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.

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## Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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## Russians

Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.

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## Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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## Saint Petersburg State University

Saint Petersburg State University (SPbU, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, СПбГУ) is a Russian federal state-owned higher education institution based in Saint Petersburg.

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## Semën Samsonovich Kutateladze

Semën Samsonovich Kutateladze (born October 2, 1945 in Leningrad, now St. Petersburg) is a mathematician.

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## Siege of Leningrad

The Siege of Leningrad (also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: Blokada Leningrada) and the 900-Day Siege) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany and the Finnish Army in the north, against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.

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## Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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## Svetlozar Rachev

Svetlozar (Zari) Todorov Rachev (Bulgarian: Светлозар Тодоров Рачев, born September 6, 1951) is a Bulgarian mathematician who works in the field of mathematical finance, probability theory, and statistics.

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## The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume and published by Palgrave Macmillan.

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## Tjalling Koopmans

Tjalling Charles Koopmans (August 28, 1910 – February 26, 1985) was a Dutch American mathematician and economist.

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## Transportation theory (mathematics)

In mathematics and economics, transportation theory or transport theory is a name given to the study of optimal transportation and allocation of resources.

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## USSR State Prize

The USSR State Prize (Госуда́рственная пре́мия СССР, Gosudarstvennaya premiya SSSR) was the Soviet Union's state honor.

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## Vladimir Smirnov (mathematician)

Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov (Влади́мир Ива́нович Смирно́в) (10 June 1887 – 11 February 1974) was a Russian mathematician who made significant contributions in both pure and applied mathematics, and also in the history of mathematics.

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## Wasserstein metric

In mathematics, the Wasserstein or Kantorovich-Rubinstein metric or distance is a distance function defined between probability distributions on a given metric space M. Intuitively, if each distribution is viewed as a unit amount of "dirt" piled on M, the metric is the minimum "cost" of turning one pile into the other, which is assumed to be the amount of dirt that needs to be moved times the distance it has to be moved.

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## Redirects here:

Kantorovich, L. V. Kantorovich, Leonid Kantorovitch, Leonid V. Kantorovich, Leonid Vitalievich Kantorovich, Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich, Leonid Vitalyevich Kantorovich, Leonid Vital’evich Kantorovich, Леонид Витальевич Канторович.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonid_Kantorovich