251 relations: Acronym, Admittance, Alcuin, All caps, Alphabet, Alphabetical order, Ancient Greek, Antiqua (typeface class), Apostrophe, Arabic alphabet, Arabic name, Arcania: Gothic 4, Arch of Titus, ARMA: Armed Assault, Armenian alphabet, Article (grammar), Ascender (typography), ASCII, ß, Bart D. Ehrman, BASIC, Baudot code, Blackboard bold, Blackletter, Book of Kells, Brand, Bruce M. Metzger, C (programming language), C character classification, C standard library, C++, Camel case, Capital ẞ, Capital punishment, Capitalization, Capitonym, Carolingian dynasty, Carolingian minuscule, Case sensitivity, Catherine the Great, Character (computing), Character encoding, Charlemagne, Cherokee syllabary, Claudius, Code point, Codex Ebnerianus, Codex Vaticanus, Composing stick, Compound modifier, ..., Computer programming, Computing, Conjunction (grammar), Coptic alphabet, Copula (linguistics), Council for German Orthography, Cyrillic script, Danah boyd, Danish language, Dž, Deity, Descender, Deseret alphabet, Diacritic, Dictionary, Digraph (orthography), DmC: Devil May Cry, Dotted and dotless I, Drawer (furniture), Dutch language, Dutch name, Dzhe, EBCDIC, Electrical resistance and conductance, Emphasis (typography), Engineering drawing, English alphabet, English language, Etiquette in technology, ʻOkina, Font, Formality, Fraktur, French name, Fula alphabets, Galley proof, Georgian language, Georgian scripts, German language, German name, Glagolitic script, Glottal stop, Glyph, Grammar, Greek alphabet, Greek letters used in mathematics, science, and engineering, Hangul, Hangul consonant and vowel tables, Hawaiian language, Headline, Headword, Herculaneum, Hiragana, Honorific, Hungarian language, Hyphen, I, IJ (digraph), Information technology, Initial, Instant messaging, Interjection, International Organization for Standardization, International Printing Museum, International System of Units, Internet, Ionizing radiation, Italic type, Japanese writing system, Kanji, Katakana, Kilo-, Knut Kleve, L, Language, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin letters used in mathematics, Length, Letter (alphabet), Letter case, Letterpress printing, Line (poetry), Linguistic description, List of Latin-script digraphs, Litre, Lje, Long s, Mathematics, Mega-, Metre, Milli-, Monotheism, Movable type, Names of the days of the week, Nature (journal), New Scientist, NeWS, Nj (digraph), Nje, Nonce word, Noun, Oblique type, Old Hungarian alphabet, Orthography, Osage alphabet, Oxford University Press, Palaeography, Papyrus, Part of speech, Pascal (programming language), Password, Pen, Personal name, Phoneme, Post-it Note, Preposition and postposition, Project Gutenberg, Pronoun, Pronunciation, Proper adjective, Proper noun, Publishing, Punctuation, Python (programming language), Quotation mark, Rolf Maximilian Sievert, Roman cursive, Roman square capitals, Romance languages, Romanization of Japanese, S, Sans-serif, Search algorithm, Second, Semantics, Sentence (linguistics), Serif, Set (mathematics), Shift key, SI base unit, Siemens (unit), Sievert, Sigma, Small caps, SMS language, Snake case, Software, Sokuon, Sort (typesetting), South Slavic languages, Spanish language, Spanish naming customs, String (computer science), Studly caps, Style guide, Sun Microsystems, Syllabary, Syntax, Tamar of Georgia, T–V distinction, Text figures, Text messaging, Text processing, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, The Economist, The Guardian, The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog, The Times, Time, Title, Title (publishing), Turkish language, Type case, Typeface, Typesetting, Typographic ligature, Typographical conventions in mathematical formulae, Typography, Uncial script, Underscore, Unicase, Unicode, Unicode Consortium, Universal Character Set characters, Uspenski Gospels, Van (Dutch), Visual Basic, Von, Vowel, Warang Citi, Welsh language, Werner von Siemens, Word, Word processor, Wordmark, Writing, Writing system, X-height, Yōon, 18th century. Expand index (201 more) » « Shrink index
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
In electrical engineering, admittance is a measure of how easily a circuit or device will allow a current to flow.
Alcuin of York (Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called Ealhwine, Alhwin or Alchoin—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria.
In typography, all caps (short for "all capitals") refers to text or a font in which all letters are capital letters, for example:.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Alphabetical order is a system whereby strings of characters are placed in order based on the position of the characters in the conventional ordering of an alphabet.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Antiqua is a style of typeface used to mimic styles of handwriting or calligraphy common during the 15th and 16th centuries.
The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
Arabic names were historically based on a long naming system; most Arabs did not have given/middle/family names, but a full chain of names.
Arcania: Gothic 4 is an action role-playing video game, part of the ''Gothic'' series, developed by Spellbound.
The Arch of Titus (Arco di Tito; Arcus Titi) is a 1st-century AD honorific arch, located on the Via Sacra, Rome, just to the south-east of the Roman Forum.
ARMA: Armed Assault (stylized as AA; known as ARMA: Combat Operations in North America), is a tactical military first- and third-person shooter, released in 2006.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
In typography, an ascender is the portion of a minuscule letter in a Latin-derived alphabet that extends above the mean line of a font.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
In German orthography, the grapheme ß, called Eszett or scharfes S, in English "sharp S", represents the phoneme in Standard German, specifically when following long vowels and diphthongs, while ss is used after short vowels.
Bart Denton Ehrman (born October 5, 1955) is an American New Testament scholar focusing on textual criticism of the New Testament, the historical Jesus, and the development of early Christianity.
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
The Baudot code, invented by Émile Baudot, is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII.
Blackboard bold is a typeface style that is often used for certain symbols in mathematical texts, in which certain lines of the symbol (usually vertical or near-vertical lines) are doubled.
Blackletter (sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.
The Book of Kells (Codex Cenannensis; Leabhar Cheanannais; Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS A. I., sometimes known as the Book of Columba) is an illuminated manuscript Gospel book in Latin, containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together with various prefatory texts and tables.
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.
Bruce Manning Metzger (February 9, 1914 – February 13, 2007) was an American biblical scholar, Bible translator and textual critic who was a longtime professor at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who served on the board of the American Bible Society and United Bible Societies.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C character classification is an operation provided by a group of functions in the ANSI C Standard Library for the C programming language.
The C standard library or libc is the standard library for the C programming language, as specified in the ANSI C standard.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
Camel case (stylized as camelCase or CamelCase; also known as camel caps or more formally as medial capitals) is the practice of writing compound words or phrases such that each word or abbreviation in the middle of the phrase begins with a capital letter, with no intervening spaces or punctuation.
Capital sharp s (ẞ; großes Eszett) is the majuscule (uppercase) form of the eszett (also called scharfes S, 'sharp s') ligature in German orthography (ß).
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Capitalisation, or capitalization,see spelling differences is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (upper-case letter) and the remaining letters in lower case in writing systems with a case distinction.
A capitonym is a word that changes its meaning (and sometimes pronunciation) when it is capitalized; the capitalization usually applies due to one form being a proper noun or eponym.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
Carolingian minuscule or Caroline minuscule is a script which developed as a calligraphic standard in Europe so that the Latin alphabet could be easily recognized by the literate class from one region to another.
In computers, upper case and lower case text may be treated as distinct (case sensitivity) or equivalent (case insensitivity).
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
The Cherokee syllabary is a syllabary invented by Sequoyah to write the Cherokee language in the late 1810s and early 1820s.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up the code space.
Codex Ebnerianus, Minuscule 105 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), δ 257 (Soden), is a Greek language illuminated manuscript of the New Testament, though missing the Book of Revelation.
The Codex Vaticanus (The Vatican, Bibl. Vat., Vat. gr. 1209; no. B or 03 Gregory-Aland, δ 1 von Soden) is regarded as the oldest extant manuscript of the Greek Bible (Old and New Testament), one of the four great uncial codices.
In letterpress printing and typesetting, a composing stick is a tool used to assemble pieces of metal type into words and lines, which are then transferred to a galley before being locked into a forme and printed.
A compound modifier (also called a compound adjective, phrasal adjective, or adjectival phrase) is a compound of two or more attributive words: That is, more than one word that together modify a noun.
Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.
The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
The Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung ("Council for German Orthography" or "Council for German Spelling"), or RdR, is the main international body regulating German orthography.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
danah boyd (styled lowercase, born November 24, 1977 as Danah Michele Mattas) She noted her mother added lowercase 'h' in birth name "danah" for typographical balance, reflecting the lowercase first letter 'd' and later changed her last name to lowercase "boyd" in 2000.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Dž (titlecase form; all-capitals form DŽ, lowercase dž) is the seventh letter of the Gaj's Latin alphabet for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian), after D and before Đ. It is pronounced.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
In typography, a descender is the portion of a letter that extends below the baseline of a font.
The Deseret alphabet (Deseret: 𐐔𐐯𐑅𐐨𐑉𐐯𐐻 or 𐐔𐐯𐑆𐐲𐑉𐐯𐐻) is a phonemic English-language spelling reform developed between 1847 and 1854 by the board of regents of the University of Deseret under the leadership of Brigham Young, the second president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
DmC: Devil May Cry is an action-adventure hack and slash video game developed by Ninja Theory and published by Capcom for PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 and Microsoft Windows.
Dotted İi and dotless Iı are separate letters in Turkish and Azerbaijani.
A drawer is a box-shaped container that fits into a piece of furniture in such a way that it can be drawn out horizontally to reach its contents.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch names consist of one or more given names and a surname.
Dzhe or Gea (Џ џ; italics: Џ џ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script used in Macedonian and varieties of Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Montenegrin, and Serbian) to represent the voiced retroflex affricate, something like the pronunciation of in “jump”.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
In typography, emphasis is the strengthening of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text, to highlight them.
An engineering drawing, a type of technical drawing, is used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items.
The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Online etiquette is ingrained into culture, although etiquette in technology is a fairly recent concept.
The okina, also called by several other names, is a unicameral consonant letter used within the Latin script to mark the phonemic glottal stop, as it is used in many Polynesian languages.
In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface.
A formality is an established procedure or set of specific behaviors and utterances, conceptually similar to a ritual although typically secular and less involved.
Fraktur is a calligraphic hand of the Latin alphabet and any of several blackletter typefaces derived from this hand.
This article describes the conventions for using people's names in France, including the norms of custom and practice, as well as the legal aspects.
The Fula language (Fulfulde, Pulaar, or Pular) is written primarily in the Latin script, but in some areas is still written in an older Arabic script called the Ajami script or with its own script called Adlam.
In printing and publishing, proofs are the preliminary versions of publications meant for review by authors, editors, and proofreaders, often with extra-wide margins.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Personal names in German-speaking Europe consist of one or several given names (Vorname, plural Vornamen) and a surname (Nachname, Familienname).
The Glagolitic script (Ⰳⰾⰰⰳⱁⰾⰹⱌⰰ Glagolitsa) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek letters are used in mathematics, science, engineering, and other areas where mathematical notation is used as symbols for constants, special functions, and also conventionally for variables representing certain quantities.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
The following tables of consonants and vowels of the Korean alphabet (jamo) display the basic forms in blue in the first row, and their derivatives in the following rows.
The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.
The headline is the text indicating the nature of the article below it.
A headword, head word, lemma, or sometimes catchword, is the word under which a set of related dictionary or encyclopaedia entries appears.
Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum (Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD.
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script).
An honorific is a title that conveys esteem or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
IJ (lowercase ij) is a digraph of the letters i and j. Occurring in the Dutch language, it is sometimes considered a ligature, or even a letter in itselfalthough in most fonts that have a separate character for ij, the two composing parts are not connected but are separate glyphs, sometimes slightly kerned.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
In a written or published work, an initial or drop cap is a letter at the beginning of a word, a chapter, or a paragraph that is larger than the rest of the text.
Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat that offers real-time text transmission over the Internet.
In linguistics, an interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling or reaction.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International Printing Museum, in Carson, California, has one of the largest collections of antique printing presses in the United States.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting.
The modern Japanese writing system uses a combination of logographic kanji, which are adopted Chinese characters, and syllabic kana.
Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin script (known as rōmaji).
Kilo is a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by one thousand (103).
Knut Kleve (24 February 1926 – 11 February 2017) was a Norwegian classical philologist and a professor at the University of Bergen and at the University of Oslo.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Many letters of the Latin alphabet, both capital and small, are used in mathematics, science and engineering to denote by convention specific or abstracted constants, variables of a certain type, units, multipliers, physical entities.
In geometric measurements, length is the most extended dimension of an object.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
Letterpress printing is a technique of relief printing using a printing press, a process by which many copies are produced by repeated direct impression of an inked, raised surface against sheets or a continuous roll of paper.
A line is a unit of language into which a poem or play is divided, which operates on principles which are distinct from and not necessarily coincident with grammatical structures, such as the sentence or single clauses in sentences.
In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community.
This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
Lje (Љ љ; italics: Љ љ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is an archaic form of the lower case letter s. It replaced a single s, or the first in a double s, at the beginning or in the middle of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" and "ſucceſsful" for "successful").
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Mega is a unit prefix in metric systems of units denoting a factor of one million (106 or 000).
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
Milli- (symbol m) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of one thousandth (10−3).
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper.
The names of the days of the week in many languages are derived from the names of the classical planets in Hellenistic astrology, which were in turn named after contemporary deities, a system introduced by the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
NeWS (Network extensible Window System) is a discontinued windowing system developed by Sun Microsystems in the mid-1980s.
Nj (nj in lower case) is a letter present in South Slavic languages such as the Latin-alphabet version of Serbo-Croatian and in romanised Macedonian.
Nje (Њ њ; italics: Њ њ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
A nonce word (also called an occasionalism) is a lexeme created for a single occasion to solve an immediate problem of communication.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
Oblique type is a form of type that slants slightly to the right, used for the same purposes as italic type.
The Old Hungarian script (rovásírás) is an alphabetic writing system used for writing the Hungarian language.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
The Osage alphabet is a new script promulgated in 2006 for the Osage language.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
In traditional grammar, a part of speech (abbreviated form: PoS or POS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
A password is a word or string of characters used for user authentication to prove identity or access approval to gain access to a resource (example: an access code is a type of password), which is to be kept secret from those not allowed access.
A pen is a common writing instrument used to apply ink to a surface, usually paper, for writing or drawing.
A personal name or full name is the set of names by which an individual is known and that can be recited as a word-group, with the understanding that, taken together, they all relate to that one individual.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
A Post-it Note (or sticky note) is a small piece of paper with a re-adherable strip of glue on its back, made for temporarily attaching notes to documents and other surfaces.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken.
In English orthography, the term proper adjective is sometimes applied to adjectives that take initial capital letters, and the term common adjective to those that do not.
A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public.
Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks, inverted commas or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.
Rolf Maximilian Sievert (6 May 1896 – 3 October 1966) was a Swedish medical physicist whose major contribution was in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation.
Roman cursive (or Latin cursive) is a form of handwriting (or a script) used in ancient Rome and to some extent into the Middle Ages.
Roman square capitals, also called capitalis monumentalis, inscriptional capitals, elegant capitals and capitalis quadrata, are an ancient Roman form of writing, and the basis for modern capital letters.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language.
S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In typography and lettering, a sans-serif, sans serif, gothic, or simply sans letterform is one that does not have extending features called "serifs" at the end of strokes.
In computer science, a search algorithm is any algorithm which solves the search problem, namely, to retrieve information stored within some data structure, or calculated in the search space of a problem domain.
The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
In typography, a serif is a small line attached to the end of a stroke in a letter or symbol.
In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.
The shift key is a modifier key on a keyboard, used to type capital letters and other alternate "upper" characters.
The International System of Units (SI) defines seven units of measure as a basic set from which all other SI units can be derived.
The siemens (symbol: S) is the derived unit of electric conductance, electric susceptance and electric admittance in the International System of Units (SI).
The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Sigma (upper-case Σ, lower-case σ, lower-case in word-final position ς; σίγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.
In typography, small capitals (usually abbreviated small caps) are lowercase characters typeset with glyphs that resemble uppercase letters ("capitals") but reduced in height and weight, close to the surrounding lowercase (small) letters or text figures, for example:.
SMS language, textese or texting language is the abbreviated language and slang commonly used with mobile phone text messaging, or other Internet-based communication such as email and instant messaging.
Snake case (or snake_case) is the practice of writing compound words or phrases in which the elements are separated with one underscore character (_) and no spaces, with each element's initial letter usually lowercased within the compound and the first letter either upper or lower case—as in "foo_bar" and "Hello_world".
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
The is a Japanese symbol in the form of a small hiragana or katakana tsu.
In typesetting by hand compositing, a sort or type is a piece of type representing a particular letter or symbol, cast from a matrix mold and assembled with other sorts bearing additional letters into lines of type to make up a form from which a page is printed.
The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spanish naming customs are historical traditions for naming children practised in Spain.
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.
Studly caps is a form of text notation in which the capitalization of letters varies by some pattern, or arbitrarily, usually also omitting spaces between words and often omitting some letters, for example, StUdLyCaPs or STuDLyCaPS.
A style guide (or manual of style) is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization, or field.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Tamar the Great (თამარი) (1160 – 18 January 1213) reigned as the Queen of Georgia from 1184 to 1213, presiding over the apex of the Georgian Golden Age.
In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.
Text figures (also known as non-lining, lowercase, old style, ranging, hanging, medieval, billing, or antique figures or numerals) are numerals typeset with varying heights in a fashion that resembles a typical line of running text, hence the name.
Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile phones, tablets, desktops/laptops, or other devices.
In computing, the term text processing refers to the discipline of mechanizing the creation or manipulation of electronic text.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
"The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog" is an English-language pangram—a sentence that contains all of the letters of the alphabet.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
A title is a prefix or suffix added to someone's name in certain contexts.
The title of a book, or any other published text or work of art, is a name for the work which is usually chosen by the author.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
A type case is a compartmentalized wooden box used to store movable type used in letterpress printing.
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical typesDictionary.com Unabridged.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Typographical conventions in mathematical formulae provide uniformity across mathematical texts and help the readers of those texts to grasp new concepts quickly.
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.
Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.
The symbol underscore (_), also called underline, low line or low dash, is a character that originally appeared on the typewriter and was primarily used to underline words.
A unicase or unicameral alphabet is one that has no case for its letters.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The Unicode Consortium (Unicode Inc.) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that coordinates the development of the Unicode standard, based in Mountain View, California.
Uspenski Gospels, Minuscule 461 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), ε 92 (Soden), are a New Testament minuscule manuscript written in Greek, dated at 835 AD.
van is a preposition in the Dutch and Afrikaans languages, meaning "of" or "from" depending on the context (similar to de and di in the Romance languages).
Visual Basic is a third-generation event-driven programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its Component Object Model (COM) programming model first released in 1991 and declared legacy during 2008.
Von is a term used in German language surnames either as a nobiliary particle indicating a noble patrilineality or as a simple preposition that approximately means of or from in the case of commoners.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Warang Citi (also written Varang Kshiti;, IPA: /wɐrɐŋ ʧɪt̪ɪ/) is an abugida invented by Lako Bodra, used in primary and adult education and in various publications.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Ernst Werner Siemens (von Siemens from 1888;; 13 December 1816 – 6 December 1892) was a German inventor and industrialist.
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
A word processor is a computer program or device that provides for input, editing, formatting and output of text, often plus other features.
A wordmark, word mark, or logotype is usually a distinct text-only typographic treatment of the name of a company, institution, or product name used for purposes of identification and branding.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
In typography, the x-height or corpus size is the distance between the baseline and the mean line of lower-case letters in a typeface.
is a feature of the Japanese language in which a mora is formed with an added sound, i.e., palatalized.
The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800 in the Gregorian calendar.
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