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Letters patent

Index Letters patent

Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation. [1]

50 relations: Act of Parliament, Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876, Commission (document), Commonwealth realm, Corporation, Crime, Design patent, Eschatocol, Exequatur, Forgery, Government-granted monopoly, Governor, Governor-general, Heraldry, Imprisonment, Invention, James Madison, John Gough Nichols, Justice ministry, Land patent, Legal instrument, Legislation, Letter of marque, Letters close, Lettre de cachet, Life Peerages Act 1958, List of types of letters patent (British monarchy), Marbury v. Madison, Monarch, Open letter, Papal bull, Parliament, Patent, Patent of Toleration, Patent roll, Plurale tantum, President, President of the United States, Pro forma, Royal assent, Royal charter, Royal Commission, Royal prerogative, Seal (emblem), Statute of Monopolies, Supreme Court of the United States, The Crown, United States, United States patent law, William Marbury.

Act of Parliament

Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).

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Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876

The Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 (39 & 40 Vict. c.59) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that altered the judicial functions of the House of Lords.

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Commission (document)

A commission is a formal document issued to appoint a named person to high office or as a commissioned officer in a territory's armed forces.

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Commonwealth realm

A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and shares the same person, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as its head of state and reigning constitutional monarch, but retains a Crown legally distinct from the other realms.

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Corporation

A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.

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Crime

In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

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Design patent

In the United States, a design patent is a form of legal protection granted to the ornamental design of a functional item.

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Eschatocol

An eschatocol, or closing protocol, is the final section of a legal or public document, which may include a formulaic sentence of appreciation; the attestation of those responsible for the document, which may be the author, writer, countersigner, principal parties involved, and witnesses to the enactment or the subscription; or both.

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Exequatur

An exequatur is a legal document issued by a sovereign authority that permits the exercise or enforcement of a right within the jurisdiction of the authority.

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Forgery

Forgery is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive for the sake of altering the public perception, or to earn profit by selling the forged item.

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Government-granted monopoly

In economics, a government-granted monopoly (also called a "de jure monopoly") is a form of coercive monopoly by which a government grants exclusive privilege to a private individual or firm to be the sole provider of a good or service; potential competitors are excluded from the market by law, regulation, or other mechanisms of government enforcement.

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Governor

A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.

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Governor-general

Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm.

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Heraldry

Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.

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Imprisonment

Imprisonment (from imprison Old French, French emprisonner, from en in + prison prison, from Latin prensio, arrest, from prehendere, prendere, to seize) is the restraint of a person's liberty, for any cause whatsoever, whether by authority of the government, or by a person acting without such authority.

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Invention

An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process.

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James Madison

James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.

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John Gough Nichols

John Gough Nichols (1806–1873) was an English printer and antiquary, the third generation in a family publishing business with strong connection to learned antiquarianism.

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Justice ministry

A justice ministry, ministry of justice, or department of justice is a ministry or other government agency in charge of the administration of justice.

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Land patent

A land patent is an exclusive land grant made by a sovereign entity with respect to a particular tract of land.

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Legal instrument

Legal instrument is a legal term of art that is used for any formally executed written document that can be formally attributed to its author, records and formally expresses a legally enforceable act, process, or contractual duty, obligation, or right, and therefore evidences that act, process, or agreement.

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Legislation

Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.

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Letter of marque

A letter of marque and reprisal (lettre de marque; lettre de course) was a government license in the Age of Sail that authorized a person, known as a privateer or corsair, to attack and capture enemy vessels.

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Letters close

Letters close (litterae clausae) are a type of obsolete legal document once used by the British monarchy, certain officers of government and by the Pope, which is a sealed letter granting a right, monopoly, title, or status to an individual or to some entity such as a corporation.

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Lettre de cachet

Lettres de cachet (lit. "letters of the sign/signet") were letters signed by the king of France, countersigned by one of his ministers, and closed with the royal seal, or cachet.

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Life Peerages Act 1958

The Life Peerages Act 1958 established the modern standards for the creation of life peers by the monarch of the United Kingdom.

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List of types of letters patent (British monarchy)

This is a list of types of letters patent.

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Marbury v. Madison

Marbury v. Madison,, was a U.S. Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review in the United States, so that American courts have the power to strike down laws, statutes, and executive actions that contravene the U.S. Constitution.

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Monarch

A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

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Open letter

An open letter is a letter that is intended to be read by a wide audience, or a letter intended for an individual, but that is nonetheless widely distributed intentionally.

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Papal bull

A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Parliament

In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.

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Patent

A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.

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Patent of Toleration

The Patent of Toleration (Toleranzpatent) was an edict of toleration issued on 13 October 1781 by the Habsburg emperor Joseph II.

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Patent roll

The Patent Rolls (Latin: Rotuli litterarum patentium) are a series of administrative records compiled in the English, British and United Kingdom Chancery, running from 1201 to the present day.

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Plurale tantum

A plurale tantum (Latin for "plural only", plural form: pluralia tantum) is a noun that appears only in the plural form and does not have a singular variant for referring to a single object.

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President

The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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Pro forma

The term pro forma (Latin for "as a matter of form" or "for the sake of form") is most often used to describe a practice or document that is provided as a courtesy or satisfies minimum requirements, conforms to a norm or doctrine, tends to be performed perfunctorily or is considered a formality.

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Royal assent

Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.

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Royal charter

A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.

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Royal Commission

A Royal Commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue in some monarchies.

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Royal prerogative

The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.

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Seal (emblem)

A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.

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Statute of Monopolies

The Statute of Monopolies was an Act of the Parliament of England notable as the first statutory expression of English patent law.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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The Crown

The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States patent law

Under United States law, a patent is a right granted to the inventor of a (1) process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, (2) that is new, useful, and non-obvious.

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William Marbury

William Marbury (November 7, 1762 – March 13, 1835) was a highly successful American businessman and one of the "Midnight Judges" appointed by United States President John Adams the day before he left office.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Letters_patent

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