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Index Levonorgestrel

Levonorgestrel is a hormonal medication which is used in a number of birth control methods. [1]

145 relations: A. Albert Yuzpe, Abdominal pain, Acne, Active metabolite, Adverse effect, Agonist, Aldosterone, Androgen, Androgen receptor, Androgen-dependent condition, Androstanolone, Antiandrogen, Antigonadotropin, Antimineralocorticoid, Bioavailability, Biological half-life, Biological target, Biosynthesis, Biotransformation, Birth control, Birth control pill formulations, Body mass index, Breast pain, Breastfeeding, Cervix, Chirality (chemistry), Clinical trial, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Contraceptive implant, Contraceptive vaginal ring, CYP3A4, Cytochrome P450, Derivative (chemistry), Developing country, Dextrorotation and levorotation, Diarrhea, Dizziness, Dysmenorrhea, Elimination (pharmacology), Emergency contraception, Enantiomer, Enzyme, Enzyme inducer, Erectile dysfunction, Ester, Estradiol, Estradiol (medication), Estradiol valerate, Estrane, Estrogen, ..., Estrogen (medication), Ethinylestradiol, European Medicines Agency, Fatigue, Feces, Fertility, Food and Drug Administration, Generic drug, Germany, Glucocorticoid, Glucuronidation, Gonad, Gonane, Headache, Health system, High-density lipoprotein, Hirsutism, Hives, Hormone, Human serum albumin, Hydrocortisone, Hydroxylation, Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, Hypomenorrhea, Indian Health Service, Injectable birth control, International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Intrauterine device, Irregular menstruation, Levonorgestrel acetate, Levonorgestrel butanoate, Levonorgestrel-releasing implant, Ligand (biochemistry), Liver, Male contraceptive, Menorrhagia, Metabolism, Metribolone, Mibolerone, Mineralocorticoid, Mineralocorticoid receptor, Molecular modification, Nandrolone, Nausea, Norethisterone, Norgestrel, Oligomenorrhea, Oral administration, Organic compound, Over-the-counter drug, Ovulation, Parent structure, Pelvic pain, Plasma protein binding, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Pregnancy, Princeton University, Prodrug, Progesterone, Progesterone receptor, Progestin, Progestogen, Progestogen-only pill, Promegestone, Quingestanol acetate, Racemic mixture, Redox, Schering AG, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Sex steroid, Sexual intercourse, Sexually transmitted infection, Side effect, Sperm, Stereoisomerism, Steroid, Subcutaneous implant, Sulfation, Tablet (pharmacy), Teratology, Testosterone, Testosterone (medication), Total synthesis, Trademark distinctiveness, Transdermal patch, United States, Urine, Vaginal bleeding, Vomiting, Weight gain, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Wyeth, Yuzpe regimen, 5α-Dihydrolevonorgestrel, 5α-Reductase. Expand index (95 more) »

A. Albert Yuzpe

Abraham Albert "Al" Yuzpe (born 1936) is a Canadian obstetrician-gynecologist known for his work on human fertility and emergency contraception.

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Abdominal pain

Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.

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Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.

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Active metabolite

An active metabolite is an active form of a drug after it has been processed by the body.

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Adverse effect

In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.

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An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.

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Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.

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An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.

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Androgen receptor

The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.

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Androgen-dependent condition

An androgen-dependent condition, disease, disorder, or syndrome, is a medical condition that is, in part or full, dependent on, or is sensitive to, the presence of androgenic activity in the body.

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Androstanolone, or stanolone, also known as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sold under the brand name Andractim among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication and hormone which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men.

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Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from mediating their biological effects in the body.

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An antigonadotropin is a drug which suppresses the activity and/or downstream effects of one or both of the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

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An antimineralocorticoid, MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug which antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors.

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In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

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Biological half-life

The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.

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Biological target

A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.

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Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.

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Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.

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Birth control

Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.

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Birth control pill formulations

Oral contraceptives come in a variety of formulations.

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Body mass index

The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.

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Breast pain

Breast pain is a medical symptom that is most often associated with a developing disease or condition of the breast.

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Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.

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The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.

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Chirality (chemistry)

Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.

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Clinical trial

Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.

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Combined oral contraceptive pill

The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.

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Contraceptive implant

A contraceptive implant is an implantable medical device used for the purpose of birth control.

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Contraceptive vaginal ring

Contraceptive vaginal ring is a type of insert that is placed in the vagina for the purpose of birth control.

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Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.

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Cytochrome P450

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.

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Derivative (chemistry)

In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Dextrorotation and levorotation

Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".

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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.

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Dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods, or menstrual cramps, is pain during menstruation.

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Elimination (pharmacology)

In pharmacology the elimination or excretion of a drug is understood to be any one of a number of processes by which a drug is eliminated (that is, cleared and excreted) from an organism either in an unaltered form (unbound molecules) or modified as a metabolite.

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Emergency contraception

Emergency contraception (EC), or emergency postcoital contraception, are birth control measures that may be used after sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy.

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In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Enzyme inducer

An enzyme inducer is a type of drug that increases the metabolic activity of an enzyme either by binding to the enzyme and activating it, or by increasing the expression of the gene coding for the enzyme.

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Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.

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In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.

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Estradiol (medication)

Estradiol, also spelled oestradiol, is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.

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Estradiol valerate

Estradiol valerate, sold under the brand names Progynova, Progynon Depot, and Delestrogen among others, is a medication which is used in hormone therapy such as for menopausal symptoms and in hormonal birth control.

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Estrane is a C18 steroid derivative, with a gonane core.

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Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.

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Estrogen (medication)

An estrogen is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.

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Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.

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European Medicines Agency

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a European Union agency for the evaluation of medicinal products.

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Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.

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Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.

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Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Generic drug

A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.

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Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.

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A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

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Gonane (C17), also known as perhydrocyclopentaphenanthrene, is a tetracyclic hydrocarbon ring structure and the fundamental steroid nucleus.

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Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.

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Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

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High-density lipoprotein

High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.

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Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general.

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Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Human serum albumin

Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.

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Hydrocortisone, sold under a number of brand names, is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication.

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Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.

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Hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) or inhibited sexual desire (ISD) is considered a sexual dysfunction and is characterized as a lack or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity, as judged by a clinician.

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Hypomenorrhea or hypomenorrhoea, also known as short or scanty periods, is extremely light menstrual blood flow.

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Indian Health Service

The Indian Health Service (IHS) is an operating division (OPDIV) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

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Injectable birth control

Injectable birth control is a form of hormonal contraception and may refer to.

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International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics

The International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, usually just FIGO ("fee'go") as the acronym of its French name Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique, is a worldwide NGO organisation representing obstetricians and gynaecologists in over one hundred territories.

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Intrauterine device

An intrauterine device (IUD), also known as intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD or ICD) or coil, is a small, often T-shaped birth control device that is inserted into a woman's uterus to prevent pregnancy.

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Irregular menstruation

Irregular menstruation is a menstrual disorder whose manifestations include irregular cycle lengths as well as metrorrhagia (vaginal bleeding between expected periods).

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Levonorgestrel acetate

Levonorgestrel acetate (LNG-A), or levonorgestrel 17β-acetate, also known as 3-ketonorgestimate, is a progestin which was never marketed.

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Levonorgestrel butanoate

Levonorgestrel butanoate (LNG-B) (developmental code name HRP-002), or levonorgestrel 17β-butanoate, is a steroidal progestin of the 19-nortestosterone group which was developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the Contraceptive Development Branch (CDB) of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development as a long-acting injectable contraceptive.

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Levonorgestrel-releasing implant

Levonorgestrel-releasing implant, sold under the brand name Jadelle among others, is a device made up of a two rods of levonorgestrel used for birth control.

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Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Male contraceptive

Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control are methods of preventing pregnancy that primarily involve the male physiology.

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Menorrhagia is a menstrual period with excessively heavy flow and falls under the larger category of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB).

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Metribolone (developmental code name R1881), also known as methyltrienolone, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) derivative which was never marketed for medical use but has been widely used in scientific research as a hot ligand in androgen receptor (AR) ligand binding assays (LBAs) and as a photoaffinity label for the AR.

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Mibolerone, also known as dimethylnortestosterone (DMNT) and sold under the brand names Cheque Drops and Matenon, is a synthetic, orally active, and extremely potent anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) derivative which was marketed by Upjohn for use as a veterinary drug.

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Mineralocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which in turn are a class of steroid hormones.

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Mineralocorticoid receptor

The mineralocorticoid receptor (or MR, MLR, MCR), also known as the aldosterone receptor or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR3C2 gene that is located on chromosome 4q31.1-31.2.

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Molecular modification

Molecular modification is chemical alteration of a known and previously characterized lead compound for the purpose of enhancing its usefulness as a drug.

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Nandrolone, also known as 19-nortestosterone, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) which is used in the form of esters such as nandrolone decanoate (brand name Deca-Durabolin) and nandrolone phenylpropionate (brand name Durabolin).

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Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.

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Norethisterone, also known as norethindrone and sold under the brand names Aygestin and Primolut N among many others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.

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Norgestrel, sold under the brand name Ovral among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in menopausal hormone therapy.

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Oligomenorrhea (or oligomenorrhoea) is infrequent (or, in occasional usage, very light) menstruation.

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Oral administration

| name.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Over-the-counter drug

Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.

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Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.

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Parent structure

In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.

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Pelvic pain

Pelvic pain is pain in the area of the pelvis.

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Plasma protein binding

Plasma protein binding refers to the degree to which medications attach to proteins within the blood.

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Postmenopausal hormone therapy

Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.

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A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.

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Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.

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Progesterone receptor

The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.

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A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.

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Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).

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Progestogen-only pill

Progestogen-only pills or progestin-only pills (POP) are contraceptive pills that contain only synthetic progestogens (progestins) and do not contain estrogen.

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Promegestone, sold under the brand name Surgestone, is a progestin medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and in the treatment of gynecological disorders.

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Quingestanol acetate

Quingestanol acetate, sold under the brand names Demovis and Pilomin among others, is a progestin which was used in birth control pills but is no longer marketed.

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Racemic mixture

In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Schering AG

Schering AG was a research-centered German multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Wedding, Berlin, which operated as an independent company from 1851 to 2006.

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Sex hormone-binding globulin

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.

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Sex steroid

Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.

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Sexual intercourse

Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.

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Sexually transmitted infection

Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.

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Side effect

In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.

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Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

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In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.

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A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.

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Subcutaneous implant

In medicine, a subcutaneous implant, or subcutaneous pellet, is an implant that is delivered under the skin into the subcutaneous tissue by surgery or injection and is used to deliver a drug for a long period of time.

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Sulfation or sulfurylation (not to be confused with sulfonation) in biochemistry is the enzyme-catalyzed conjugation of a sulfo group (not a sulfate or sulfuryl group) to another molecule.

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Tablet (pharmacy)

A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.

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Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.

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Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.

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Testosterone (medication)

Testosterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.

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Total synthesis

Total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of a complex molecule, often a natural product, from simple, commercially available precursors.

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Trademark distinctiveness

Trademark distinctiveness is an important concept in the law governing trademarks and service marks.

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Transdermal patch

A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.

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Vaginal bleeding

Vaginal bleeding is any bleeding through the vagina, including bleeding from the vaginal wall itself, as well as (and more commonly) bleeding from another location of the female reproductive system, often the uterus.

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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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Weight gain

Weight gain is an increase in body weight.

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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.

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Wyeth was a pharmaceutical company purchased by Pfizer in 2009.

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Yuzpe regimen

The Yuzpe regimen is a method of emergency contraception that uses a combination of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel.

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5α-Dihydrolevonorgestrel (5α-DHLNG) is an active metabolite of the progestin levonorgestrel which is formed by 5α-reductase.

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5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.

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Redirects here:

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levonorgestrel

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