512 relations: A History of Western Philosophy, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Abd El-Razzak El-Sanhuri, Abolition of feudalism in France, Abolitionism, Absolute monarchy, Adam, Adam Smith, Administration of justice, Advocacy, Age of Enlightenment, Aggregate demand, Aggregate supply, Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, Al-Nahda, Alan Bullock, Alan Ryan, Alan Wolfe, Alexis de Tocqueville, Alister McGrath, Allies of World War I, Allies of World War II, American Civil War, American Revolution, American Revolutionary War, An Essay on the Principle of Population, Anarcho-capitalism, Ancient Greece, Anti-capitalism, Arab nationalism, Areopagitica, Aristocracy (class), Aristotle, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., Articles of Confederation, Auberon Herbert, Austerity, Austrian School, Authoritarianism, Autocracy, İbrahim Şinasi, Balanced budget, Baruch Spinoza, Belief, Benjamin Tucker, Bible, Bodily integrity, Book of Genesis, British philosophy, Cambridge University Press, ..., Capital good, Capitalism, Carlo Rosselli, Catholic Church, Catholic social teaching, Cato Institute, Chantal Mouffe, Charles Dickens, Choice, Christian democracy, Christian socialism, Civil and political rights, Civil liberties, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Civil rights movement, Civil rights movements, Civil society, Classical antiquity, Classical economics, Classical liberalism, Cold War, Collectivism, Common good, Communism, Communist state, Competition (economics), Conflict resolution, Consent of the governed, Conservatism, Conservatism in the United States, Constitution, Constitutional Convention (United States), Constitutional liberalism, Constitutionalism, Contract, Cooperation, Court, Culture, David Ricardo, Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789, Decree, Deficit spending, Democracy, Democracy in America, Democratic Party (United States), Deontological ethics, Die Gedanken sind frei, Discourse, Diseases of poverty, Distribution of wealth, Divine law, Divine right of kings, Divorce, Domenico Losurdo, Donald Markwell, Duty, Early modern Britain, East India Company, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Europe, Eastern philosophy, Economic growth, Economic interventionism, Economic liberalism, Economic policy, Edmund Burke, Eduard Bernstein, Egalitarianism, Eisenbrauns, Elitism, Employers' organization, Encyclopædia Britannica, English Civil War, English Dissenters, Equal opportunity, Equality before the law, Equity feminism, Eric Alterman, Ethics, Evolutionary psychology, Evolutionary Psychology (journal), Executive (government), Fascism, February Revolution, Federation, Feminism, Feminist theory, Ferdinand VII of Spain, Feudalism, First Constitutional Era, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Free banking, Free market, Free trade, Freedom, Freedom of association, Freedom of religion, Freedom of religion in the United Kingdom, Freedom of speech, Freedom of the press, French Revolution, French Third Republic, Friedrich Hayek, Friedrich Naumann Foundation, Full employment, Gender equality, Gender feminism, Gender inequality, George Brandis, George Henry Evans, Gladstonian liberalism, Globalization, Glorious Revolution, God, Goods and services, Government, Great Depression, Great Depression in the United Kingdom, Great Depression in the United States, Great Society, Guild, Gustave de Molinari, Head Start (program), Herbert Spencer, Hierarchy, History of feminism, History of psychiatric institutions, Holy Roman Empire, Holy See, Humanism, Ideology, Immanuel Kant, Imperialism, Income tax, Independent politician, Individual, Individualism, Individualist anarchism, Industrial production, Industrialisation, Institution, International Publishers, International trade, Internationalism (politics), Invisible hand, Iranian Constitutional Revolution, Iron law of wages, Islam, Islamic Modernism, Islamic revival, Islamism, Jakob Mauvillon, James Madison, James Risen, Jean-Baptiste Say, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jeremy Bentham, Jewish ghettos in Europe, Job Corps, John A. Hobson, John Bright, John Cunningham Wood, John Dewey, John F. Kennedy, John Gray (philosopher), John Locke, John Maynard Keynes, John Milton, John Rawls, John Stuart Mill, Johns Hopkins University Press, Joseph Priestley, Josiah Warren, Judicial independence, Judiciary, Julius Faucher, Jury trial, Kantianism, Karl Marx, Keynesian economics, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Italy, Labor theory of value, Labour movement, Laissez-faire, Latin American wars of independence, Law enforcement, League of Nations, Legal monopoly, Legislation, Legislature, Legitimacy (political), Leonard Hobhouse, Levellers, Leviathan (Hobbes book), Liberal arts education, Liberal conservatism, Liberal democracy, Liberal feminism, Liberal Party, Liberal Party of Canada, Liberal socialism, Liberalism and conservatism in Latin America, Liberalism and progressivism within Islam, Liberalism and radicalism in France, Liberalism and radicalism in Italy, Liberalism and radicalism in Spain, Liberalism by country, Liberalism in Europe, Liberalism in Iran, Liberalism in the United Kingdom, Liberalism in the United States, Liberalism in Turkey, Libertarianism in the United States, Libertine, Liberty, Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness, List of liberal theorists, List of Presidents of the United States, List of Roman emperors, List of women philosophers, Louis Hartz, Lyndon B. Johnson, Lysander Spooner, Male privilege, Manchester University Press, Manorialism, Marcus Aurelius, Margaret Thatcher, Market (economics), Market economy, Marketplace of ideas, Marxism, Mary Wollstonecraft, Masterpiece, Materialism, Matthew Arnold, Maurice Shock, Medicaid, Medicare (United States), Meliorism, Mercantilism, Metric system, Metropolitan Police Service, Michael Freeden, Mikhail Bakunin, Ming dynasty, Minority rights, Mixed economy, Moderate, Modern liberalism in the United States, Modernity, Mohammad Mosaddegh, Monarchies in Europe, Money, Monopoly, Montesquieu, Moral character, Morality, Motivation, Much Ado About Nothing, Muhammad Mandur, Multiplier (economics), Murray Rothbard, Muscular liberalism, Muslim, Namık Kemal, Napoleonic Code, Napoleonic Wars, National Front (Iran), Nationalism, Natural and legal rights, Nazi Germany, Necessity and sufficiency, Negative liberty, Neoclassical economics, Neoliberalism, New Deal, New Deal coalition, Nicholas II of Russia, No taxation without representation, Nobility, Nominal rigidity, Non-aggression principle, Norberto Bobbio, Occupational sexism, Oliver Cromwell, On Liberty, Open market, Oxford University Press, Palgrave Macmillan, Pan-Arabism, Paris Commune, Parliament, Parliamentary sovereignty, Paul Émile de Puydt, Perfectionism (philosophy), Pericles, Philosophy and economics, Piero Gobetti, Pluralism (political philosophy), Political movement, Political philosophy, Poor Relief Act 1662, Pope Pius IX, Popular sovereignty, Positive liberty, Positivism, Poverty reduction, Power (social and political), Presbyterianism, President of the United States, Price, Pricing, Prime Minister of Iran, Princeton University Press, Prison reform, Private property, Privatization, Progressive tax, Progressivism, Property, Property law, Provisioning, Proxy war, Public policy, Public property, Public works, R. H. Tawney, Racial equality, Radicalism (historical), Ralph Raico, Rationalism, Rationality, Recession, Religious violence, Representative democracy, Republicanism in the United States, Revolution, Revolutions of 1989, Richard Cobden, Richard Price, Rifa'a al-Tahtawi, Right of revolution, Rights, Robert Filmer, Robert Nozick, Robert Peel, Robert Roswell Palmer, Robert Skidelsky, Baron Skidelsky, Robert Trivers, Ronald Reagan, Routledge, Roy Harrod, Rule according to higher law, Rule of law, Russian Revolution, SAGE Publications, Salary, Samir Amin, Satoshi Kanazawa, Say's law, Second Constitutional Era, Second Continental Congress, Secularism, Self-interest, Self-made man, Self-ownership, Self-preservation, Separation of church and state, Separation of powers, Seven Years' War, Sexism, Sexism in academia, Silvio Gesell, Social anarchism, Social contract, Social control, Social democracy, Social equality, Social liberalism, Social norm, Social order, Social Psychology Quarterly, Social services, Social theory, Socialism, Song dynasty, Sophist, Southern United States, Spanish Constitution of 1812, Spanish Inquisition, State (polity), State of nature, State religion, Statute, Stefan Molyneux, Steven Pinker, Suffrage, Supernatural, Supply and demand, Supply creates its own demand, Suppression of the Society of Jesus, Syllabus of Errors, Taha Hussein, Tanzimat, Tawfiq al-Hakim, Tax, The American Prospect, The Economist, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, The Liberal, The Quarterly Review of Biology, The Road to Serfdom, The Subjection of Women, The Wealth of Nations, Thirteen Colonies, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Hill Green, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Paine, Thomas Robert Malthus, Toleration, Tort, Trade barrier, Trade preference, Trade union, Traditionalist conservatism, Trienio Liberal, Two Treatises of Government, Tyranny of the majority, Tyrant, United States Constitution, United States Declaration of Independence, Universal access to education, Universal suffrage, Universalism, University Press of America, Urbanization, Utilitarianism, Victorian era, Victorian literature, Vladimir Lenin, Voltaire, Voluntary society, Voting, Wage slavery, War on Poverty, Wealth, Welfare state, Western Bloc, Western philosophy, Western world, William Shakespeare, Workhouse, World War I, World War II, World War III, Yeoman, Young Ottomans, 1953 Iranian coup d'état, 1973 oil crisis. 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A History of Western Philosophy is a 1945 book by philosopher Bertrand Russell.
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects (1792), written by the 18th-century British proto-feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy.
Abd el-Razzak el-Sanhuri or ‘Abd al-Razzāq al-Sanhūrī (1895–1971) (عبد الرزاق السنهوري) was an Egyptian, legal scholar and professor who drafted the revised Egyptian Civil Code of 1948.
One of the central events of the French Revolution was to abolish feudalism, and the old rules, taxes and privileges left over from the age of feudalism.
Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Adam (ʾĀdam; Adám) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis for the first man created by God, but it is also used in a collective sense as "mankind" and individually as "a human".
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
The administration of justice is the process by which the legal system of a government is executed.
Advocacy is an activity by an individual or group which aims to influence decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
In macroeconomics, aggregate demand (AD) or domestic final demand (DFD) is the total demand for final goods and services in an economy at a given time.
In economics, aggregate supply (AS) or domestic final supply (DFS) is the total supply of goods and services that firms in a national economy plan on selling during a specific time period.
Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed or Aḥmad Luṭfī Sayyid Pasha (15 January 1872 – 5 March 1963) was an Egyptian intellectual, anti-colonial activist and the first director of Cairo University.
Al-Nahda (النهضة / ALA-LC: an-Nahḍah; Arabic for "awakening" or "renaissance") was a cultural renaissance that began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Egypt, then later moving to Ottoman-ruled Arabic-speaking regions including Lebanon, Syria and others.
Alan Louis Charles Bullock, Baron Bullock, (13 December 1914 – 2 February 2004) was a British historian.
Alan James Ryan, FBA (born 9 May 1940) was Warden of New College, Oxford, and Professor of Politics at the University of Oxford and is currently a lecturer at Princeton University.
Alan Wolfe (born 1942) is a political scientist and a sociologist and is on the faculty of Boston College and serves as director of the Boisi Center for Religion and American Public Life.
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.
Alister Edgar McGrath (born 23 January 1953) is a Northern Irish theologian, priest, intellectual historian, scientist, Christian apologist and public intellectual.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798, but the author was soon identified as Thomas Robert Malthus.
Anarcho-capitalism is a political philosophy and school of anarchist thought that advocates the elimination of centralized state dictum in favor of self-ownership, private property and free markets.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Anti-capitalism encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
Areopagitica; A speech of Mr.
The aristocracy is a social class that a particular society considers its highest order.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arthur Meier Schlesinger Jr. (born Arthur Bancroft Schlesinger; October 15, 1917 – February 28, 2007) was an American historian, social critic, and public intellectual.
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.
Auberon Edward William Molyneux Herbert (18 June 1838 in Highclere – 5 November 1906) was a writer, theorist, philosopher, and 19th century individualist.
Austerity is a political-economic term referring to policies that aim to reduce government budget deficits through spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of both.
The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
İbrahim Şinasi (5 August 1826 – 13 September 1871) was a pioneering Ottoman intellectual, author, journalist, translator, playwright, and newspaper editor.
A balanced budget (particularly that of a government) is a budget in which revenues are equal to expenditures.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
Benjamin Ricketson Tucker (April 17, 1854 – June 22, 1939) was a 19th century proponent of American individualist anarchism, which he called "unterrified Jeffersonianism," and editor and publisher of the individualist anarchist periodical Liberty.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Bodily integrity is the inviolability of the physical body and emphasizes the importance of personal autonomy and the self-determination of human beings over their own bodies.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
British philosophy refers to the philosophical tradition of the British people.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A capital good is a durable good (one that does not quickly wear out) that is used in the production of goods or services.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Carlo Rosselli (16 November 18999 June 1937) was an Italian political leader, journalist, historian and anti-fascist activist, first in Italy and then abroad.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catholic social teaching is the Catholic doctrines on matters of human dignity and common good in society.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
Chantal Mouffe (born 17 June 1943) is a Belgian political theorist, currently teaching at University of Westminster.
Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.
Choice involves decision making.
Christian democracy is a political ideology that emerged in nineteenth-century Europe under the influence of Catholic social teaching, as well as Neo-Calvinism.
Christian socialism is a form of religious socialism based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
Civil rights movements are a worldwide series of political movements for equality before the law, that peaked in the 1960s.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical economics or classical political economy (also known as liberal economics) is a school of thought in economics that flourished, primarily in Britain, in the late 18th and early-to-mid 19th century.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Collectivism is a cultural value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over self.
In philosophy, economics, and political science, the common good (also commonwealth, common weal or general welfare) refers to either what is shared and beneficial for all or most members of a given community, or alternatively, what is achieved by citizenship, collective action, and active participation in the realm of politics and public service.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
In economics, competition is a condition where different economic firmsThis article follows the general economic convention of referring to all actors as firms; examples in include individuals and brands or divisions within the same (legal) firm.
Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution.
In political philosophy, the phrase consent of the governed refers to the idea that a government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and lawful when consented to by the people or society over which that political power is exercised.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral absolutism, free markets and free trade, anti-communism, individualism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (later known as Independence Hall because of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence there eleven years before) in Philadelphia.
Constitutional liberalism describes a form of government that upholds the principles of classical liberalism and the rule of law.
Constitutionalism is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law".
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
Cooperation (sometimes written as co-operation) is the process of groups of organisms working or acting together for common, mutual, or some underlying benefit, as opposed to working in competition for selfish benefit.
A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.
The Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789 (Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789), set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789, is a human civil rights document from the French Revolution.
A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution).
Deficit spending is the amount by which spending exceeds revenue over a particular period of time, also called simply deficit, or budget deficit; the opposite of budget surplus.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
De La Démocratie en Amérique (published in two volumes, the first in 1835 and the second in 1840) is a classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on rules.
"" (Thoughts are free) is a German song about the freedom of thought.
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.
Diseases of poverty is a term sometimes used to collectively describe diseases, disabilities, and health conditions that are more prevalent among the poor than among wealthier people.
--> The distribution of wealth is a comparison of the wealth of various members or groups in a society.
Divine law is any law that is understood as deriving from a transcendent source, such as the will of God or gods, in contrast to man-made law.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.
Domenico Losurdo (14 November 1941 – 28 June 2018) was an Italian Marxist philosopher and historian.
For the Montgomery, Alabama, talk radio personality, see Don Markwell Donald John "Don" Markwell (born 19 April 1959) is an Australian social scientist, who has been described as a "renowned Australian educational reformer".
A duty (from "due" meaning "that which is owing"; deu, did, past participle of devoir; debere, debitum, whence "debt") is a commitment or expectation to perform some action in general or if certain circumstances arise.
Early modern Britain is the history of the island of Great Britain roughly corresponding to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Eastern philosophy or Asian philosophy includes the various philosophies that originated in East and South Asia including Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, Korean philosophy which are dominant in East Asia and Vietnam, and Indian philosophy (including Buddhist philosophy) which are dominant in South Asia, Tibet and Southeast Asia.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
Economic interventionism (sometimes state interventionism) is an economic policy perspective favoring government intervention in the market process to correct the market failures and promote the general welfare of the people.
Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.
The economic policy of governments covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labour market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions into the economy.
Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
Eduard Bernstein (6 January 185018 December 1932) was a German social-democratic Marxist theorist and politician.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
Eisenbrauns, an imprint of The Pennsylvania State University Press, is an academic publisher specializing in the ancient Near East and biblical studies.
Elitism is the belief or attitude that individuals who form an elite — a select group of people with a certain ancestry, intrinsic quality, high intellect, wealth, special skills, or experience — are more likely to be constructive to society as a whole, and therefore deserve influence or authority greater than that of others.
Just like trade unions being represented by workers for promoting their economic and social interests,in the same manner employer's join employers organisation.An employers' organization or employers' association is a collective organization of manufacturers, retailers, or other employers of wage labor.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
English Dissenters or English Separatists were Protestant Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
Equal opportunity arises from the similar treatment of all people, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified.
Equality before the law, also known as: equality under the law, equality in the eyes of the law, or legal equality, is the principle that each independent being must be treated equally by the law (principle of isonomy) and that all are subject to the same laws of justice (due process).
Equity feminism is a form of liberal feminism discussed since the 1980s,.
Eric Alterman (born January 14, 1960) is an American historian, journalist, author, media critic, blogger, and educator.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.
Evolutionary Psychology is a peer-reviewed open access academic journal published since 2003.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse.
Ferdinand VII (Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The First Constitutional Era (مشروطيت; Birinci Meşrutiyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of the Kanûn-ı Esâsî (meaning Basic Law or Fundamental Law in Ottoman Turkish), written by members of the Young Ottomans, on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Free banking is a monetary arrangement in which banks are subject to no special regulations beyond those applicable to most enterprises, and in which they also are free to issue their own paper currency (banknotes).
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
Freedom, generally, is having an ability to act or change without constraint.
Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
The right to freedom of religion in the United Kingdom is provided for in all three constituent legal systems, by devolved, national, European, and international law and treaty.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.
The Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom (Friedrich-Naumann-Stiftung für die Freiheit) (FNF), is a German foundation for liberal politics, related to the Free Democratic Party.
Full employment means that everyone who wants a job have all the hours of work they need on "fair wages".
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
Gender feminism is a subdivision of feminism based on the view that the gender differences are social constructs perpetrated by men in order to maintain dominance over women.
Gender inequality is the idea and situation that women and men are not equal.
George Henry Brandis (born 22 June 1957) is an Australian diplomat and former politician who has been the Australian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom since May 2018.
Born in England, George H Evans (March 25, 1805 in Bromyard, Herefordshire, England – February 2, 1856 in Granville, N.J., U.S.) was a radical reformer, with experience in the Working Men's movement of 1829 and the trade union movements of the 1830s.
Gladstonian liberalism is a political doctrine named after the British Victorian Prime Minister and leader of the Liberal Party, William Ewart Gladstone.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Goods are items that are tangible, such as pens, salt, apples, oganesson, and hats.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Depression in the United Kingdom, also known as the Great Slump, was a period of national economic downturn in the 1930s, which had its origins in the global Great Depression.
The Great Depression began in August 1929, when the United States economy first went into an economic recession.
The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65.
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
Gustave de Molinari (3 March 1819 – 28 January 1912) was a political economist and classical liberal theorist born in Liège, in the Walloon region of Belgium, and was associated with French laissez-faire economists such as Frédéric Bastiat and Hippolyte Castille.
Head Start is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families.
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
The history of feminism is the chronological narrative of the movements and ideologies aimed at equal rights for women.
The rise of the lunatic asylum and its gradual transformation into, and eventual replacement by, the modern psychiatric hospital, explains the rise of organised, institutional psychiatry.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and their will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions and ideological systems.
Industrial production is a measure of output of the industrial sector of the economy.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
International Publishers is a book publishing company based in New York City specializing in Marxist works of economics, political science, and history.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
Internationalism is a political principle which transcends nationalism and advocates a greater political or economic cooperation among nations and people.
The invisible hand is a term used by Adam Smith to describe the unintended social benefits of an individual's self-interested actions.
The Persian Constitutional Revolution (مشروطیت Mashrūtiyyat, or انقلاب مشروطه Enghelāb-e Mashrūteh), also known as the Constitutional Revolution of Iran, took place between 1905 and 1911.
The iron law of wages is a proposed law of economics that asserts that real wages always tend, in the long run, toward the minimum wage necessary to sustain the life of the worker.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamic Modernism, also sometimes referred to as Modernist Salafism, is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim ideological response" attempting to reconcile Islamic faith with modern Western values such as nationalism, democracy, civil rights, rationality, equality, and progress.
Islamic revival (تجديد, lit. "regeneration, renewal"; also الصحوة الإسلامية, "Islamic awakening") refers to a revival of the Islamic religion.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Jakob Mauvillon (8 March 1743 – 11 January 1794), son of Eleazar Mauvillon, was an 18th-century figure in German liberalism.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
James Risen (born April 27, 1955) is an American journalist for The Intercept.
Jean-Baptiste Say (5 January 1767 – 15 November 1832) was a French economist and businessman who had classically liberal views and argued in favor of competition, free trade and lifting restraints on business.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Jewish ghettos in Europe were neighborhoods of European cities in which Jews were permitted to live.
Job Corps is a program administered by the United States Department of Labor that offers free-of-charge education and vocational training to young men and women ages 16 to 24.
John Atkinson Hobson (commonly known as John A. Hobson or J. A. Hobson; 6 July 1858 – 1 April 1940), was an English economist, social scientist and critic of imperialism, widely popular as a lecturer and writer.
John Bright (16 November 1811 – 27 March 1889) was a British Radical and Liberal statesman, one of the greatest orators of his generation and a promoter of free trade policies.
John Cunningham Wood (born 1952) is an Australian economist, author, and the Chief Executive Officer of the University Division at Navitas, known as series editor of the "Critical Assessment of Leading Economists" series of Taylor & Francis.
John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Nicholas Gray (born 17 April 1948) is an English political philosopher with interests in analytic philosophy and the history of ideas.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.
John Bordley Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher in the liberal tradition.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.
Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.
Josiah Warren (1798 – April 14, 1874) was an individualist anarchist, inventor, musician, printer, and author in the United States.
Judicial independence is the concept that the judiciary needs to be kept away from the other branches of government.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Julius Faucher (June 13, 1820 in Berlin – June 12, 1878 in Rome) was a German journalist and a significant advocate of liberalism and free trade.
A jury trial, or trial by jury, is a lawful proceeding in which a jury makes a decision or findings of fact.
Kantianism is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia).
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory of value that argues that the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of "socially necessary labor" required to produce it, rather than by the use or pleasure its owner gets from it (demand) and its scarcity value (supply).
The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings, the trade union movement (British English) or labor union movement (American English), also called trade unionism or labor unionism on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
The Latin American wars of independence were the revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America.
Law enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterring, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
A legal monopoly, statutory monopoly, or de jure monopoly is a monopoly that is protected by law from competition.
Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
In political science, legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.
Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (8 September 1864 – 21 June 1929) was a British liberal political theorist and sociologist, who has been considered one of the leading and earliest proponents of social liberalism.
The Levellers was a political movement during the English Civil War (1642–1651).
Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil—commonly referred to as Leviathan—is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651 (revised Latin edition 1668). Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Leviathan ranks as a classic western work on statecraft comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince. Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Hobbes wrote that civil war and the brute situation of a state of nature ("the war of all against all") could only be avoided by strong, undivided government.
Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.
Liberal conservatism is a political ideology combining conservative policies with liberal stances, especially on ethical and social issues, or a brand of political conservatism strongly influenced by liberalism.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Liberal feminism is an individualistic form of feminist theory, which focuses on women's ability to maintain their equality through their own actions and choices.
Liberal Party is a name for political parties around the world whose members are liberalists.
The Liberal Party of Canada (Parti libéral du Canada), colloquially known as the Grits, is the oldest federal political party in Canada.
Liberal socialism is a socialist political philosophy that incorporates liberal principles.
Liberalism and conservatism in Latin America have unique historical roots as Latin American independence began to occur in 1808 after the French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic Wars that eventually engulfed all of Europe.
Liberalism and progressivism within Islam involve professed Muslims who have produced a considerable body of liberal thought on the re-interpretation and reform of Islamic understanding and practice.
Liberalism and radicalism in France refer to different movements and ideologies.
Liberalism and radicalism have played a role in the political history of Italy since the country's unification, started in 1861 and largely completed in 1871, and currently influence several leading political parties.
This article gives an overview of liberalism and radicalism in Spain.
This article gives information on liberalism worldwide.
In general, liberalism in Europe is a political movement that supports a broad tradition of individual liberties and constitutionally-limited and democratically accountable government.
Liberalism in Iran or Iranian liberalism is a political ideology that traces its beginnings to the 20th century.
This article gives an overview of liberalism in the United Kingdom.
Liberalism in the United States is a broad political philosophy centered on what many see as the unalienable rights of the individual.
This article gives an overview of liberalism in Turkey.
Libertarianism in the United States is a movement promoting individual liberty and minimized government.
A libertine is one devoid of most moral or sexual restraints, which are seen as unnecessary or undesirable, especially one who ignores or even spurns accepted morals and forms of behaviour sanctified by the larger society.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
"Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" is a well-known phrase in the United States Declaration of Independence.
Individual contributors to classical liberalism and political liberalism are associated with philosophers of the Enlightenment.
The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
The Roman Emperors were rulers of the Roman Empire, wielding power over its citizens and military.
This is a list of women philosophers ordered alphabetically by surname.
Louis Hartz (April 8, 1919 – January 20, 1986) was an American political scientist and influential liberal proponent of the idea of American exceptionalism.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Lysander Spooner (January 19, 1808 – May 14, 1887) was an American political philosopher, essayist, pamphlet writer, Unitarian, abolitionist, legal theorist, and entrepreneur of the nineteenth century.
Male privilege is a concept within sociology for examining social, economic, and political advantages or rights that are available to men solely on the basis of their sex.
Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.
Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society.
Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
The marketplace of ideas is a rationale for freedom of expression based on an analogy to the economic concept of a free market.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights.
Masterpiece, magnum opus (Latin, great work) or chef-d’œuvre (French, master of work, plural chefs-d’œuvre) in modern use is a creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill, profundity, or workmanship.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools.
Sir Maurice Shock (born 15 April 1926) is a retired British university administrator and educationalist.
Medicaid in the United States is a joint federal and state program that helps with medical costs for some people with limited income and resources.
In the United States, Medicare is a national health insurance program, now administered by the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services of the U.S. federal government but begun in 1966 under the Social Security Administration.
Meliorism is an idea in metaphysical thinking holding that progress is a real concept leading to an improvement of the world.
Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).
The metric system is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement.
The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), commonly known as the Metropolitan Police and informally as the Met, is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement in Greater London, excluding the "square mile" of the City of London, which is the responsibility of the City of London Police.
Michael Freeden is a Professorial Research Associate at the Department of Politics and International Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (– 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Minority rights are the normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class, religious, linguistic or gender and sexual minorities; and also the collective rights accorded to minority groups.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Moderate is a general term for people who fall in the center category of the left–right political spectrum.
Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States.
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".
Mohammad Mosaddegh (محمد مصدق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician.
Monarchy was the prevalent form of government in the history of Europe throughout the Middle Ages, only occasionally competing with communalism, notably in the case of the Maritime republics and the Swiss Confederacy.
Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
Moral character or character is an evaluation of an individual's stable moral qualities.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
Much Ado About Nothing is a comedy by William Shakespeare thought to have been written in 1598 and 1599, as Shakespeare was approaching the middle of his career.
Muhammad Mandur (1907-1965) was an Egyptian literary critic.
In macroeconomics, a multiplier is a factor of proportionality that measures how much an endogenous variable changes in response to a change in some exogenous variable.
Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School, a historian and a political theorist whose writings and personal influence played a seminal role in the development of modern right-libertarianism.
Muscular liberalism is a form of liberalism advocated by British Prime Minister David Cameron that describes his policy towards state multiculturalism.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Namık Kemal (21 December 1840 – 2 December 1888) was an Ottoman democrat, writer, intellectual, reformer, journalist, playwright, and political activist who was influential in the formation of the Young Ottomans and their struggle for governmental reform in the Ottoman Empire during the late Tanzimat period, which would lead to the First Constitutional Era in the Empire in 1876.
The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Front of Iran (Jebha-ye Mellī-e Īrān) is an opposition political organization in Iran, founded by Mohammad Mosaddegh in 1949.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
In logic, necessity and sufficiency are terms used to describe an implicational relationship between statements.
Negative liberty is freedom from interference by other people.
Neoclassical economics is an approach to economics focusing on the determination of goods, outputs, and income distributions in markets through supply and demand.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs in the United States that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until the late 1960s.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Nominal rigidity, also known as price-stickiness or wage-stickiness, describes a situation in which the nominal price is resistant to change.
The non-aggression principle (or NAP; also called the non-aggression axiom, the anti-coercion, zero aggression principle or non-initiation of force) is an ethical stance that asserts that aggression is inherently wrong.
Norberto Bobbio (18 October 1909 – 9 January 2004) was an Italian philosopher of law and political sciences and a historian of political thought.
Occupational sexism (also called sexism in the work place and employment sexism) refers to any discriminatory practices, statements, actions, etc.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
On Liberty is a philosophical work by the English philosopher John Stuart Mill, originally intended as a short essay.
The term open market is used generally to refer to an economic situation close to free trade.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Pan-Arabism, or simply Arabism, is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world.
The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
Parliamentary sovereignty (also called parliamentary supremacy or legislative supremacy) is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies.
Paul Émile de Puydt (6 March 1810 – 20 May 1891), a writer whose contributions included work in botany and economics, was born and died in Mons, Belgium.
In ethics and value theory, perfectionism is the persistence of will in obtaining the optimal quality of spiritual, mental, physical, and material being.
Pericles (Περικλῆς Periklēs, in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age — specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.
Philosophy and economics, also philosophy of economics, studies topics such as rational choice, the appraisal of economic outcomes, institutions and processes, and the ontology of economic phenomena and the possibilities of acquiring knowledge of them.
Piero Gobetti (June 19, 1901, Turin – February 15, 1926, Neuilly-sur-Seine) was an Italian journalist, intellectual and radical liberal and anti-fascist.
Pluralism as a political philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles.
In the social sciences, a political movement is a social group that operates together to obtain a political goal, on a local, regional, national, or international scope.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
The Poor Relief Act 1662 (14 Car 2 c 12) was an Act of the Cavalier Parliament of England.
Pope Pius IX (Pio; 13 May 1792 – 7 February 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was head of the Catholic Church from 16 June 1846 to his death on 7 February 1878.
Popular sovereignty, or sovereignty of the peoples' rule, is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
Positive liberty is the possession of the capacity to act upon one's free will, as opposed to negative liberty, which is freedom from external restraint on one's actions.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Poverty reduction, or poverty alleviation, is a set of measures, both economic and humanitarian, that are intended to permanently lift people out of poverty.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
In ordinary usage, a price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for one unit of goods or services.
Pricing is the process whereby a business sets the price at which it will sell its products and services, and may be part of the business's marketing plan.
The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era (when the country was internationally known as Persia) until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system, or implement alternatives to incarceration.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.
Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of improvement of society by reform.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
Property law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal property, within the common law legal system.
In telecommunication, provisioning involves the process of preparing and equipping a network to allow it to provide new services to its users.
A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.
Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.
Public property is property that is dedicated to public use and is a subset of state property.
Public works (or internal improvements historically in the United States)Carter Goodrich, (Greenwood Press, 1960)Stephen Minicucci,, Studies in American Political Development (2004), 18:2:160-185 Cambridge University Press.
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Racial equality occurs when institutions give equal opportunity to people of all races.
The term "Radical" (from the Latin radix meaning root) during the late 18th-century and early 19th-century identified proponents of democratic reform, in what subsequently became the parliamentary Radical Movement.
Ralph Raico (October 23, 1936 – December 13, 2016) was an American libertarian historian of European liberalism and a professor of history at Buffalo State College.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.
In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.
Religious violence is a term that covers phenomena where religion is either the subject or the object of violent behavior.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding.
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Richard Cobden (3 June 1804 – 2 April 1865) was an English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with two major free trade campaigns, the Anti-Corn Law League and the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty.
Richard Price (23 February 1723 – 19 April 1791) was a British moral philosopher, nonconformist preacher and mathematician.
Rifa'a al-Tahtawi (also spelt Tahtawy; رفاعة رافع الطهطاوي / ALA-LC: Rifā‘ah Rāf‘i al-Ṭahṭāwī; 1801–1873) was an Egyptian writer, teacher, translator, Egyptologist and renaissance intellectual.
In political philosophy, the right of revolution (or right of rebellion) is the right or duty of the people of a nation to overthrow a government that acts against their common interests and/or threatens the safety of the people without cause.
Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.
Sir Robert Filmer (c. 1588 – 26 May 1653) was an English political theorist who defended the divine right of kings.
Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher.
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 17882 July 1850) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30).
Robert Roswell Palmer (January 11, 1909 – June 11, 2002), commonly known as R. R.
Robert Jacob Alexander, Baron Skidelsky, FBA (born 25 April 1939) is a British economic historian of Russian origin and the author of a major, award-winning, three-volume biography of British economist John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946).
Robert Ludlow "Bob" Trivers (born February 19, 1943) is an American evolutionary biologist and sociobiologist.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Sir Henry Roy Forbes Harrod (13 February 1900 – 8 March 1978) was an English economist.
The rule according to a higher law means that no law may be enforced by the government unless it conforms with certain universal principles (written or unwritten) of fairness, morality, and justice.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
A salary is a form of payment from an employer to an employee, which may be specified in an employment contract.
Samir Amin (سمير أمين) (born 3 September 1931) is an Egyptian-French Marxian economist.
Satoshi Kanazawa (born 16 November 1962) is an American-born British evolutionary psychologist and author.
In classical economics, Say's law, or the law of markets, states that aggregate production necessarily creates an equal quantity of aggregate demand.
The Second Constitutional Era (ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى; İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire established shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II to restore the constitutional monarchy by the revival of the Ottoman Parliament, the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire and the restoration of the constitution of 1876.
The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the spring of 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Self-interest generally refers to a focus on the needs or desires (interests) of the self.
A "self-made man" (later expanded to include "self-made women") is a classic phrase first coined on February 2, 1832 by United States senator Henry Clay who referred to the self-made man in the United States senate, to describe individuals in the manufacturing sector whose success lay within the individuals themselves, not with outside conditions.
Self-ownership (also known as sovereignty of the individual, individual sovereignty or individual autonomy) is the concept of property in one's own person, expressed as the moral or natural right of a person to have bodily integrity and be the exclusive controller of one's own body and life.
Self-preservation is a behavior that ensures the survival of an organism.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sexism in academia refers to the subordination of women in academic spaces (particularly universities) due to ideologies, practices, and reinforcements that give males privileges denied to females.
Silvio Gesell (17 March 1862 – 11 March 1930) was a German merchant, theoretical economist, social activist, Georgist, anarchist, libertarian socialist, and founder of Freiwirtschaft.
Social anarchism (sometimes referred to as socialist anarchism or anarcho-socialism)Ostergaard, Geoffrey.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Social control is a concept within the disciplines of the social sciences.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in certain respects, including civil rights, freedom of speech, property rights and equal access to certain social goods and services.
Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
The term social order can be used in two senses.
Social Psychology Quarterly is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes theoretical and empirical papers in the field of social psychology.
Social services are a range of public services provided by the government, private, and non-profit organizations.
Social theories are analytical frameworks, or paradigms, that are used to study and interpret social phenomena.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
The Political Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy (Constitución Política de la Monarquía Española), also known as the Constitution of Cádiz (Constitución de Cádiz) and as La Pepa, was the first Constitution of Spain and one of the earliest constitutions in world history.
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
The state of nature is a concept used in moral and political philosophy, religion, social contract theories and international law to denote the hypothetical conditions of what the lives of people might have been like before societies came into existence.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
Stefan Basil Molyneux (born September 24, 1966) is a Canadian podcaster and YouTuber.
Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.
In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.
"Supply creates its own demand" is the formulation of Say's law.
The suppression of the Jesuits in the Portuguese Empire (1759), France (1764), the Two Sicilies, Malta, Parma, the Spanish Empire (1767) and Austria and Hungary (1782) is a complex topic.
The Syllabus of Errors (Syllabus Errorum) is a document issued by the Holy See under Pope Pius IX on December 8, 1864, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, as an annex to the Quanta cura encyclical.
Taha Hussein (November 15, 1889 – October 28, 1973) was one of the most influential 20th-century Egyptian writers and intellectuals, and a figurehead for The Egyptian Renaissance and the modernist movement in the Middle East and North Africa.
The Tanzimât (lit) was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.
Tawfiq al-Hakim or Tawfik el-Hakim (October 9, 1898 – July 26, 1987) (توفيق الحكيم Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm) was a prominent Egyptian writer and visionary.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
The American Prospect is a daily online and quarterly print American political and public policy magazine dedicated to American liberalism and progressivism.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money of 1936 is the last and most important book by the English economist John Maynard Keynes.
The Liberal was a London-based magazine "dedicated to promoting liberalism around the world", which ran in print from 2004 to 2009 and online until 2012.
The Quarterly Review of Biology is a peer reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of biology.
The Road to Serfdom (German: Der Weg zur Knechtschaft) is a book written between 1940 and 1943 by Austrian British economist and philosopher Friedrich Hayek, in which the author " of the danger of tyranny that inevitably results from government control of economic decision-making through central planning." He further argues that the abandonment of individualism and classical liberalism inevitably leads to a loss of freedom, the creation of an oppressive society, the tyranny of a dictator, and the serfdom of the individual.
The Subjection of Women is an essay by English philosopher, political economist and civil servant John Stuart Mill published in 1869, with ideas he developed jointly with his wife Harriet Taylor Mill.
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.
Thomas Hill Green (7 April 1836 – 15 March 1882) was an English philosopher, political radical and temperance reformer, and a member of the British idealism movement.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.
Trade barriers are government-induced restrictions on international trade.
A trade preference is preference by one country for buying goods from some other country more than from other countries.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
Traditionalist conservatism, also known as classical conservatism and traditional conservatism, is a political philosophy emphasizing the need for the principles of a transcendent moral order, manifested through certain natural laws to which society ought to conform in a prudent manner.
The Trienio Liberal ("Liberal Triennium") is a period of 3 years in the modern history of Spain between 1820 and 1823, when a liberal government ruled Spain after a military uprising in January 1820 by the lieutenant-colonel Rafael de Riego against the absolutist rule of King Ferdinand VII.
Two Treatises of Government (or Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, The False Principles, and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, and His Followers, Are Detected and Overthrown. The Latter Is an Essay Concerning The True Original, Extent, and End of Civil Government) is a work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke.
Tyranny of the majority (or tyranny of the masses) refers to an inherent weakness of direct democracy and majority rule in which the majority of an electorate can and does place its own interests above, and at the expense of, those in the minority.
A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
Universal access to education is the ability of all people to have equal opportunity in education, regardless of their social class, gender, ethnicity background or physical and mental disabilities.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
Universalism is a theological and philosophical concept that some ideas have universal application or applicability.
University Press of America is an academic publisher based in the United States.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Victorian literature is literature, mainly written in English, during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901) (the Victorian era).
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
A voluntary society, voluntary community or voluntary city is one in which all property (including streets, parks, etc.) and all services (including courts, police, etc.) are provided through voluntary means, such as private or cooperative ownership.
Voting is a method for a group, such as, a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion, usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns.
Wage slavery is a term used to draw an analogy between slavery and wage labor by focusing on similarities between owning and renting a person.
The War on Poverty is the unofficial name for legislation first introduced by United States President Lyndon B. Johnson during his State of the Union address on Wednesday, January 8, 1964.
Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
In England and Wales a workhouse, colloquially known as a spike, was a place where those unable to support themselves were offered accommodation and employment.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
World War III (WWIII or WW3) and the Third World War are names given to a hypothetical third worldwide large-scale military conflict subsequent to World War I and World War II.
A yeoman was a member of a social class in late medieval to early modern England.
The Young Ottomans were a secret society established in 1865 by a group of Ottoman Turkish intellectuals who were dissatisfied with the Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire, which they believed did not go far enough.
The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état (کودتای ۲۸ مرداد), was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project or "Operation Ajax").
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Anti-liberal, Anti-liberalism, Antiliberal, Antiliberalism, Bleeding-heart liberalism, Controversies over the term "liberal", Controversies over the term liberal, Criticism of liberalism, History of the term "liberal", Liberal (politics), Liberal philosophy, Liberal politics, Liberal theory, Liberal thinkers, Liberal thought, Liberal values, Liberalism in countries, Liberalist, Liberalist politics, Liberialism, Political Liberal, Political liberal, Political liberalism, Politically liberal, Progressive liberals, Radical Liberalism, Radical liberalist.