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Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality. [1]

470 relations: A History of Western Philosophy, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Abolition of feudalism in France, Abolitionism, Absolute monarchy, Adam Smith, Africa Liberal Network, African National Congress, African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954–68), Age of Enlightenment, Agreement of the People, Alan Bullock, Alan Ryan, Alan Wolfe, Alexis de Tocqueville, Algernon Sidney, Alister McGrath, Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe, Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party, Allies of World War I, Allies of World War II, American Civil War, American Enlightenment, American philosophy, American Revolution, American Revolutionary War, Ancien Régime, Ancient Greece, Anglican Communion, Anti-capitalism, Anti-clericalism, Anti-Corn Law League, Apartheid, Areopagitica, Aristocracy, Arthur M. 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A History of Western Philosophy

A History of Western Philosophy is a 1945 book by philosopher Bertrand Russell.

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A Vindication of the Rights of Woman

A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects (1792), written by the 18th-century British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy.

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Abolition of feudalism in France

One of the central events of the French Revolution was to abolish feudalism, and the old rules, taxes and privileges left over from the age of feudalism.

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Abolitionism

Abolitionism is a movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal.

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Absolute monarchy

Absolute monarchy or absolutism is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people.

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Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher, pioneer of political economy, and a key figure in the Scottish Enlightenment.

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Africa Liberal Network

The Africa Liberal Network (ALN) is an organization composed of 44 political parties from 30 countries in Africa.

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African National Congress

The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing social democratic political party.

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African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954–68)

The Civil Rights Movement or 1960s Civil Rights Movement, sometimes anachronistically referred to as the "African-American Civil Rights Movement" although the term "African-Americans" was not used in the 1960s, encompasses social movements in the United States whose goals were to end racial segregation and discrimination against black Americans and to secure legal recognition and federal protection of the citizenship rights enumerated in the Constitution and federal law.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Enlightenment or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason is an era from the 1620s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority.

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Agreement of the People

An Agreement of the People was a series of manifestos, published between 1647 and 1649, for constitutional changes to the English state.

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Alan Bullock

Alan Louis Charles Bullock, Baron Bullock (13 December 1914 – 2 February 2004) was a British historian, who is best known for his book Hitler: A Study in Tyranny, the first comprehensive biography of Adolf Hitler which influenced the other major biographies of Hitler.

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Alan Ryan

Alan James Ryan, FBA (born 9 May 1940) was Warden of New College, Oxford, and Professor of Politics at the University of Oxford and is currently a lecturer at Princeton University.

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Alan Wolfe

Alan Wolfe (born in 1942) is a political scientist and a sociologist and is on the faculty of Boston College and serves as director of the Boisi Center for Religion and American Public Life.

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Alexis de Tocqueville

Alexis-Charles-Henri Clérel de Tocqueville (29 July 1805 – 16 April 1859) was a French political thinker and historian best known for his works Democracy in America (appearing in two volumes: 1835 and 1840) and The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856).

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Algernon Sidney

Algernon Sidney or Sydney (14 or 15 January 1623 – 7 December 1683) was an English politician and member of the Long Parliament.

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Alister McGrath

Alister Edgar McGrath (born 23 January 1953) is a Northern Irish theologian, priest, intellectual historian, scientist, and Christian apologist.

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Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe

The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE; Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour l'Europe, ADLE) is a transnational alliance between two European political parties, the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (formerly known as the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party) and the European Democratic Party.

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Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party

The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (ALDE Party) is a European political party mainly active in the European Union, composed of 60 national-level liberal parties from across Europe.

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, also known as the Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers during the First World War.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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American Civil War

The American Civil War, widely known in the United States as simply the Civil War as well as other sectional names, was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 to determine the survival of the Union or independence for the Confederacy.

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American Enlightenment

The American Enlightenment is a period of intellectual ferment in the thirteen American colonies in the period 1714–1818, which led to the American Revolution, and the creation of the American Republic.

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American philosophy

American philosophy is the philosophical activity or output of Americans, both within the United States and abroad.

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American Revolution

The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.

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American Revolutionary War

The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War in the United States, was the armed conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its former North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America.

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Ancien Régime

The Ancien Régime (Old Regime or Former Regime) was the monarchic, aristocratic, social and political system established in the Kingdom of France from approximately the 15th century until the later 18th century ("early modern France") under the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).

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Anglican Communion

The Anglican Communion is an international association of churches consisting of the Church of England and of national and regional Anglican churches in full communion with it.

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Anti-capitalism

Anti-capitalism encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism.

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Anti-clericalism

Anti-clericalism refers to historical movements that oppose the clergy for reasons including their actual or alleged power and influence in all aspects of public and political life and their involvement in the everyday life of the citizen, their privileges, or their enforcement of orthodoxy.

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Anti-Corn Law League

The Anti-Corn Law League was a successful political movement in Great Britain aimed at the abolition of the unpopular Corn Laws, which protected landowners’ interests by levying taxes on imported wheat, thus raising the price of bread at a time when factory-owners were trying to cut wages.

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Apartheid

Apartheid (an Afrikaans word meaning "the state of being apart", literally "apart-hood") was a system of racial segregation in South Africa enforced through legislation by the National Party (NP), the governing party from 1948 to 1994.

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Areopagitica

Areopagitica; A speech of Mr.

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Aristocracy

Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent," and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places power in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.

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Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.

Arthur Meier Schlesinger, Jr. (born Arthur Bancroft Schlesinger; October 15, 1917 – February 28, 2007) was an American historian, social critic, and public intellectual, son of the influential historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr. A specialist in American history, much of Schlesinger's work explored the history of 20th-century American liberalism.

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Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, were an agreement among all thirteen original states in the United States of America that served as its first constitution.

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Austrian Empire

The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was created out of the realms of the Habsburgs by proclamation in 1804.

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Authentic Radical Liberal Party

The Authentic Radical Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Radical Auténtico or PLRA) is a liberal party in Paraguay.

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Autocracy

An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).

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Balanced budget

A balanced budget (particularly that of a government) refers to a budget in which revenues are equal to expenditures.

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Barack Obama

Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States, and the first African American to hold the office.

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Bill of Rights 1689

The Bill of Rights is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and lays out certain basic civil rights.

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Bodily integrity

Bodily integrity is the inviolability of the physical body and emphasizes the importance of personal autonomy and the self-determination of human beings over their own bodies.

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Bohemia

Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia) is a region in the Czech Republic.

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Breakup of Yugoslavia

The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s.

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Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour

Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, of Isolabella and of Leri (August 10, 1810 – June 6, 1861), generally known as Cavour was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.

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Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industry, and the means of production are privately owned and operated via profit and loss calculation (price signals) through the price system.

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Carlo Rosselli

Carlo Rosselli (16 November 18999 June 1937) was an Italian political leader, journalist, historian and anti-fascist activist, first in Italy then abroad.

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Catholic social teaching

Catholic social teaching is the body of doctrine developed by the Catholic Church on matters of social justice, involving issues of poverty and wealth, economics, social organization and the role of the state.

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Centre-left politics

The centre-left or moderate left is an adherence to views leaning to the left but closer to the centre on the left-right political spectrum than other left-wing variants.

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Centre-right politics

Centre-right politics, also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left-right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing variants.

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Centrism

In politics, centrism or the centre is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy; while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society either strongly to the left or the right.

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Chancellor of the Exchequer

The Chancellor of the Exchequer is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.

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Chantal Mouffe

Chantal Mouffe (born 17 June 1943 in Charleroi, Belgium) is a Belgian political theorist.

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Charles Dickens

Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.

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Charles I of England

Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

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Choice

Choice involves mentally making a decision: judging the merits of multiple options and selecting one or more of them.

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Christian democracy

Christian democracy is a political ideology which emerged in nineteenth-century Europe under the influence of conservatism and Catholic social teaching.

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Christian socialism

Christian socialism is a form of religious socialism based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

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Church of Ireland

The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.

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Civic nationalism

Civic nationalism is a kind of nationalism identified by political philosophers who believe in a non-xenophobic form of nationalism compatible with values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights.

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Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations and private individuals, and which ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without discrimination or repression.

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Civil Rights Act of 1964

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark piece of civil rights legislation in the United States that outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical economics

Classical economics asserts that markets function best without government interference.

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Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a political ideology, a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties and political freedom with representative democracy under the rule of law and emphasizes economic freedom.

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Coalition government

A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which several political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that coalition.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).

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Collectivism

Collectivism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the significance of groups—their identities, goals, rights, outcomes, etc.—and tends to analyze issues in those terms.

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Colombian Liberal Party

The Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano; PLC) is a social-democratic political party in Colombia.

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Commons

The commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth.

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Commonwealth of England

The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 onwards when England, along later with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was initially declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.

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Communism

In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis – common, universal) is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.

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Consent of the governed

In political philosophy, the phrase consent of the governed refers to the idea that a government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and legal when consented to by the people or society over which that political power is exercised.

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Conservatism

Conservatism as a political and social philosophy promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.

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Conservatism in the United States

Historically, the central themes in American conservatism have included respect for American traditions, support of republicanism and the rule of law, Judeo-Christian values, anti-Communism, advocacy of American exceptionalism and a defense of Western civilization from perceived threats posed by moral relativism, multiculturalism, and postmodern ridicule of traditional culture.

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Conservative Party (UK)

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.

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Conservative Party of Canada

The Conservative Party of Canada (Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a political party in Canada.

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Constitution

A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.

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Constitutional amendment

A constitutional amendment refers to the modification of the Constitution of a nation or state.

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Constitutional Convention (United States)

The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to address problems in governing the United States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain.

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Constitutional liberalism

Constitutional liberalism describes a form of government that upholds the principles of classical liberalism and the rule of law.

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Corn Laws

The Corn Laws were measures in force in the United Kingdom between 1815 and 1846, which imposed restrictions and tariffs on imported grain.

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Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats

The Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats (CALD) is a regional organization of liberal and democratic political parties in Asia.

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Cruel and unusual punishment

Cruel and unusual punishment is a phrase describing punishment that is considered unacceptable due to the suffering, pain, or humiliation it inflicts on the person subjected to it.

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Cuban Liberal Union

The Cuban Liberal Union (Unión Liberal Cubana) is a liberal party in Cuba.

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David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British Liberal politician and statesman.

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Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen), passed by France's National Constituent Assembly in August 1789, is a fundamental document of the French Revolution and in the history of human and civil rights.

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Democracy

Democracy, or democratic government, is "a system of government in which all the people of a state or polity...

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Democracy in America

De la démocratie en Amérique (published in two volumes, the first in 1835 and the second in 1840) is a classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville.

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Democrat Party (Thailand)

The Democrat Party (พรรคประชาธิปัตย์ Phak Prachathipat) is a Thai political party.

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Democratic Alliance (South Africa)

The Democratic Alliance (Demokratiese Alliansie, DA) is a South African political party and the official opposition to the governing African National Congress (ANC).

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Democratic Party (United States)

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party to its right.

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Democratic Progressive Party

The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) is a progressive and liberal political party in Taiwan, and the dominant party in the Pan-Green Coalition.

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Democrats 66

Democrats 66 (Democraten 66, D66; official name: Politieke Partij Democraten 66) is a social-liberal and progressive political party in the Netherlands.

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Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (DPM) is a senior member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.

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Die Gedanken sind frei

"" is a German song about the freedom of thought.

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Discourse

Discourse denotes written and spoken communications such as.

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Divine law

Divine law is any law that supposedly comes directly from the "will of God" in contrast to man-made law.

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Divine right of kings

The divine right of kings or divine right is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.

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Divorce

Divorce (or dissolution of marriage) is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling and/or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country and/or state.

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Donald Markwell

For the Montgomery, Alabama, talk radio personality, see Don Markwell Donald John "Don" Markwell (born 19 April 1959) is an Australian social scientist and educational leader.

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Drug policy of the Netherlands

The drug policy of the Netherlands officially has four major objectives.

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Eastern Bloc

Eastern Bloc was the name used by NATO-affiliated countries for the former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Economic liberalism

Economic liberalism is the ideological belief in organizing the economy on individualist lines, meaning that the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals and not by collective institutions or organizations.

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Economist

An economist is a professional in the social science discipline of economics.

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Edmund Burke

Edmund Burke PC (12 January 17299 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who, after moving to England, served for many years in the House of Commons of Great Britain as a member of the Whig party.

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Eduard Bernstein

Eduard Bernstein (6 January 185018 December 1932) was a German social democratic political theorist and politician, a member of the Social Democratic Party (SDP), and the founder of evolutionary socialism, social democracy and revisionism.

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Egalitarianism

Egalitarianism—or, rarely, equalitarianism or equalism—is a trend of thought that favors equality for all people.

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Eisenbrauns

Eisenbrauns is an international academic publisher specializing in the ancient Near East and biblical studies.

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Elitism

Elitism is the belief or attitude that some individuals who form an elite—a select group of people with a certain ancestry, intrinsic quality or worth, high intellect, wealth, specialized training or experience, or other distinctive attributes—are those whose influence or authority is greater than that of others; whose views on a matter are to be taken more seriously or carry more weight; whose views or actions are more likely to be constructive to society as a whole; or whose extraordinary skills, abilities, or wisdom render them especially fit to govern.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English Civil War

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") in the Kingdom of England over, principally, the manner of its government.

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Equal opportunity

Equal opportunity is a stipulation that all people should be treated similarly, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified.

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Equality before the law

Equality before the law, also known as equality under the law, equality in the eyes of the law, or legal equality, is the principle under which all people are subject to the same laws of justice (due process).

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Eric Alterman

Eric Alterman (born January 14, 1960) is an American historian, journalist, author, media critic, blogger, and educator.

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Estates General (France)

In France under the Old Regime, the Estates General or States-General (états généraux), was a legislative and consultative assembly (see The Estates) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects.

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Estates-General of 1789

The Estates-General (or States-General) of 1789 (Les États-Généraux de 1789) was the first meeting since 1614 of the French Estates-General, a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy (First Estate), the nobles (Second Estate), and the common people (Third Estate).

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European Parliament

The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).

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Euthanasia in the Netherlands

Euthanasia in the Netherlands is regulated by the "Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide (Review Procedures) Act" from 2002.

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Executive (government)

The executive branch is the part of the government that has its authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state.

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Factory Acts

The Factory Acts were a series of UK labour law Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to regulate the conditions of industrial employment.

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Fascism

Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.

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February Revolution

The February Revolution (p) of 1917 was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917.

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Feminism

Feminism is a range of movements and ideologies that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve equal political, economic, cultural, personal, and social rights for women.

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Ferdinand VII of Spain

Ferdinand VII (Fernando VII de Borbón; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death.

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Financial crisis of 2007–08

The financial crisis of 2007–08, also known as the Global Financial Crisis and 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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First Italian War of Independence

The First Italian War of Independence was fought in 1848 and 1849 between the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Austrian Empire.

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Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, lit. German-French War, Guerre franco-allemande, lit. Franco-German War), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871), was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

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Frankfurt Parliament

The Frankfurt Parliament (Frankfurter Nationalversammlung, literally Frankfurt National Assembly) was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany, elected on 1 May 1848 (see German federal election, 1848).

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt (his own pronunciation, or) (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), commonly known by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States.

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Free Democratic Party (Germany)

The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, FDP) is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany.

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Free market

A free market is a market economy system in which the prices for goods and services are set freely by consent between vendors and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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Free trade

Free trade is a policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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Freedom of association

Freedom of association is the right to join or leave groups of a person's own choosing, and for the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of members.

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Freedom of religion

Freedom of religion or freedom of belief is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance; the concept is generally recognized also to include the freedom to change religion or not to follow any religion.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is the right to communicate one's opinions and ideas without fear of government retaliation or censorship.

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Freedom of the press

Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the freedom of communication and expression through mediums including various electronic media and published materials.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was an influential period of social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.

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French Second Republic

The French Second Republic was the republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte which initiated the Second Empire.

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French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) governed France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed, to 1940, when France's defeat by Nazi Germany led to the Vichy France government.

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Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich Hayek CH (8 May 189923 March 1992), born in Austria-Hungary as Friedrich August von Hayek and frequently referred to as F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian and British economist and philosopher best known for his defence of classical liberalism.

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Friedrich Naumann Foundation

The Friedrich Naumann Foundation (Friedrich-Naumann-Stiftung für die Freiheit) (FNF) is a German foundation for liberal politics, related to the Free Democratic Party.

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Full employment

Full employment, in macroeconomics, is the level of employment rates where there is no cyclical or deficient-demand unemployment.

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Galicia (Eastern Europe)

Galicia (Галичина, Halychyna; Galicja; Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция/Галичина, Galitsiya/Galichina; Rusyn: Галичина, Halychyna; Halič; גאַליציע, Galytsye) is a historical and geographic region in Eastern Europe, once a small kingdom, that straddles the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.

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Gender equality

Gender equality, also known as sex equality, gender egalitarianism, sexual equality or equality of the genders, is the view that men and women should receive equal treatment, and should not be discriminated against based on gender.

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George Brandis

George Henry Brandis QC (born 22 June 1957) is the 36th Attorney-General for Australia and has been a Liberal member of the Australian Senate representing Queensland since May 2000.

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George H. W. Bush

George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993, and the 43rd Vice President of the United States (1981–1989).

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George W. Bush

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009, and the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.

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Ghetto

A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live, especially because of social, legal, or economic pressure.

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Gladstonian liberalism

Gladstonian liberalism is a political doctrine named after the British Victorian Prime Minister and leader of the Liberal Party, William Ewart Gladstone.

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Globalization

Globalization (or globalisation) is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture.

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Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England, VII of Scotland and II of Ireland by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange).

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Government of the Western Cape

The Western Cape province of South Africa is governed in a parliamentary system in which the people elect the Provincial Parliament, and the parliament elects the Premier as head of the executive.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the 1930s.

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Great power

A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

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Great Recession

The Global Recession was the general economic decline observed in world markets around the end of the first decade of the 21st century.

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Great Society

The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65.

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Guild

A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who control the practice of their craft in a particular town.

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Habeas Corpus Act 1679

The Habeas Corpus Act 1679 is an Act of the Parliament of England (31 Cha. 2 c. 2) passed during the reign of King Charles II by what became known as the Habeas Corpus Parliament to define and strengthen the ancient prerogative writ of habeas corpus, a procedural device to force the courts to examine the lawfulness of a prisoner's detention in order to safeguard individual liberty and thus to prevent unlawful or arbitrary imprisonment.

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Head Start Program

The Head Start Program is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families.

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Hierarchy

A hierarchy (from the Greek ἱεραρχία hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from ἱεράρχης hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above," "below," or "at the same level as" one another.

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History of Canada

The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day.

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History of feminism

The history of feminism is the chronological narrative of the movements and ideologies aimed at equal rights for women.

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History of psychiatric institutions

The rise of the lunatic asylum and its gradual transformation into, and eventual replacement by, the modern psychiatric hospital, explains the rise of organized, institutional psychiatry.

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History of Switzerland

Since 1848, the Swiss Confederation has been a federal state of relatively autonomous cantons, some of which have a history of confederacy that goes back more than 700 years, putting them among the world's oldest surviving republics.

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History of the Liberal Party of Canada

This article covers the history of the Liberal Party of Canada.

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History of the Netherlands

The history of the Netherlands is the history of a seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta on the North Sea in northwestern Europe.

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History of the Soviet Union (1982–91)

The history of the Soviet Union from 1982 through 1991 spans the period from Leonid Brezhnev's death and funeral until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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House of Bourbon

The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland which, like the House of Lords (the upper house), meets in the Palace of Westminster.

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Humanism

Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism, empiricism) over established doctrine or faith (fideism).

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Ideology

Ideology, in the Althusserian sense, is "the imaginary relation to the real conditions of existence." It can be described as a set of conscious and unconscious ideas which make up one's goals, expectations, and motivations.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher, who is considered the central figure of modern philosophy.

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Indian independence movement

The term Indian Independence Movement encompasses activities and ideas aiming to end first East India Company rule (1757–1858), then the British Raj (1858–1947).

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Indian National Congress

The Indian National Congress (INC, often called the Congress), is one of two major political parties in India; the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party.

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Indian nationalism

Indian nationalism refers to the many underlying forces that defined the principles of the Indian independence movement, and strongly continue to influence the politics of India, as well as being the heart of many contrasting ideologies that have caused ethnic and religious conflict in Indian society.

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Individual

An individual is a person or a specific object.

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Individualism

Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.

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Industrial production

Industrial production is a measure of output of the industrial sector of the economy.

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Industrialisation

Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.

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International Democrat Union

The International Democrat Union (IDU) is a conservative international alliance of political parties.

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Internationalism (politics)

Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation among nations and peoples.

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Invisible hand

In economics, the invisible hand is a metaphor used by Adam Smith to describe unintended social benefits resulting from individual actions.

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Irish Church Act 1869

The Irish Church Act 1869 (32 & 33 Vict. c. 42) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed during William Ewart Gladstone's administration.

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James Madison

James Madison, Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, political theorist, and the fourth President of the United States (1809–17).

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Józef Piłsudski

Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal of Poland" (from 1920), and de facto dictator (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic, Minister of Military Affairs.

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Jean Chrétien

Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien (born January 11, 1934) known commonly as Jean Chrétien is a Canadian politician and statesman who served as the 20th Prime Minister of Canada.

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century.

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Jeremy Bentham

Jeremy Bentham (– 6 June 1832) was a British philosopher, jurist, and social reformer.

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Job Corps

Job Corps is a program administered by the United States Department of Labor that offers free-of-charge education and vocational training to young men and women ages 16 to 24.

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John A. Hobson

John Atkinson Hobson (commonly known as John A. Hobson or J. A. Hobson; 6 July 1858 – 1 April 1940), was an English economist, social scientist and critic of imperialism, widely popular as a lecturer and writer.

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John Bright

John Bright (16 November 1811 – 27 March 1889), Quaker, was a British Radical and Liberal statesman, one of the greatest orators of his generation and a promoter of free trade policies.

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John Dewey

John Dewey, FAA (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.

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John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (JFK), (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.

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John Gray (philosopher)

John Nicholas Gray (born 17 April 1948) is an English political philosopher with interests in analytic philosophy and the history of ideas.

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John Locke

John Locke FRS (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism".

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John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB, FBA (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.

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John Milton

John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell.

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John Rawls

John Bordley Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher.

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John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist and civil servant.

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Johns Hopkins University Press

The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.

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Judicial independence

Judicial independence is the concept that the judiciary needs to be kept away from the other branches of government.

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Judiciary

The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.

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July Revolution

The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, Second French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would in turn be overthrown.

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Jury trial

A jury trial or trial by jury is a legal proceeding in which a jury either makes a decision or makes findings of fact, which then direct the actions of a judge.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Keynesian economics

Keynesian economics (or Keynesianism) is the view that in the short run, especially during recessions, economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total spending in the economy).

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Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England was a state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Labour movement

The labour movement or labor movement (see spelling differences), or, respectively, labourism or laborism, are broad terms for the collective organization of working people developed to represent and campaign for better working conditions and treatment from their employers and, through the implementation of labour and employment law, their governments.

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Labour Party (Netherlands)

The Labour Party (Partij van de Arbeid;, shortened PvdA) is a social-democratic political party in the Netherlands.

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Labour Party (UK)

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

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Laissez-faire

Laissez-faire is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government interference such as regulations, privileges, tariffs, and subsidies.

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Latin American wars of independence

The Latin American Wars of Independence were the revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, "Société des Nations" abbreviated as SDN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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Legislature

A legislature is the law-making body of a political unit, usually a national government, that has power to enact, amend, and repeal public policy.

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Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse

Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (8 September 1864 – 21 June 1929) was a British liberal political theorist and sociologist, who has been considered one of the leading and earliest proponents of social liberalism.

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Lester B. Pearson

Lester Bowles "Mike" Pearson, PC, OM, CC, OBE (23 April 1897 – 27 December 1972) was a Canadian scholar, statesman, soldier and diplomat, who won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1957 for organizing the United Nations Emergency Force to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis.

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Levellers

The Levellers were a political movement during the English Civil War that emphasised popular sovereignty, extended suffrage, common land ownership, equality before the law, and religious tolerance, all of which were expressed in the manifesto "Agreement of the People".

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Liberal

Liberal may refer to.

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Liberal arts education

The liberal arts (Latin: artes liberales) are those subjects or skills that in classical antiquity were considered essential for a free person (Latin: liberal, "worthy of a free person") to know in order to take an active part in civic life, something that (for Ancient Greece) included participating in public debate, defending oneself in court, serving on juries, and most importantly, military service.

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Liberal conservatism

As both "conservatism" and "liberalism" have had different meanings over time and across countries, the term liberal conservatism has been used in quite different senses.

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Liberal democracy

Liberal democracy is a political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of liberalism.

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Liberal Democracy of Slovenia

Liberal Democracy of Slovenia (Liberalna demokracija Slovenije, LDS) is a liberal and social-liberal political party in Slovenia.

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Liberal Democrats

The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as the Lib Dems) are a liberal political party in the United Kingdom, with policies ranging from the centre-left to the centre-right.

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Liberal feminism

Liberal feminism is an individualistic form of feminist theory, which focuses on women’s ability to maintain their equality through their own actions and choices.

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Liberal International

Liberal International (LI) is a political international federation for liberal political parties.

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Liberal internationalism

Liberal internationalism is a foreign policy doctrine that argues that liberal states should intervene in other sovereign states in order to pursue liberal objectives.

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Liberal Network for Latin America

The Liberal Network for Latin America (Red Liberal de América Latina), abbreviated to RELIAL, is a network of 39 liberal institutions from 18 Latin American countries.

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Liberal Party

Liberal Party is the name for dozens of political parties around the world.

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Liberal Party (Philippines)

The Liberal Party of the Philippines (Filipino: Partido Liberal ng Pilipinas) is the governing political party and a liberal party in the Philippines, founded by then senators Senate President Manuel Roxas, Senate President Pro-Tempore Elpidio Quirino, and former 9th Senatorial District Senator José Avelino, on November 24, 1945 by a breakaway Liberal group from the Nacionalista Party.

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Liberal Party (UK)

The Liberal Party was a liberal political party which was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th century.

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Liberal Party of Australia

The Liberal Party of Australia (Lib, colloquially Libs or, rarely, "LPA") is a centre-right political party in Australia.

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Liberal Party of Canada

The Liberal Party of Canada (Parti libéral du Canada), colloquially known as the Grits, is the oldest federal political party in Canada.

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Liberal Party of Gibraltar

The Liberal Party of Gibraltar (Libs) is a liberal political party in Gibraltar.

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Liberal Party of South Africa

The Liberal Party of South Africa was a South African political party from 1953 to 1968.

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Liberal Revolution of 1895

The Liberal Revolution of 1895 took place in Ecuador, and was a period of radical social and political upheaval.

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Liberal socialism

Liberal socialism is a socialist political philosophy that includes liberal principles within it.

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Liberalism and conservatism in Latin America

Liberalism and conservatism in Latin America have unique historical roots.

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Liberalism and radicalism in France

Liberalism and radicalism in France do not form the same type of ideology.

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Liberalism and radicalism in Spain

This article gives an overview of liberalism and radicalism in Spain.

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Liberalism by country

This article gives information on liberalism worldwide.

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Liberalism in Australia

Liberalism in Australia dates back to the earliest pioneers of the area, and has maintained a strong foothold to this day.

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Liberalism in Europe

In general, liberalism in Europe is a political movement that supports a broad tradition of individual liberties and constitutionally-limited and democratically accountable government.

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Liberalism in South Africa

This article gives an overview of liberal parties in South Africa.

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Liberalism in the United States

Liberalism in the United States is a broad political philosophy centered on the unalienable rights of the individual.

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Libertarianism

Libertarianism (liber, "free") is a political philosophy that upholds liberty as its principal objective.

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Libertine

A libertine is one devoid of most moral restraints, which are seen as unnecessary or undesirable, especially one who ignores or even spurns accepted morals and forms of behaviour sanctified by the larger society.

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Liberty

Liberty, in philosophy, involves free will as contrasted with determinism.

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Licensing of the Press Act 1662

The Licensing of the Press Act 1662 is an Act of the Parliament of England (14 Car. II. c. 33), long title "An Act for preventing the frequent Abuses in printing seditious treasonable and unlicensed Bookes and Pamphlets and for regulating of Printing and Printing Presses." It was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1863.

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List of amendments to the United States Constitution

This is the complete list of the thirty-three amendments to the United States Constitution which have been proposed by the United States Congress and sent to the states for ratification since the Constitution was put into operation on March 4, 1789.

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List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita

This article includes four lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.

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List of historic states of Italy

Italy after the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and the successive Barbarian Invasions, up until the Italian unification in 1860, was a conglomeration of city-states, republics, and other independent entities.

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List of liberal theorists

Individual contributors to classical liberalism and political liberalism are associated with philosophers of the Enlightenment.

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List of Presidents of the United States

Under the United States Constitution, the President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States.

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List of Roman emperors

The Roman Emperors and Empresses were rulers of the Roman Empire, wielding power over its citizens and military.

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Louis Hartz

Louis Hartz (April 8, 1919 – January 20, 1986) was an American political scientist and influential liberal proponent of the idea of American exceptionalism.

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Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969), a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President (1961–1963).

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Manchester University Press

Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.

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Manorialism

Manorialism, an essential element of feudal society, was the organizing principle of rural economy that originated in the villa system of the Late Roman Empire, was widely practiced in medieval western and parts of central Europe, and was slowly replaced by the advent of a money-based market economy and new forms of agrarian contract.

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Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180.

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Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (Roberts, 13 October 1925 – 8 April 2013) was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and the Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.

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Mary Wollstonecraft

Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights.

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Matthew Arnold

Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools.

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Maurice Shock

Sir Maurice Shock (born 15 April 1926) was a British university administrator and educationalist.

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Measures of national income and output

A variety of measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate total economic activity in a country or region, including gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), net national income (NNI), and adjusted national income (NNI* adjusted for natural resource depletion).

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Medicaid

Medicaid in the United States is a social health care program for families and individuals with low income and limited resources.

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Medicare (United States)

In the United States, Medicare is a national social insurance program, administered by the U.S. federal government since 1966, currently using about 30 private insurance companies across the United States.

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Meliorism

Meliorism is an idea in metaphysical thinking holding that progress is a real concept leading to an improvement of the world.

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Mercantilism

Mercantilism was an economic theory and practice, dominant in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century, that promoted governmental regulation of a nation's economy for the purpose of augmenting state power at the expense of rival national powers.

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Metropolitan Police Service

The Metropolitan Police Service (abbreviated to MPS and widely known informally as "the Met") is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement in Greater London, excluding the "square mile" of the City of London, which is the responsibility of the City of London Police.

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Mexican Revolution

The Mexican Revolution (Revolución mexicana) was a major armed struggle ca.

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Mikhail Bakunin

Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (p; – 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist, and founder of collectivist anarchism.

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Military dictatorship

A military dictatorship is a form of government in which a member of the military holds authoritarian control.

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Mixed economy

A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system consisting of a mixture of either markets and economic planning, public ownership and private ownership, or free markets and economic interventionism.

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Modern liberalism in the United States

Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States.

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Modernity

Modernity is a term of art used in the humanities and social sciences to designate both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in post-medieval Europe and have developed since, in various ways and at various times, around the world.

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Monarchy

A monarchy is a form of government in which sovereignty is actually or nominally embodied in one or several individual(s) reigning until death or abdication.

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Montesquieu

Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French lawyer, man of letters, and political philosopher who lived during the Age of Enlightenment.

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Moral character

Moral character or character is an evaluation of a particular individual's stable moral qualities.

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Much Ado About Nothing

Much Ado About Nothing is a comedic play by William Shakespeare thought to have been written in 1598 and 1599, as Shakespeare was approaching the middle of his career.

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Multiracial

Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races.

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Muscular liberalism

Muscular liberalism is a form of liberalism advocated by British Prime Minister David Cameron that describes his policy towards state multiculturalism.

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Napoleon

Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.

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Napoleon III

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the only President (1848–52) of the French Second Republic and, as Napoleon III, the Emperor (1852–70) of the Second French Empire.

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Napoleonic Code

The Napoleonic Code (and officially Code civil des Français) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.

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National Assembly of South Africa

The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa, located in Cape Town, Western Cape Province.

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National Liberal Party (Romania)

The National Liberal Party (Partidul Național Liberal, PNL) is a liberal political party in Romania.

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National Organization for Women

The National Organization for Women (NOW) is an American feminist organization founded in 1966.

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Nationalism

Nationalism is essentially a shared group feeling in the significance of a geographical and sometimes demographic region seeking independence for its culture and/or ethnicity that holds that group together, this can be expressed as a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation.

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Natural and legal rights

Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.

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Necessity and sufficiency

In logic, necessity and sufficiency are implicational relationships between statements.

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Negative liberty

Negative liberty is freedom from interference by other people.

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Neoclassical economics

Neoclassical economics is a set of approaches to economics focusing on the determination of prices, outputs, and income distributions in markets through supply and demand.

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Neoliberalism

Neoliberalism is a term whose usage and definition have changed over time.

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New Alliance Party (Mexico)

The New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza, PNA or PANAL) is a political party in Mexico.

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New Deal

The New Deal was a series of domestic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1938, and a few that came later.

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New Deal coalition

The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs in the United States that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until the late 1960s.

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New Democratic Party

The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique, NPD) is a major social-democratic federal political party in Canada.

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New Union (Social Liberals)

The New Union (Social Liberals) (Naujoji sąjunga (socialliberalai), NS) was a social-liberal political party in Lithuania.

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Nicholas II of Russia

Nicholas II (r) (– 17 July 1918) was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland.

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Nick Clegg

Nicholas William Peter Clegg (born 7 January 1967) is a British politician who was the Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Lord President of the Council from 2010 to 2015 in the Coalition Government led by Prime Minister David Cameron.

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No taxation without representation

"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1750s and 1760s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.

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Nobility

Nobility is a social class that possesses more acknowledged privileges or eminence than most other classes in a society, membership thereof typically being hereditary.

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Nonconformist

"Nonconformist" or "Non-conformist" was a term used in England and Wales after the Act of Uniformity 1662 to refer to a Protestant Christian who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.

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Norberto Bobbio

Norberto Bobbio (October 18, 1909 – January 9, 2004) was an Italian philosopher of law and political sciences and a historian of political thought.

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On Liberty

On Liberty is a philosophical work by English philosopher John Stuart Mill, originally intended as a short essay.

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Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.

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Palgrave Macmillan

Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.

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Paris Commune

The Paris Commune was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.

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Parliament

A parliament is a legislature.

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Parliament of England

The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England.

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Parliamentary sovereignty

Parliamentary sovereignty (also called parliamentary supremacy or legislative supremacy) is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies.

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Peasant

A peasant is a member of a traditional class of farmers, either laborers or owners of small farms, especially in the Middle Ages under feudalism, or more generally, in any pre-industrial society.

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People's Budget

The 1909/1910 People's Budget was a product of then British Prime Minister H. H. Asquith's Liberal government, introducing unprecedented taxes on the wealthy in Britain and radical social welfare programmes to the country's policies.

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People's Party for Freedom and Democracy

The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie, VVD) (is a conservative-liberal political party in the Netherlands. The VVD supports private enterprise in the Netherlands and is an economically liberal party.Andeweg R.B. and G.A. Irwin Government & Politics in the Netherlands 2002 Palgrave p. 48http://www.whois.ws/domain_information-nl/vvd.nl/ After the fourth Balkenende cabinet was formed (22 February 2007), the VVD was the second-largest opposition party in the Dutch House of Representatives. During the Dutch general-election of 2010 the VVD obtained the highest number of votes cast and came to occupy 31 of the 150 seats in the House of Representatives. The VVD was the senior party in a centre-right minority government coalition together with the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) under the leadership of VVD party leader Mark Rutte. Rutte has been the leader of the VVD since 31 May 2006. The First Rutte cabinet's parliamentary majority was provided by Geert Wilders' anti-Islam, -immigration, and -EU Party for Freedom (PVV), but this majority became unstable when, as was to be expected, Wilders' party refused to support austerity measures in connection with the Euro crisis. Therefore, elections for the House of Representatives were held on 12 September 2012 The VVD remained the largest party, with 41 seats. Since 5 November 2012, the VVD has been the senior partner in the second Rutte cabinet, a "purple" coalition with the Labour Party (PvdA).

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Pericles

Pericles (Περικλῆς Periklēs, in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was arguably the most prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age— specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.

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Persian Letters

Persian Letters (Lettres persanes) is a literary work, written in 1721, by Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu, recounting the experiences of two Persian noblemen, Usbek and Rica, who are traveling through France.

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Philosopher

A philosopher, in a broad sense, is someone who studies philosophy.

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Philosophes

The philosophes (French for philosophers) were the intellectuals of the 18th century Enlightenment.

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Philosophy and economics

Philosophy and economics, also philosophy of economics, may refer to the branch of philosophy that studies issues relating to economics or, alternatively, to the branch of economics that studies its own foundations and status as a moral science.

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Piero Gobetti

Piero Gobetti (June 19, 1901, Turin – February 15, 1926, Paris) was an Italian journalist, intellectual and radical liberal and anti-fascist.

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Pierre Trudeau

Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau, (October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000), usually known as Pierre Trudeau or Pierre Elliott Trudeau, was the 15th Prime Minister of Canada from April 20, 1968, to June 4, 1979, and again from March 3, 1980, to June 30, 1984.

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Pluralism (political philosophy)

Pluralism as a political philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles.

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Political philosophy

Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.

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Political spectrum

A political spectrum is a system of classifying different political positions upon one or more geometric axes that symbolize independent political dimensions.

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Popular Movement

The Popular Movement (الحركة الشعبية Al-Haraka Al-Sha'biya Mouvement populaire) is a royalist party in Morocco.

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Popular sovereignty

Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the principle that the authority of the government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.

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Positive liberty

Positive liberty is the possession of the power and resources to fulfill one's own potential as opposed to negative liberty, which is freedom from external restraint.

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Power (social and political)

In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or control the behavior of people.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States of America (POTUS) is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.

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Presumption of innocence

The presumption of innocence, sometimes referred to by the Latin expression Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat (the burden of proof is on the one who declares, not on one who denies), is the principle that one is considered innocent unless proven guilty.

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Princeton University Press

The Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Prison reform

Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system, or implement alternatives to incarceration.

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Private property

Private property is a legal designation of the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.

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Progressive Party (South Africa)

The Progressive Party (Progressiewe Party) was a liberal party (deemed "leftist" in the peculiar terminology of the apartheid-era) in South Africa that opposed the ruling National Party's policies of apartheid, and championed the Rule of Law.

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Progressive tax

A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.

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Progressivism

Progressivism is a broad philosophy based on the Idea of Progress, which asserts that advancement in science, technology, economic development, and social organization are vital to improve the human condition.

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Property

In the abstract, property is that which belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.

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Property law

Property law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal property, within the common law legal system.

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Proportionality (law)

Proportionality is a general principle in law which covers several special (although related) concepts.

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Prostitution in the Netherlands

Prostitution in the Netherlands is legal and regulated.

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Protectionism

Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between states (countries) through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations designed to allow (according to proponents) fair competition between imports and goods and services produced domestically.

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Proxy war

A proxy war is a conflict between two nations where neither country directly engages the other.

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Prussia

Prussia (Prusy) was a historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and centered on the region of Prussia.

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Public property

Public property is property that is dedicated to public use and is a subset of state property.

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Public works

Public works (or internal improvements historically in the United States)Carter Goodrich, (Greenwood Press, 1960)Stephen Minicucci,, Studies in American Political Development (2004), 18:2:160-185 Cambridge University Press.

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Purple (government)

Purple is a common term in politics for governments or other political entities consisting of parties that have red and blue as their political colours.

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R. H. Tawney

Richard Henry "R.

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Racial equality

Racial equality is an equal regard to all races.

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Radicalism (historical)

The term "Radical" (from the Latin radix meaning root) during the late 18th-century identified proponents of the Radical Movement.

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Radicals (UK)

The Radicals were a parliamentary political grouping in the United Kingdom in the early to mid-19th century, who drew on earlier ideas of radicalism and helped to transform the Whigs into the Liberal Party.

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Rally of the Republicans

The Rally of the Republicans (Rassemblement des Républicains, RDR) is a liberal party in Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire).

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Reflections on the Revolution in France

Reflections on the Revolution in France is a political pamphlet written by the British statesman Edmund Burke and published in November 1790.

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Reform Act 1832

The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) which introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.

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Religious belief

Religious belief refers to attitudes towards mythological, supernatural, or spiritual aspects of a religion.

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Republican Party (United States)

The Republican Party, commonly referred to as GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

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Revolution Controversy

The Revolution Controversy was a British debate over the French Revolution, lasting from 1789 through 1795.

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Revolutions of 1848

The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, Springtime of the Peoples or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.

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Revolutions of 1989

The Revolutions of 1989 were part of a revolutionary wave that resulted in the Fall of Communism in the Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.

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Richard Cobden

Richard Cobden (3 June 1804 – 2 April 1865) was an English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with two major free trade campaigns, the Anti-Corn Law League and the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty.

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Right of revolution

In political philosophy, the right of revolution is the right or duty, previously stated throughout history, of the people of a nation to overthrow a government that acts against their common interests.

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Right to a fair trial

The right to fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the rule of law.

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Right-wing politics

Right-wing politics are political positions or activities that view some forms of social stratification or social inequality as either inevitable, natural, normal, or desirable,J.

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Rights of Man

Rights of Man (1791), a book by Thomas Paine, including 31 articles, posits that popular political revolution is permissible when a government does not safeguard the natural rights of its people.

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Robert Nozick

Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher who was most prominent in the 1970s and 1980s.

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Robert Peel

Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet (5 February 17882 July 1850) was a British Conservative statesman, who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 10 December 1834 to 8 April 1835, and again from 30 August 1841 to 29 June 1846.

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Robert Roswell Palmer

Robert Roswell Palmer (January 11, 1909 – June 11, 2002), commonly known as R. R.

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Robert Skidelsky, Baron Skidelsky

Robert Jacob Alexander, Baron Skidelsky, FBA (born 25 April 1939) is a British economic historian of Russian origin and the author of a major, award-winning, three-volume biography of British economist John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946).

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Robert Trivers

Robert Ludlow "Bob" Trivers (born February 19, 1943) is an American evolutionary biologist and sociobiologist, who is a Professor of Anthropology and Biological Sciences at Rutgers University.

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Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician, commentator, and actor, who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Roy Harrod

Sir Henry Roy Forbes Harrod (13 February 1900 – 8 March 1978) was an English economist.

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Royalist

A royalist supports a particular monarch as head of state for a particular kingdom, or of a particular dynastic claim.

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Rule according to higher law

The rule according to a higher law means that no law may be enforced by the government unless it conforms with certain universal principles (written or unwritten) of fairness, morality, and justice.

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the legal principle that law should govern a nation, as opposed to being governed by arbitrary decisions of individual government officials.

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Same-sex marriage in the Netherlands

In the Netherlands, same-sex marriage (Dutch: Huwelijk tussen personen van gelijk geslacht or commonly homohuwelijk) has been legal since 1 April 2001.

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Samir Amin

Samir Amin (سمير أمين) (born 3 September 1931) is an French-Egyptian Marxian economist.

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Sardinia

Sardinia (Sardegna, Sardìgna, Sardìnnia /, Sassarese: Sardhigna, Gallurese: Saldigna, Algherese: Saldegna, Tabarchino: Sardegna) is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and before Cyprus) and an autonomous region of Italy, which goes by the official name of Regione Autonoma della Sardegna / Regione Autònoma de Sardigna (Autonomous Region of Sardinia).

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Satoshi Kanazawa

Satoshi Kanazawa (born 16 November 1962) is an evolutionary psychologist based in the United Kingdom, who is currently Reader in Management at the London School of Economics.

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Second Continental Congress

The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the summer of 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, soon after warfare in the American Revolutionary War had begun.

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Second Italian War of Independence

The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859 (Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.

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Second-wave feminism

Second-wave feminism is a period of feminist activity that first began in the early 1960s in the United States, and eventually spread throughout the Western world and beyond.

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Secularism

Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries.

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Senegalese Democratic Party

The Senegalese Democratic Party (Parti Démocratique Sénégalais) is a political party in Senegal.

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Separation of church and state

The separation of church and state is a description for the distance in the relationship between organized religion and the nation state.

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Separation of powers

The separation of powers, often imprecisely used interchangeably with the trias politica principle, is a model for the governance of a state (or who controls the state).

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Social anarchism

Social anarchism (sometimes referred to as socialist anarchismOstergaard, Geoffrey. "Anarchism". The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought. Blackwell Publishing. p. 14.) is generally considered to be the branch of anarchism which sees individual freedom as being dependent upon mutual aid.

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Social contract

In moral and political philosophy, the social contract or political contract is a theory or model, originating during the Age of Enlightenment, that typically addresses the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual.

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Social democracy

Social democracy is a political ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a capitalist economy, and a policy regime involving welfare state provisions, collective bargaining arrangements, regulation of the economy in the general interest, redistribution of income and wealth, and a commitment to representative democracy.

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Social Democratic Party (UK)

The Social Democratic Party (SDP) was a centristThe SDP is widely described as a centrist political party.

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Social equality

Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in certain respects, often including civil rights, freedom of speech, property rights, and equal access to social goods and services.

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Social liberalism

Social liberalism is a political ideology that seeks to find a balance between individual liberty and social justice.

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Social Psychology Quarterly

Social Psychology Quarterly is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes theoretical and empirical papers in the field of social psychology.

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Socialism

Socialism is a social and economic system characterised by social ownership and/or social control of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy, as well as a political theory and movement that aims at the establishment of such a system.

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Socialist economics

Socialist economics refers to the economic theories, practices, and norms of hypothetical and existing socialist economic systems.

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Socialist International

The Socialist International (SI) is a worldwide association of political parties, most of which seek to establish democratic socialism.

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Sophism

Sophism is a method of teaching.

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Southern United States

The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—is a region of the United States of America.

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Spanish Civil War

The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.

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Spanish Constitution of 1812

The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was established on 19 March 1812 by the Cádiz Cortes, Spain's first national sovereign assembly, the Cortes Generales ("General Courts"), in refuge in Cádiz during the Peninsular War.

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Spanish Inquisition

The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.

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Standing army

A standing army is a permanent, often professional, army.

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State religion

A state religion (also called an established religion, state church, established church, or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.

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State school

State schools (also known as public schools, though not in EnglandIn England, some independent schools for 13-18 year-olds are known for historical reasons as 'public schools'.) generally refer to primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation.

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States of Germany

Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen federal states (Bundesland, or Land).

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Storming of the Bastille

The Storming of the Bastille (Prise de la Bastille) occurred in Paris, France, on the morning of 14 July 1789.

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Suffrage

Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).

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Supernatural

The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which is not subject to the laws of physics or, more figuratively, that which is said to exist above and beyond nature.

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Tennis Court Oath

The Tennis Court Oath (Serment du Jeu de Paume) was a pivotal event during the first days of the French Revolution.

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The American Prospect

The American Prospect is a bi-monthly American political magazine dedicated to American liberalism.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited in offices in London.

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The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money

The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money was written by the English economist John Maynard Keynes.

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The Liberal

The Liberal was a UK-based magazine "dedicated to promoting liberalism around the world", which ran in print from 2004 to 2009 and online until 2012.

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The Quarterly Review of Biology

The Quarterly Review of Biology is a peer reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of biology.

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The Road to Serfdom

The Road to Serfdom is a book written by the Austrian-born economist and philosopher Friedrich von Hayek (1899–1992) between 1940–1943, in which he " of the danger of tyranny that inevitably results from government control of economic decision-making through central planning." He further argues that the abandonment of individualism and classical liberalism inevitably leads to a loss of freedom, the creation of an oppressive society, the tyranny of a dictator, and the serfdom of the individual.

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The Spirit of the Laws

The Spirit of the Laws (French: De l'esprit des lois, originally spelled De l'esprit des loix; also sometimes called The Spirit of Laws) is a treatise on political theory first published anonymously by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu in 1748 with the help of Claudine Guérin de Tencin.

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The Wealth of Nations

An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.

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Thirteen Colonies

The Thirteen Colonies, as of 1775, were British colonies on the east coast of North America which had been founded between 1607 (Virginia) and 1732 (Georgia), stretching from New England to the northern border of the Floridas (British East and West Florida).

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Thomas Carlyle

Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, historian and teacher.

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Thomas Hill Green

Thomas Hill Green (7 April 1836 – 15 March 1882) was an English philosopher, political radical and temperance reformer, and a member of the British idealism movement.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury, was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy.

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Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson (April 13 [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and the third President of the United States (1801–1809).

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Thomas Paine

Thomas Paine (– In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is printed in Volume I, page 3, as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. Paine's birth date, between January 1, and March 25, advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed.Contemporary records, which used the Julian calendar and the Annunciation Style of enumerating years, recorded his birth as January 29, 1736. The provisions of the British Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, implemented in 1752, altered the official British dating method to the Gregorian calendar with the start of the year on January 1 (it had been March 25). These changes resulted in dates being moved forward 11 days, and for those between January 1 and March 25, an advance of one year. For a further explanation, see: Old Style and New Style dates. (Both Franklin's and Paine's confusing birth dates are clearly explained.) – June 8, 1809) was an English-American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.

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Toleration

Toleration is "the practice of deliberately allowing or permitting a thing of which one disapproves.

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Toleration Act 1688

The Toleration Act 1689 (1 Will & Mary c 18), also referred to as the Act of Toleration, was an Act of the Parliament of England, which received the royal assent on 24 May 1689.

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Traditionalist conservatism

Traditionalist Conservatism, also known as Traditional Conservatism, Traditionalism, Classical Conservatism and (in the United Kingdom and Canada) Toryism, is a political philosophy emphasizing the need for the principles of natural law and transcendent moral order, tradition, hierarchy and organic unity, agrarianism, classicism and high culture, and the intersecting spheres of loyalty.

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Trienio Liberal

The Trienio Liberal ("Liberal Triennium") was a period of three years of liberal government in Spain.

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Two Treatises of Government

Two Treatises of Government (or Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, The False Principles, and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, and His Followers, Are Detected and Overthrown. The Latter Is an Essay Concerning The True Original, Extent, and End of Civil Government) is a work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke.

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Tyranny of the majority

The phrase "tyranny of the majority" (or "tyranny of the masses"), is used in discussing systems of democracy and majority rule, this involves a scenario in which decisions made by a majority, place its interests above those of an individual or minority group, constituting active oppression comparable to that of tyrant and despots.

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Tyrant

A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in its modern English usage, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or constitution, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.

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Unemployment

Unemployment occurs when people are without work and actively seeking work.

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United Kingdom general election, 2005

The United Kingdom general election of 2005 was held on Thursday, 5 May 2005 to elect 646 members to the British House of Commons.

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United Kingdom general election, 2010

The United Kingdom general election of 2010 was held on Thursday, 6 May 2010, with 45,597,461 registered voters entitled to vote to elect members to the House of Commons.

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United Kingdom local elections, 2008

The 2008 United Kingdom local elections were held on 1 May 2008.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.

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United States Bill of Rights

The Bill of Rights is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.

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United States Constitution

The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America.

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United States Declaration of Independence

The Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Continental Congress meeting at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as thirteen newly independent sovereign states, and no longer a part of the British Empire.

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United States presidential election, 2008

The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election.

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Universal suffrage

Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to adult citizens (or subjects), though it may also mean extending that right to minors (Demeny voting) and non-citizens.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (U of C, Chicago, or UChicago) is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University Press of America

University Press of America is an academic publisher based in the United States.

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Urban area

An urban area is a location characterized by high human population density and vast human-built features in comparison to the areas surrounding it.

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Urbanization

Urbanization is a population shift from rural to urban areas, "the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas", and the ways in which each society adapts to the change.

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Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics holding that the best moral action is the one that maximizes utility.

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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (p), alias Lenin (p) (– 21 January 1924) was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Voltaire

François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state.

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Wafd Party

The Wafd Party ("Delegation Party"; حزب الوفد, Hizb al-Wafd) was a nationalist liberal political party in Egypt.

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War on Poverty

The War on Poverty is the unofficial name for legislation first introduced by United States President Lyndon B. Johnson during his State of the Union address on January 8, 1964.

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Welfare state

A welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens.

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Western Bloc

The Western Bloc or Capitalist Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and its allies.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Western philosophy

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

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Western world

The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident (from Latin: occidens "sunset, West"; as contrasted with the Orient), is a term referring to different nations depending on the context.

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William Beveridge

William Henry Beveridge, 1st Baron Beveridge KCB (5 March 1879 – 16 March 1963) was a British economist, noted progressive and social reformer.

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William Ewart Gladstone

William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898), was a British Liberal politician.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised) – 23 April 1616) was an English:poet,:playwright, actor and an Italophile, who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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Workhouse

In England and Wales a workhouse, colloquially known as a spike, was a place where those unable to support themselves were offered accommodation and employment.

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World War I

World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.

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World War III

World War III (WWIII, WW3 or the Third World War) is a hypothetical worldwide military conflict following World War II.

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1973 oil crisis

The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of the OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) proclaimed an oil embargo.

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2008–09 Keynesian resurgence

In 2008 and 2009, there was a worldwide resurgence of interest in Keynesian economics among prominent economists and policy makers.

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Anti-liberal, Anti-liberalism, Antiliberal, Controversies over the term "liberal", Controversies over the term liberal, Criticism of liberalism, Egalitarian liberalism, History of the term "liberal", LiberaL, Liberal (politics), Liberal politics, Liberal theory, Liberal thinkers, Liberal thought, Liberal values, Liberalism in countries, Liberalisms, Liberalist, Liberalistic, Liberalists, Liberals, Liberialism, Political Liberal, Political liberal, Politically liberal, Progressive liberals, Radical Liberalism, Radical liberalist, Small-l liberal.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberalism

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