333 relations: A. Amirthalingam, Afghanistan, Agence France-Presse, Air Tigers, Alampil, Alfred Duraiappah, Alleged war crimes during the final stages of the Sri Lankan Civil War, Amnesty International, Annamalai Varadaraja Perumal, Anti-Defamation League, Anton Balasingham, Anuradhapura massacre, Aranthalawa Massacre, Arms trafficking, Asian Tribune, Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, Associated Press, Asylum seeker, Balasingham Nadesan, Ban Ki-moon, Bandaranaike International Airport, Bangkok, Bank of Tamil Eelam, Batticaloa, Battle of Pooneryn, BBC, BBC News, Black July, Black Tigers, Bloomberg L.P., Bra, British Columbia, British Tamils Forum, Cabinet of Sri Lanka, Cargo ship, Caste, Chakrata, Chandrika Kumaratunga, Charles Anthony Brigade, Chennai, Chennai Port, Citibank Singapore, Coercion, Colombo, Colombo Central Bank bombing, Columbia University Press, Council on Foreign Relations, Credit card fraud, Crimes against humanity, D. B. S. Jeyaraj, ..., Daily News (Sri Lanka), Dawn (newspaper), Douglas Devananda, Eastern Province, Sri Lanka, Eelam National Liberation Front, Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front, Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students, Eelam War, Eelam War IV, Egalitarianism, Elephant Pass, End-user certificate, Erik Solheim, Ethnic cleansing, European Court of Justice, European Parliament, European Union, Exclusive economic zone, Explosive belt, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federation of American Scientists, Fishing trawler, Forced disappearance, Four Four Bravo, France 24, G. M. 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Appapillai Amirthalingam (அப்பாப்பிள்ளை அமிர்தலிங்கம், 26 August 1927 – 13 July 1989) was a leading Sri Lankan Tamil politician, Member of Parliament and Leader of the Opposition.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
The Air Tigers (Tamil: வான்புலிகள்) was the air-wing of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), who used it against the Government of Sri Lanka.
Alampil is a small town in Sri Lanka.
Alfred Thangarajah Duraiappah (15 June 1926 – 27 July 1975) was a Sri Lankan Tamil lawyer, politician, Mayor of Jaffna and Member of Parliament.
There are allegations that war crimes were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Tamil Tigers) during the Sri Lankan Civil War, particularly during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Annamalai Varadaraja Perumal is a politician from Sri Lanka.
The Anti-Defamation League (ADL; formerly known as the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith) is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States.
Anton Balasingham Stanislaus (translit; 4 March 1938 – 14 December 2006; known as Anton Balasingham) was a Sri Lankan Tamil journalist, rebel and chief political strategist and chief negotiator for the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, a separatist Tamil militant organisation in Sri Lanka.
The Anuradhapura massacre occurred in Sri Lanka in 1985 and was carried out by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.
The Aranthalawa Massacre was the massacre of 33 Buddhist monks, most of them young novice monks, and four civilians by cadres of the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam organization (the LTTE, commonly known as the Tamil Tigers) on June 2, 1987, close to the village of Aranthalawa, in the Ampara District of Eastern Sri Lanka.
Arms trafficking, also known as gunrunning, is the trafficking of contraband weapons and ammunition.
The Asian Tribune is an online newspaper that provides news and editorial on the current affairs of Asia, with a special emphasis on South Asia but mostly concentrates its news on the current Civil conflict in Sri Lanka.
The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, former Prime Minister of India, occurred as a result of a suicide bombing in Sriperumbudur, near Chennai, in Tamil Nadu, India on Tuesday, 21 May 1991.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
An asylum seeker (also rarely called an asylee) is a person who flees his or her home country, 'spontaneously' enters another country and applies for asylum, i.e. the right to international protection, in this other country.
Balasingham Nadesan (Tamil:பாலசிங்கம் நடேசன்) was the LTTEs Political Chief from late 2007 until his death in 2009.
Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944) is a South Korean politician and diplomat who was the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 2007 to December 2016.
Bandaranaike International Airport (බණ්ඩාරනායක ජාත්යන්තර ගුවන්තොටුපළ; பண்டாரநாயக்க பன்னாட்டு வானுர்தி நிலையம்), colloquially known as Katunayake Airport and Colombo International Airport, is the main international airport serving Sri Lanka.
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
The Bank of Tamil Eelam was founded in Jaffna in 1994 by the Sri Lankan separatist organization LTTE, but was relocated in 1995, to Kilinochchi after the Sri Lankan army retook the peninsula.
Batticaloa (மட்டக்களப்பு, Maṭṭakkaḷappu; මඩකලපුව, Madakalapuwa) is a major city in the Eastern Province, Sri Lanka, and its former capital.
The Battle of Pooneryn was a battle fought on 11 November 1993 for the town of Pooneryn.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Black July (translit; කළු ජූලිය Kalu Juliya) is the common name used to refer to the anti-Tamil pogrom and riots in Sri Lanka during July 1983.
The Black Tigers (Tamil: கரும்புலிகள்) were a wing of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a militant Sri Lankan Tamil separatist organization.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
A bra, short for brassiere (UK or), is a form-fitting undergarment suspender designed to support or cover the wearer's breasts.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
British Tamils Forum or BTF, is a largest organisation representing the Tamil Community in the United Kingdom.
The Cabinet of Sri Lanka is the council of ministers that form the central government of Sri Lanka.
A cargo ship or freighter ship is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
Chakrata is a cantonment town in Dehradun district.
Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (චන්ද්රිකා බණ්ඩාරනායක කුමාරතුංග,சந்திரிகா பண்டாரநாயக்க குமாரதுங்க; born 29 June 1945) is a Sri Lankan politician who served as the fifth President of Sri Lanka, from 12 November 1994 to 19 November 2005.
The Charles Anthony Brigade, was the first conventional fighting formation created by the LTTE.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Chennai Port, formerly known as Madras Port, is the third largest container port of India, behind the Nhava Sheva and Mundra port.
Citibank Singapore Limited is a division of Citibank N.A. of the United States and incorporated in Singapore on 28 June 2004.
Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.
Colombo (translit,; translit) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka.
The Central Bank bombing was one of the deadliest terrorist attacks carried out by the LTTE during the Separatist civil war in Sri Lanka between the government and the Tamil Tigers.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Credit card fraud is a wide-ranging term for theft and fraud committed using or involving a payment card, such as a credit card or debit card, as a fraudulent source of funds in a transaction.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
David Buell Sabapathy Jeyaraj (born May 21, 1954; commonly known as D. B. S. Jeyaraj) is a Tamil Canadian freelance journalist of Sri Lankan origin.
The Daily News is an English-language newspaper in Sri Lanka.
DAWN is Pakistan's oldest, leading and most widely read English-language newspaper.
Kathiravelu Nythiananda Devananda, commonly known as Douglas Devananda (டக்ளஸ் தேவானந்தா), is a Sri Lankan Tamil politician, Cabinet Minister and leader of the Eelam People's Democratic Party.
The Eastern Province (கிழக்கு மாகாணம் Kil̮akku Mākāṇam; නැගෙනහිර පළාත Næ̆gĕnahira Paḷāta) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
The Eelam National Liberation Front (ENLF) was a short-lived umbrella organisation for leading Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups.
The Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRLF) is a Sri Lankan political party and a former militant separatist group.
The Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students (EROS), also known as the Eelam Revolutionary Organisers, is a former Tamil militant group in Sri Lanka.
"Eelam War" is the name given to several phases of the armed conflict between the government of Sri Lanka and the LTTE.
Eelam War IV is the name given to the fourth phase of armed conflict between the Sri Lankan military and the separatist Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), which is currently proscribed as a terrorist organisation by 32 countries.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
Elephant Pass, (අලිමංකඩ Alimankada) Northern Province, Sri Lanka is located in the gateway of Jaffna Peninsula.
An End-user certificate, or EUC, is a document used in international transfers, including sales and arms provided as aid, of weapons and ammunition to certify that the buyer is the final recipient of the materials, and is not planning on transferring the materials to another party.
Erik Solheim (born 18 January 1955 in Oslo, Norway) is a Norwegian diplomat and former politician, and the current Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
An explosive belt (also called suicide belt, suicide vest) is an improvised explosive device, a belt or a vest packed with explosives and armed with a detonator, worn by suicide bombers.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
A fishing trawler is a commercial fishing vessel designed to operate fishing trawls.
In international human rights law, a forced disappearance (or enforced disappearance) occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, with the intent of placing the victim outside the protection of the law.
Four Four Bravo was the call sign of a fifteen-man Sri Lankan Army patrol, deployed in the Jaffna Peninsula on July 23, 1983.
France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.
Dissanayake Mudiyanse Ralahamilage Lionel Gamini Dissanayake (known as Gamini Dissanayake; ලයනල් ගාමිණි දිසානායක,காமினி திஸாநாயக்க; 20 March 1942 – 24 October 1994) was a prominent Sri Lankan politician, a powerful minister of the United National Party, and Leader of the Opposition.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Gender inequality is the idea and situation that women and men are not equal.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
Global Tamil Forum(GTF) is an International Tamil organization meant to further Tamil causes in Tamil areas of Sri Lanka GTF supports self-determination for Tamils and wants Justice for War crimes against Tamils.
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.
A hero stone (Viragallu in Kannada, Naṭukal in Tamil) is a memorial commemorating the honorable death of a hero in battle.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
Home Guard is a title given to various military organizations at various times, with the implication of an emergency or reserve force raised for local defense.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The India and Pakistan Border, known locally as the International Border (IB), is an international border running between India and Pakistan that demarcates the Indian states and the four provinces of Pakistan.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War was the deployment of the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka intended to perform a peacekeeping role.
Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990.
The Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was an accord signed in Colombo on 29 July 1987, between Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Sri Lankan President J. R. Jayewardene.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU; Union Interparlementaire) is a global inter-parliamentary institution established in 1889 by Frédéric Passy (France) and William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom).
The Interim Self Governing Authority was a proposal issued on October 2003 by the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) of Sri Lanka for power sharing in the north and east of Sri Lanka.
The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) is an international human rights non-governmental organization.
The International Crisis Group (ICG; also simply known as the Crisis Group) is a transnational non-profit, non-governmental organization founded in 1995 that carries out field research on violent conflict and advances policies to prevent, mitigate or resolve conflict.
International human rights law (IHRL) is the body of international law designed to promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels.
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
Junius Richard Jayewardene (ජුනියස් රිචඩ් ජයවර්ධන,ஜூனியஸ் ரிச்சட் ஜயவர்தனா; 17 September 1906 – 1 November 1996), commonly abbreviated in Sri Lanka as J. R., was the leader of Sri Lanka from 1977 to 1989, serving as Prime Minister from 1977 to 1978 and as the second President of Sri Lanka from 1978 till 1989.
Jaffna is the capital city of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka.
Jaffna Peninsula (யாழ்ப்பாணக் குடாநாடு, Yāḻppāṇa kuṭānāṭu) or (யாழ் குடாநாடு, Yāḻ kuṭānāṭu) is an area in Northern Province, Sri Lanka.
The Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (People's Liberation Front), often abbreviated as JVP (ජනතා විමුක්ති පෙරමුණ; மக்கள் விடுதலை முன்னணி) is a communist and Marxist–Leninist party and political movement in Sri Lanka.
Jane's Information Group (often referred to as Jane's) is a British publishing company specialising in military, aerospace and transportation topics.
Jane's Intelligence Review, part of Jane's Information Group, is a monthly journal on global security and stability issues published by IHS Global Ltd.
Jeyanthan Brigade consist of LTTE fighters from Eastern Sri Lanka.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Kandy (මහනුවර Mahanuwara, pronounced; கண்டி, pronounced) is a major city in Sri Lanka located in the Central Province.
Karen Parker (born August 12, 1949) is an attorney based in San Francisco specializing in human rights and humanitarian law.
The Kattankudy Mosque Massacre was the killing of over 147Xinhua, 147 Muslims Massacred by Tamil "Tigers" in Sri Lanka, Colombo, August 3, 1990 Muslim men and boys in a Mosque in Kattankudy, Sri Lanka by cadres of the militant separatist group LTTE on August 3, 1990.
The Kebithigollewa massacre occurred on 15 June 2006 when 60 civilians were allegedly killed by an LTTE claymore attack on a bus.
Kilinochchi (கிளிநொச்சி, IAST Kilinocci, කිලිනොච්චි) is the main town of Kilinochchi District, Northern Province of Sri Lanka.
Kochi, also known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea.
Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur), or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city in the country.
The Leader of the Opposition is a title traditionally held by the leader of the largest party not in government in a Westminster System of parliamentary government.
The Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC, උගත් පාඩම් හා ප්රතිසන්ධාන කොමිෂන් සභාව Ugath Padam Ha Prathisandhana Komishan Sabhava), கற்றுக்கொண்ட பாடங்கள் மற்றும் நல்லிணக்க ஆணைக்குழு) was a commission of inquiry appointed by Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa in May 2010 after the 26-year-long civil war in Sri Lanka. The commission was mandated to investigate the facts and circumstances which led to the failure of the ceasefire agreement made operational on 27 February 2002, the lessons that should be learnt from those events and the institutional, administrative and legislative measures which need to be taken in order to prevent any recurrence of such concerns in the future, and to promote further national unity and reconciliation among all communities. After an 18-month inquiry, the commission submitted its report to the President on 15 November 2011. The report was made public on 16 December 2011, after being tabled in the parliament. The commission concluded that the Sri Lankan military didn't deliberately target civilians but the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) repeatedly violated international humanitarian law. According to the commission the military gave the "highest priority" to protecting civilians whereas the Tamil Tigers had had "no respect for human life". The commission admitted that civilians had been killed by the Sri Lankan military, albeit accidentally, contradicting the government's line that there were zero civilian casualties. The commission did, however, receive some eyewitness evidence alleging abuse by the military which warranted further investigation and, if necessary, the prosecution of perpetrators. The commission acknowledged that hospitals had been shelled, resulting "considerable civilian casualties", but it did not say who was responsible for the shelling. The commission blamed Sinhalese and Tamil politicians for causing the civil war: the Sinhalese politicians failed to offer a solution acceptable to the Tamil people and the Tamil politicians fanned militant separatism. The commission has been heavily criticised by international human rights groups, the UN Panel of Experts and others due its limited mandate, alleged lack of independence and its failure to meet minimum international standards or offer protection to witnesses. These critics believed that the Sri Lankan government was using the commission as a tool to prevent an independent international investigation of alleged abuses. As a consequence of this Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and the International Crisis Group refused to appear before the commission.
A liberation movement is an organization or political movement leading a rebellion, or a non-violent social movement, against a colonial power or national government, often seeking independence based on a nationalist identity and an anti-imperialist outlook.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
A light aircraft is an aircraft that has a maximum gross takeoff weight of or less.
During the Sri Lankan Civil War militant groups, paramilitary groups and government security forces were accused of assassinating many public figures on suspicion of being sympathizers or informants, in retaliation for killings and attacks, to eliminate competition from rival groups, or to stifle dissent.
The following is a list of chronological attacks attributed to the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), commonly known as the Tamil Tigers.
The complete list of Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu consists of the heads of government in the history of the state of Tamil Nadu in India since 1920.
This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments, and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities.
The following is a list of notable people assassinated by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, commonly known as Tamil Tigers or as LTTE.
This article lists political parties in Sri Lanka.
Local government is the third and lowest level of government in Sri Lanka – after the central government and provincial councils.
Lynne Rienner Publishers is an independent scholarly and textbook publishing firm based in Boulder, CO.
Marudur Gopalan Ramachandran (17 January 1917 – 24 December 1987), popularly known as M.G.R., was an Indian actor, filmmaker and politician who served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for ten years between 1977 and 1987.
Maankulam or Mankulam is located in northern Sri Lanka, about 3.5 hours drive south of City of Jaffna.
Maaveerar Naal (Great Heroes' Day; மாவீரர் நாள் Māvīrar Nāḷ) is a remembrance day observed by Sri Lankan Tamil people to remember the deaths of militants who fought for the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).
The Mackenzie Institute for the Study of Terrorism, Revolution and Propaganda is a think tank in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
Gopalaswamy Mahendraraja (1956 – 28 December 1994), also known as Mahattaya was a member of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam who was killed for leaking secrets to India's RAW.
Percy Mahendra Rajapaksa, MP (පර්සි මහේන්ද්ර රාජපක්ෂ; born 18 November 1945), more commonly known as Mahinda Rajapaksa (මහින්ද රාජපක්ෂ, மஹிந்த ராஜபக்ஷ) is a Sri Lankan politician who served as the sixth President of Sri Lanka from 19 November 2005 to 9 January 2015.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Mandsaur District is a District of Madhya Pradesh state in central India.
Mannar District (மன்னார் மாவட்டம் Maṉṉār Māvaṭṭam; මන්නාරම දිස්ත්රික්කය) is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country.
Mannar (மன்னார், මන්නාරම), formerly spelled Manar, is a large town and the main town of Mannar District, Northern Province, Sri Lanka.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Mavil Aru (Mother River) is a waterway that supplies water to some regions of eastern Sri Lanka.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
Militant use of children in Sri Lanka has been an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war in 1983.
Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions.
The Ministry of Defence (Sinhala: රාජ්ය ආරක්ෂක අමාත්යාංශය Rājya Ārakshaka Amathyanshaya; Tamil: பாதுகாப்பு அமைச்சகம்) is the cabinet ministry of the Government of Sri Lanka responsible for implementation of government defence policy and acts as the overall headquarters of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.
Mullaitivu (முல்லைத்தீவு Mullaittīvu, මූලදූව) is the main town of Mullaitivu District, situated on the north-eastern coast of Northern Province, Sri Lanka.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
MV Farah III was a general cargo ship built in 1981.
Nagapattinam (nākappaṭṭinam, previously spelt Nagapatnam or Negapatam) is a town in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Nagapattinam District.
Nainital is a popular hill station in the Indian state of Uttarakhand and headquarters of Nainital district in the Kumaon foothills of the outer Himalayas.
Necklacing is the practice of summary execution and torture carried out by forcing a rubber tyre, filled with petrol, around a victim's chest and arms, and setting it on fire.
Perinpanayagam Sivaparan (translit; born 28 August 1976; commonly known by the nom de guerre Nediyavan) is a Sri Lankan Tamil rebel and leading member of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a separatist Tamil militant organisation in Sri Lanka.
Neervely is a village located in Jaffna, Sri Lanka.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
The North Eastern Province was one of the provinces of Sri Lanka.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The Northern Province (வட மாகாணம் Vaṭa Mākāṇam; උතුරු පළාත Uturu Paḷāta) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Oakland Institute is a progressive think tank founded in 2004 by Anuradha Mittal, the former co-director of Food First.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
openDemocracy is a United Kingdom-based political website.
Operation Pawan (ऑपरेशन पवन Ŏparēśan Pavan, lit. "Operation Wind") was the code name assigned to the operation by the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) to take control of Jaffna from the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), better known as the Tamil Tigers, in late 1987 to enforce the disarmament of the LTTE as a part of the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord.
Operation Poomalai (Pūmālai, lit. "Flower Garland"), also known as Eagle Mission 4, was the codename assigned to a mission undertaken by the Indian Air Force to air-drop supplies over the besieged town of Jaffna in Sri Lanka on 4 June 1987 in support of Tamil Tigers during the Sri Lankan Civil War.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
Ahangama Withanage Oswin Nandimithra Abeyagoonasekera (known as Ossie Abeygunasekera) was a former Member of Parliament and chairman and the leader of the Sri Lanka Mahajana Pakshaya or Party.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
The Parliament of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා පාර්ලිමේන්තුව Shri Lanka Parlimenthuwa, Tamil: இலங்கை நாடாளுமன்றம்) is the supreme legislative body of Sri Lanka.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
People smuggling (also called human smuggling), under US law, is "the facilitation, transportation, attempted transportation or illegal entry of a person or persons across an international border, in violation of one or more countries' laws, either clandestinely or through deception, such as the use of fraudulent documents".
The People's Front of Liberation Tigers (விடுதலைப் புலிகள் மக்கள் முன்னணி) is a political party in Sri Lanka, founded as the political wing of the LTTE in 1989.
The People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE) is a former Tamil militant group that had become a pro-government paramilitary group and political party.
A personal identification number (PIN, pronounced "pin"; is often spoken out loud "PIN number" by mistake) is a numeric or alpha-numeric password or code used in the process of authenticating or identifying a user to a system and system to a user.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
The policy of standardization was a policy implemented by the Sri Lankan government in 1971 to rectify disparities created in university enrollment in Sri Lanka under Colonial rule.
The Polisario Front, Frente Polisario, FRELISARIO or simply POLISARIO, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro ("Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro" الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير ساقية الحمراء و وادي الذهب Al-Jabhat Al-Sha'abiyah Li-Tahrir Saqiya Al-Hamra'a wa Wadi Al-Dhahab, Front populaire de Libération de la Seguia el Hamra et du Rivière d'or), is a Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement aiming to end Moroccan presence in the Western Sahara.
Politics of Eritrea takes place in a framework of a single-party presidential republican totalitarian dictatorship, whereby the Eritrean President is both head of state and head of government and a single-party state, led by the People's Front for Democracy and Justice.
Ponnuthurai Sivakumaran (பொன்னுத்துரை சிவகுமாரன்; 26 September 1950 – 5 June 1974) was a Sri Lankan Tamil rebel and the first Tamil militant to commit suicide by swallowing cyanide.
Pooneryn (Poonakari) is a strategically important village in the northern province of Sri Lanka situated just below the Jaffna Peninsula.
Shanmugalingam Sivashankar (சண்முகலிங்கம் சிவசங்கரன்; 1962 – 18 May 2009; commonly known by the nom de guerre Pottu Amman) was a Sri Lankan Tamil rebel and leading member of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, a separatist Tamil militant organisation in Sri Lanka.
The President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා ජනාධිපති Śrī Laṃkā Janādhipathi; இலங்கை சனாதிபதி Ilankai janātipati) is the executive head of state and head of government of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and commander-in-chief of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces.
Press Trust of India (PTI) is the largest news agency in India.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Between 2008 and 2009, major protests against the Sri Lankan Civil War, often referred to as the Tamil protests by news media, took place in several countries across the world, urging national and world leaders and organisations to take action on bringing a unanimous cease fire to the Sri Lankan Civil War, which had taken place for over twenty-five years.
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name (orthonym).
Radio broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience.
Rajiv Ratna Gandhi (20 August 1944 – 21 May 1991) was an Indian politician who served as the 6th Prime Minister of India from 1984 to 1989.
Ramanathapuram, also known as Ramnad, is a city and a municipality in Ramanathapuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Rameswaram, (also spelt as Ramesvaram, Rameshwaram) is a town and a second grade municipality in the Ramanathapuram district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Sri Lankabhimanya Ranasinghe Premadasa (රණසිංහ ප්රේමදාස,ரணசிங்க பிரேமதாசா; 23 June 1924 – 1 May 1993) was the third President of Sri Lanka from 2 January 1989 to 1 May 1993.
Ranil Wickremesinghe, MP (රනිල් වික්රමසිංහ, ரணில் விக்ரமசிங்க; born 24 March 1949) is a Sri Lankan politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka since 9 January 2015.As Leader of the United National Party since 1994 and the Member of Parliament for Colombo District since 1977.
RDX is the organic compound with the formula (O2NNCH2)3.
The Report of the Secretary-General's Panel of Experts on Accountability in Sri Lanka was a 2011 report produced by a panel of experts appointed by United Nations Secretary-General (UNSG) Ban Ki-moon to advise him on the issue of accountability with regard to any alleged violations of international human rights and humanitarian law during the final stages of the Sri Lankan Civil War.
The Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW or RAW) (IAST: Anusaṃdhān Aur Viśleṣaṇ Viṃg) is the foreign intelligence agency of India.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
Revolutionary socialism is the socialist doctrine that social revolution is necessary in order to bring about structural changes to society.
Rohan Gunaratna (born 1961) is a Singaporean analyst on security affairs.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; Gendarmerie royale du Canada (GRC), "Royal Gendarmerie of Canada"; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as "the Force") is the federal and national police force of Canada.
Reverend Father S. J. Emmanuel is a Sri Lankan Tamil Catholic priest, activist and president of the Global Tamil Forum, an umbrella organisation for Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora groups.
Suppayya Paramu Thamilselvan, commonly known as S. P. Tamilselvan, (sometimes transcribed as "Tamilchelvan"), Sunday Times, was the leader of the political wing of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, an organisation fighting for a separate state for the ethnic Tamil minority in northern Sri Lanka from majority Sinhalese government.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Sampur is a town in the Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka and it is located about 30 km South-East of Trincomalee on the South-Eastern side of the Trincomalee Harbour.
Sangam period is the period of history of ancient Tamil Nadu and Kerala (known as Tamilakam) spanning from c. 3rd century BC to c. 3rd century AD.
Field Marshal Gardihewa Sarath Chandralal Fonseka, RWP, RSP, VSV, USP, MP, rcds, psc (ගර්දිහේවා සරත් චන්ද්රලාල් ෆොන්සේකා, சரத் பொன்சேகா; born 18 December 1950), commonly known as Sarath Fonseka, is a Sri Lankan politician and senior military officer, being the first Sri Lankan Army officer to be promoted to the rank of Field Marshal.
The Sea Tigers (Tamil: கடற்புலிகள் Kaţaṛpulikaḷ) was the naval wing of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam during the Sri Lankan Civil War.
Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio) is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Self-defence (self-defense in some varieties of English) is a countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm.
Selvarajah Yogachandran, (செல்வராஜா யோகசந்திரன்) (died July 25, 1983) also known as Kuttimani was one of the leaders of the former Tamil militant organization TELO from Sri Lanka.
Shanmugam Kumaran Tharmalingam (செல்வராசா பத்மநாதன்; alias Selvarasa Pathmanathan, Kumaran Pathmanathan or simply KP) (born April 6, 1955) is a former prominent member of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a separatist organisation proscribed as a terrorist organization by 32 countries which, until May 2009, was a party to the Sri Lankan Civil War, and sought to create an independent Tamil state in the north and east of Sri Lanka.
A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Seyed Ali Zahir Moulana (born 25 June 1956) is a Sri Lankan politician, former diplomat and local government activist.
Vaithilingam Sornalingam (September 1949 – 26 September 2001; வைத்தியலிங்கம் சொர்ணலிங்கம், alternative spellings include Vythilingam Sornalingam; often referred to by his nom de guerre Colonel Shankar) was founder of the air wing and marine division of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and a relative of Velupillai Prabhakaran.
The Sinhala Only Act, formally the Official Language Act No.
The Sinhalese (Sinhala: සිංහල ජාතිය Sinhala Jathiya, also known as Hela) are an Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic group native to the island of Sri Lanka.
Sirima Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike (සිරිමා රත්වත්තේ ඩයස් බණ්ඩාරනායක, சிறிமா ரத்வத்தே டயஸ் பண்டாரநாயக்கே; 17 April 1916 – 10 October 2000), commonly known as Sirimavo Bandaranaike, was a Sri Lankan stateswoman.
SLAF Colombo is the Sri Lanka Air Force headquarters in Colombo.
A sluice (from the Dutch "sluis") is a water channel controlled at its head by a gate.
Thillaiyampalam Sivanesan (தில்லையம்பலம் சிவனேசன்; October 16, 1963http://www.interpol.int/public/Data/Wanted/Notices/Data/2006/76/2006_57476.asp Thillayampalam, Sivanesan – May 18, 2009), also known by his nom de guerre, Colonel Soosai, was the head of the Sea Tigers, the naval wing of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.
The Special Frontier Force (SFF) is a paramilitary special force of India created on 14 November 1962.
A Special Representative of the Secretary-General is a highly respected expert who has been appointed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to represent her/him in meetings with heads of state on critical human rights issues.
The Special Task Force (STF) (Sinhala: විශේෂ කාර්ය බලකාය Visesha Karya Balakaya; Tamil: சிறப்பு அதிரடிப் படை) is an elite para-military forces unit of the Sri Lanka Police specializing in counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations.
Specially Designated Global Terrorist (SDGT) is a designation authorized under US Executive Order 13224, among other executive orders, and Title 31, Parts 595, 596, and 597 of the US Code of Federal Regulations, among other US laws and regulations.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The Sri Lanka Air Force (SLAF) (Śrī Laṃkā guwan hamudāva; Ilaṅkai vimāṉappaṭai) is the air arm and the youngest of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces.
The Sri Lanka Armed Forces is the overall unified military of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka encompassing the Sri Lanka Army, the Sri Lanka Navy,and the Sri Lanka Air Force; they are governed by the Ministry of Defence (MoD).
The Sri Lankan Army (Śrī Laṃkā yuddha hamudāva; Ilankai iraṇuvam) is the oldest and largest of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and is the nation's army.
The Sri Lanka Freedom Party (translit; translit) is one of the major political parties in Sri Lanka.
The Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission (SLMM) was a multinational body that existed from 2002 to 2008 to monitor the ceasefire between the Government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, also known as the Tamil Tigers) during the Sri Lankan Civil War.
The Sri Lankan Navy (Śrī Laṃkā nāvika hamudāva; Ilaṅkai kaṭaṟpaṭai) is the naval arm of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and is classed as the country's most vital defence force due to its island geography.
The Sri Lanka Police (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා පොලීසිය Shrī Lanka Polīsiya; Tamil: இலங்கை காவல் Ilaṅkai Kāval) is the civilian national police force of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.
The Sri Lankan Civil War was an armed conflict fought on the island of Sri Lanka.
Sri Lankan Moors (translit; translit formerly Ceylon Moors; colloquially referred to as Muslims or Moors) are an ethnic minority group in Sri Lanka, comprising 9.3% of the country's total population.
The Sri Lankan presidential election of 2005 was the fifth presidential election of Sri Lanka.
The rupee (රුපියල්, ரூபாய்) (signs: රු, ரூ, Rs; code: LKR) is the currency of Sri Lanka, divided into 100 cents.
The Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora refers to the global diaspora of Sri Lankan Tamil origin.
Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups rose to prominence in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka in order to create an independent Tamil Eelam in the north of Sri Lanka.
Sri Lankan Tamils (also) or Ceylon Tamils, also known as Eelam Tamils in Tamil, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
In thermodynamics, a state function or function of state is a function defined for a system relating several state variables or state quantities that depends only on the current equilibrium state of the system, for example a gas, a liquid, a solid, crystal, or emulsion.
State terrorism refers to acts of terrorism conducted by a state against foreign targets or against its own people.
Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945) was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India, but whose attempt during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan left a troubled legacy.
A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.
A suicide pill (also known as the cyanide pill, kill-pill, lethal pill, Death-pill, or L-pill) is a pill, capsule, ampoule, or tablet containing a fatally poisonous substance that a person ingests deliberately in order to quickly commit suicide.
Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
The Tamil diaspora refers to descendants of the Tamil immigrants who emigrated from their native lands to other parts of the world.
Tamil Eelam (தமிழீழம் tamiḻ īḻam, generally rendered outside Tamil-speaking areas as தமிழ் ஈழம்) is a proposed independent state that Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora aspire to create in the north and east of Sri Lanka.
The Tamil Eelam Liberation Army was a Sri Lankan Tamil rebel group.
The Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO) is an Eelam Tamil organisation campaigning for the establishment of an independent Tamil Eelam in the northeast of Sri Lanka.
Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (TMVP) (தமிழ் மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், Tamil Peoples Liberation Tigers), previously known as the "Karuna Group", is a political party in Sri Lanka.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Tamil nationalism asserts that Tamils are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Tamil people.
The Tamil New Tigers (TNT) was a militant Tamil organization founded by Velupillai Prabhakaran on May 22, 1972.
The Tamil United Liberation Front (தமிழர் ஐக்கிய விடுதலை முன்னணி, ද්රවිඩ එක්සත් විමුක්ති පෙරමුණ) is a political party in Sri Lanka which seeks independence for the Tamil-populated areas of Sri Lanka.
TamilNet is a news website that provides news and feature articles on current affairs in Sri Lanka, specifically related to the erstwhile Sri Lankan Civil War.
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.
The Tamils Rehabilitation Organisation (TRO) was established in 1985 in Tamil Nadu in southeastern India by Tamil refugees fleeing the violence in North and East Sri Lanka.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Taraki Sivaram or Dharmeratnam Sivaram (11 August 1959 – 28 April 2005) was a popular Tamil journalist of Sri Lanka.
Sri Dalada Maligawa or the Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic is a Buddhist temple in the city of Kandy, Sri Lanka.
The Terrorism Act 2000 (c.11) is the first of a number of general Terrorism Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Nadarajah Thangavelu (நடராசா தங்கவேல்; died 25 July 1983; commonly known by the nom-de-guerre Thangadurai) was a Sri Lankan Tamil rebel and one of the founders of the Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization, a separatist Tamil militant organisation in Sri Lanka.
The Age is a daily newspaper that has been published in Melbourne, Australia, since 1854.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Daily Mirror is a daily English-language newspaper published in Colombo, Sri Lanka, by Wijeya Newspapers.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Nation is a weekly English-language newspaper in Sri Lanka.
The Real News Network (TRNN) is a nonprofit news organization.
The Sunday Leader is an English-language Sri Lankan weekly newspaper published by Leader Publications (Private) Limited.
The Sunday Times is a weekly Sri Lankan broadsheet initially published by the now defunct Times Group, until 1991, when it was taken over by Wijeya Newspapers.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Thoothukudi, also known by its British name Tuticorin, is a port city and a municipal corporation and an industrial city in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Trinitrotoluene (TNT), or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3.
The Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam (TGTE) is a government in exile among the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora which aims to keep alive the idea of Tamil Eelam, a state which TGTE aspires to create in the north and east provinces of Sri Lanka.
The Type 56 is a Chinese 7.62×39mm assault rifle.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Kadirgamapillai (Kathirkamar) Nallainathan (க.; 18 February 1945 – 16 July 1989; commonly known by the nom-de-guerre Uma Maheswaran) was a Sri Lankan Tamil rebel and founder/leader of the People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE), a separatist Tamil militant organisation in Sri Lanka.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Front was a political alliance in Sri Lanka, formed by the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP), the Lanka Sama Samaja Party (LSSP) and the Communist Party of Sri Lanka (CPSL) in 1968.
The United National Party, often abbreviated as UNP (translit, translit), is a political party in Sri Lanka.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate.
"Foreign Terrorist Organization" (FTO) is a designation for non-United States-based organizations deemed by the United States Secretary of State, in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (INA), to be involved in what US authorities define as terrorist activities.
The University of British Columbia Press (UBC Press) is a university press that is part of the University of British Columbia.
*For the figure in Norse mythology, see Urðr The University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna) or UTHR(J) was formed in 1988 at the University of Jaffna, Jaffna in Sri Lanka as part of the national organization University Teachers for Human Rights.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
Vallipuram Nallathamby Navaratnam (வல்லிபுரம் நல்லதம்பி நவரத்தினம்; 5 June 1929 – 29 January 1991) was a Sri Lankan Tamil lawyer, politician and Member of Parliament.
Vakarai or Vaharai (වාකරේ, வாகரை), The Sinhala name වාකර is pronounced 'vākara'.It is a town in the Batticaloa District of Sri Lanka, located about 65 km Northwest of Batticaloa.
Valvettithurai (வல்வெட்டித்துறை Valveṭṭittuṟai; වල්වෙට්ටිතුරෙයි), sometimes shortened as VVT, is a coastal town of Jaffna District on the northeast coast of the Jaffna Peninsula in Northern Province, Sri Lanka governed by an Urban Council of the same name.
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.
The Vanni, also spelled Wanni, is the name given to the mainland area of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka.
Thiruvenkadam Velupillai Prabhakaran (வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன்;, 26 November 1954 19 May 2009) was the founder and leader of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (the LTTE or the Tamil Tigers), a militant organization that sought to create an independent Tamil state in the north and east of Sri Lanka.
Viktor Anatolyevich Bout (Виктор Анатольевич Бут; born 13 January 1967) is a Russian arms dealer.
Vinayagamoorthy Muralitharan (nom de guerre: Colonel Karuna Amman; விநாயகமூர்த்தி முரளிதரன், born 1966) is a Sri Lankan politician and former militant.
Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran (விசுவநாதன் ருத்ரகுமாரன்) is the Prime Minister of the Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam, which aims to create a separate Tamil homeland called Tamil Eelam in the island of Sri Lanka.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
Member of Parliament from 1977 to 1994 Deputy Mayor Colombo 1970-1971 Member Colombo Municipal Council 1962-1977 District Minister of Colombo 1978-1988 Minister of Petroleum Services 1988-1989 State Minister of Industries 1989-1990 Weerasinghe Mallimarachchi (died 24 October 1994) was the Cabinet Minister of Food / Co-operative and Janasaviya) of United National Party government from 1990-94. He was elected to parliament in 1977 & re-elected in 1989 and in 1994 from the Kolonnawa electorate in Colombo district. Parliamentary election of 1994. But his political life was cut short when he was assassinated by a female suicide bomber of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) while attending an election rally in support of Gamini Dissanayake, for the Presidential election of 1994.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Socialist Web Site (WSWS) is an international socialist news site that is the online news and information center of the International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI).
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
Yeroo was the first private Afaan Oromo newspaper published in Qubee (Oromo alphabet).
The Zlín Z 43 is a Czech four-seat light aircraft.
The 1971 Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna insurrection (also known as the 1971 Revolt) was the first unsuccessful armed revolt conducted by the communist Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) against the Government of Ceylon under Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike.
The 1974 Tamil conference incident occurred during the fourth World Tamil Research Conference, which was held in the city of Jaffna between January 3 and 9, 1974.
The 1990 massacre of Sri Lankan Police officers was a mass murder of Sri Lankan Police officers that took place on 11 June 1990.
The Dehiwala train bombing was a terrorist attack carried out by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) during the rush hour of July 24, 1996.
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.
The 2009 suicide air raid on Colombo was an unsuccessful kamikaze-style suicide attack launched by the air wing of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam on February 20, 2009, targeting military locations in and around Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Battle of Mulaithivu, Battle of mulaithivu, Coat of arms of Tamil Eelam, Coat of arms of tamil eelam, Colonel Victor, Ellalan Force, L.T.T.E, LTTE, LTTE Sri Lanka, Liberation Tigers Of Tamil, Liberation Tigers of Tamileelam, Liberation tigers of tamil eelam, Sangilian Force, Sankiliyan, TTLE, Tamal Tigers, Tamil Tiger, Tamil Tigers, Tamil tigers, Tamilian tigers, Tigers of Tamil, Viduthalai pulikal, World Tamil Association, தமிழீழ விடுதலைப் புலிகள்.