422 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Academic library, Academy, Afghanistan, Al-Maqdisi, Al-Mutawakkil, Aleppo, Alexandria, Amazon (company), American Library Association, Anatolia, Anawrahta, Ancient Egypt, Andrew Carnegie, Angelo Rocca, Arabic, Arabs, Architecture, Archive, Aristotle, Association of Research Libraries, Audiobook, Audrey Wood (literary agent), Australian Library and Information Association, Austrian National Library, Baghdad, Bangladesh Association of Librarians, Information Scientists and Documentalists, Bartolomeo Platina, Basil of Caesarea, Basilios Bessarion, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Benjamin Franklin, Berlin State Library, Bernhard Bischoff, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Biblioteca Angelica, Biblioteca Casanatense, Biblioteca Marciana, Biblioteca Vallicelliana, Bibliothèque Mazarine, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Bibliotheca Palatina, Biography, Birkenhead, Blu-ray, Bodleian Library, Bolton, Book, Book burning, ..., Bookcase, Bookmobile, Bristol, British Library, British Museum, British Museum Act 1753, Buddhist texts, Byzantine Empire, Cabinet of curiosities, Caesar Baronius, California, Caliphate, Cambridge, Camille le Tellier de Louvois, Canadian Library Association, Capitalism, Capitoline Hill, Carnegie library, Carrel desk, Cassiodorus, Cast iron, Castlefield, Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi, Cesena, Chained library, Charles Alexander Nelson, Charles V of France, Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals, Chartism, Chetham's Library, Children's library, Children's literature, Chinese Library Classification, Chinguetti, Circulating library, Classical antiquity, Classical Greece, Clay tablet, Cloister, Codex, Collection development, Colonial history of the United States, Columbia University Press, Commonwealth, Compact Cassette, Compact disc, Constantine the Great, Constantinople, Constantius II, Consul, Controlled vocabulary, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Cortile del Belvedere, Cosimo de' Medici, Cotton library, Council of Chalcedon, Council of Ephesus, County, Crime statistics, Cuneiform script, Cushing Academy, Dark Ages (historiography), Database, Deipnosophistae, Demosthenes, Departmentalization, Dewey Decimal Classification, Digital library, Digital reference, Digitization, Distributed library, Document, Document management system, Domus, DVD, E-book, Early Middle Ages, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecumenical council, Egypt, El Cerrito del Norte station, El Escorial, Electric light, Elementary Education Act 1870, Enûma Eliš, Ephesus, Epic of Gilgamesh, Europe, European Library, Fall of Constantinople, Federal Depository Library Program, Federico Borromeo, Film, Finland, First Council of Nicaea, Florence, Foster Stockwell, Francis Place, Francis Trigge Chained Library, French First Republic, French Revolution, Friends of Libraries, Gaius Asinius Pollio (consul 40 BC), Gaius Maecenas, Genealogy, Girolamo Casanata, GoLibrary, Google, Google Books, Google Scholar, Grantham, Greek language, Green library, Gregory of Nazianzus, Han Chinese, Han dynasty, Hans Sloane, Harry Ransom Center, Heidelberg, Hellenistic period, Henry Tate, Herculaneum, History, Ho trai, Homer, Ibn al-Nadim, Imperial fora, Imperial Library of Constantinople, Index card, Indian Library Association, Information, Information & Culture, Information literacy, Information seeking, Information technology, Innerpeffray Library, Institutional repository, Interlibrary loan, International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, International Organization for Standardization, International Standard Book Number, Internet, Internet access, Ipswich, Iran, Iraq, Islam, Islamic Golden Age, Isocrates, Jacques Auguste de Thou, James Hulme Canfield, James Silk Buckingham, Jérôme Bignon, Jerome, John Cotton Dana, John Dee, Joseph Brotherton, Joseph Van Praet, Julian (emperor), Julius Caesar, Kidderminster, Laozi, Laurentian Library, Law library, Legal deposit, Leicester, Lending library, LIANZA, Librarian, Librarianship and human rights, Libraries and librarians in fiction, Libraries and the LGBTQ community, Library 2.0, Library anxiety, Library assessment, Library card, Library catalog, Library classification, Library Company of Philadelphia, Library Freedom Project, Library instruction, Library Journal, Library management, Library of Alexandria, Library of Ashurbanipal, Library of Celsus, Library of Congress Classification, Library of Congress Subject Headings, Library of Pergamum, Library portal, Library Services and Construction Act, Library stack, Library website, LibraryThing, Lighting in libraries, Lincolnshire, List of closed stack libraries, List of libraries in the ancient world, Liu Xiang (scholar), Liverpool, Louis III, Elector Palatine, Louvre Palace, Malatesta Novello, Malatestiana Library, Manchester, Manuscript, Map collection, Mark Antony, Marshall McLuhan, Mary I of England, Mashhad, Mathematics, Medical library, Melvil Dewey, Michael Gorman (librarian), Michael Symes (diplomat), Microform, Ming dynasty, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Mongol invasions and conquests, Monte Cassino, Monument, Mount Athos, Municipal borough, Museums Act 1845, Music library, Muslim world, Myanmar, National Central Library (Florence), National Legislative Assembly (France), National library, National Library of Russia, National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, New Hampshire, New York Public Library Main Branch, Newspaper, Nineveh, Nippur, North Africa, Norwich, OCLC, Old master print, Online public access catalog, Open access, Origen, Out of print, Oxford University Press, Pakistan, Pakistan Library Association, Pamphilus of Caesarea, Paper, Paper mill, Papermaking, Papyrus, Parliament, Pennsylvania Library Association, People of the Book, Periodical literature, Persian language, Peterborough, Philip Neri, Philosophy, Pitakataik, Plato, Plug-in (computing), Pope Alexander VII, Pope Clement XII, Pope Nicholas V, Pope Sixtus IV, Pope Sixtus V, Porticus Octaviae, Prehistory, Primary source, Print room, Privacy, Private library, Ptolemaic dynasty, Ptolemy I Soter, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Public Libraries Act 1850, Public libraries in North America, Public library, Public library advocacy, Quran, Reference desk, Reference interview, Renaissance humanism, Republic of Venice, Research Libraries UK, Retrofitting, Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, Robert K. Logan, Roman Empire, Roman Forum, Roman Senate, Roving reference, Saint Catherine's Monastery, Sainte-Geneviève Library, Salford Museum and Art Gallery, Sanskrit, Sapienza University of Rome, Scriptorium, Scroll, Secondary source, Selçuk, Select committee (United Kingdom), Seneca the Younger, Sheffield, Shiraz, Sicily, Siege of Baghdad (1258), Signoria, Silk, Sinai Peninsula, Software widget, Southeast Asia, Spain, Special collections, Special library, Sri Lanka Library Association, State Public Scientific & Technological Library, Steel, Stephanie Dalley, Subscription library, Sumer, Temperance movement, Terry Belanger, The American School Library, Theatre of Marcellus, Themistius, Theological Library of Caesarea Maritima, Theology, Thermae, Thomas Bodley, Thomas Plume, Thucydides, Tianyi Ge, Tiberius, Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, Timbuktu, Tor (anonymity network), Trajan's Forum, Transportation libraries, Travel, Trends in library usage, Turkey, Ugarit, Ulpian Library, United States, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, University of Chicago Press, University of Oxford, University of Texas at Austin, Valens, Vatican Library, Videotape, Villa of the Papyri, Web 2.0, Weeding (library), Welsh people, West Africa, Wiley-Blackwell, William Ewart (British politician), Winchester, Woman's club movement, Women's Library, WorldCat, Young adult fiction, Załuski Library, Zeno of Elea, Zhou dynasty. 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The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
An academic library is a library that is attached to a higher education institution which serves two complementary purposes to support the school's curriculum, and to support the research of the university faculty and students.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine).
Abu’l-Faḍl Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Muʿtaṣim bi’llāh (جعفر بن محمد المعتصم بالله; March 822 – 11 December 861), better known by his regnal name al-Mutawakkil ʿAlā ’llāh (المتوكل على الله, "He who relies on God") was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Amazon.com, Inc., doing business as Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company based in Seattle, Washington that was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994.
The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Anawrahta Minsaw (အနော်ရထာ မင်းစော,; 11 May 1014 – 11 April 1077) was the founder of the Pagan Empire.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Andrew Carnegie (but commonly or;MacKay, p. 29. November 25, 1835August 11, 1919) was a Scottish-American industrialist, business magnate, and philanthropist.
Angelo Rocca (Rocca, near Ancone, 1545 – Rome, 8 April 1620) was an Italian humanist, librarian and bishop, founder of the Angelica Library at Rome, afterwards accessible from 1604 as a public library.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
An archive is an accumulation of historical records or the physical place they are located.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) is a nonprofit organization of 125 research libraries at comprehensive, research institutions in the United States and Canada that share similar missions, aspirations, and achievements.
An audiobook (or talking book) is a recording of a text being read.
Audrey Wood (born Audrey Violet Wood, February 28, 1905 December 27, 1985)Mitgang, Herbert.
The Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) is the peak professional organisation for the Australian library and information services sector.
The Austrian National Library (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek) is the largest library in Austria, with more than 12 million items in its various collections.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bangladesh Association of Librarians, Information Scientists and Documentalists (BALID)(বাংলাদেশ গ্রন্থাগারিক ও তথ্যায়নবিদ সমিতি (বেলিড) is a non-political and professional association of librarians and Information scientist of Bangladesh.
Bartolomeo Sacchi (1421 – 21 September 1481), known as Platina (in Italian il Platina) after his birthplace (Piadena), and commonly referred to in English as Bartolomeo Platina, was an Italian Renaissance humanist writer and gastronomist.
Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, Ágios Basíleios o Mégas, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 329 or 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was the bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).
Basilios (or Basilius) Bessarion (Greek: Βασίλειος Βησσαρίων; 2 January 1403 – 18 November 1472), a Roman Catholic Cardinal Bishop and the titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, was one of the illustrious Greek scholars who contributed to the great revival of letters in the 15th century.
Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART), is a rapid transit public transportation system serving the San Francisco Bay Area in California.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
The Berlin State Library (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin; officially abbreviated as SBB, colloquially Stabi) is a universal library in Berlin, Germany and a property of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation.
Bernhard Bischoff (20 December 1906 – 17 September 1991) was a German historian, paleographer, and philologist; he was born in Altendorf (administrative division of Altenburg, Thuringia), and he died in Munich.
The Biblioteca Ambrosiana is a historic library in Milan, Italy, also housing the Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, the Ambrosian art gallery.
The Angelica Library (Biblioteca Angelica) is in Rome, Italy.
The Biblioteca Casanatense (Casanata Library) is a library in Rome, Italy.
The Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana (English: National Library of St Mark's) is a library and Renaissance building in Venice, northern Italy; it is one of the earliest surviving public manuscript depositories in the country, holding one of the greatest classical texts collections in the world.
The Biblioteca Vallicelliana is a library in Rome, Italy.
The Bibliothèque Mazarine, or Mazarin Library, is located within the Palais de l'institut de France, or the Palace of the Institute of France (previously the Collège des Quatre-Nations of the University of Paris), at 23 quai de Conti in the 6th arrondissement, on the Left Bank of the Seine facing the Pont des Arts and the Louvre.
The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.
The Bibliotheca Alexandrina (Library of Alexandria; مكتبة الإسكندرية) is a major library and cultural center located on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea in the Egyptian city of Alexandria.
The Bibliotheca Palatina ("Palatinate library") of Heidelberg was the most important library of the German Renaissance, numbering approximately 5,000 printed books and 3,524 manuscripts.
A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life.
Birkenhead is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral in Merseyside, England.
Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a digital optical disc data storage format.
The Bodleian Library is the main research library of the University of Oxford, and is one of the oldest libraries in Europe.
Bolton (locally) is a town in Greater Manchester in North West England. A former mill town, Bolton has been a production centre for textiles since Flemish weavers settled in the area in the 14th century, introducing a wool and cotton-weaving tradition. The urbanisation and development of the town largely coincided with the introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. Bolton was a 19th-century boomtown, and at its zenith in 1929 its 216 cotton mills and 26 bleaching and dyeing works made it one of the largest and most productive centres of cotton spinning in the world. The British cotton industry declined sharply after the First World War, and by the 1980s cotton manufacture had virtually ceased in Bolton. Close to the West Pennine Moors, Bolton is northwest of Manchester. It is surrounded by several smaller towns and villages that together form the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, of which Bolton is the administrative centre. The town of Bolton has a population of 139,403, whilst the wider metropolitan borough has a population of 262,400. Historically part of Lancashire, Bolton originated as a small settlement in the moorland known as Bolton le Moors. In the English Civil War, the town was a Parliamentarian outpost in a staunchly Royalist region, and as a result was stormed by 3,000 Royalist troops led by Prince Rupert of the Rhine in 1644. In what became known as the Bolton Massacre, 1,600 residents were killed and 700 were taken prisoner. Bolton Wanderers football club play home games at the Macron Stadium and the WBA World light-welterweight champion Amir Khan was born in the town. Cultural interests include the Octagon Theatre and the Bolton Museum and Art Gallery, as well as one of the earliest public libraries established after the Public Libraries Act 1850.
A book is a series of pages assembled for easy portability and reading, as well as the composition contained in it.
Book burning is the ritual destruction by fire of books or other written materials, usually carried out in a public context.
A bookcase, or bookshelf, is a piece of furniture with horizontal shelves, often in a cabinet, used to store books or other printed materials.
A bookmobile or mobile library is a vehicle designed for use as a library.
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
The British Museum Act 1753 (26 Geo 2 c 22) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
Buddhist texts were initially passed on orally by monks, but were later written down and composed as manuscripts in various Indo-Aryan languages which were then translated into other local languages as Buddhism spread.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cabinets of curiosities (also known in German loanwords as Kunstkabinett, Kunstkammer or Wunderkammer; also Cabinets of Wonder, and wonder-rooms) were encyclopedic collections of objects whose categorical boundaries were, in Renaissance Europe, yet to be defined.
Cesare Baronio (also known as Caesar Baronius; 30 August 1538 – 30 June 1607) was an Italian cardinal and ecclesiastical historian of the Roman Catholic Church.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Camille Le Tellier de Louvois (11 April 1675 – 5 November 1718) was a French clergyman and member of several royal academies in the reign of Louis XIV of France.
The Canadian Library Association (CLA) was a national, predominantly English-language association which represented 57,000 library workers across Canada.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
The Capitoline Hill (Mōns Capitōlīnus; Campidoglio), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the Seven Hills of Rome.
A Carnegie library is a library built with money donated by Scottish businessman and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie.
A carrel desk is a small desk (usually) featuring high sides meant to visually isolate its user from any surroundings either partially or totally.
Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (c. 485 – c. 585), commonly known as Cassiodorus, was a Roman statesman and writer serving in the administration of Theoderic the Great, king of the Ostrogoths.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
Castlefield is an inner city conservation area of Manchester in North West England.
The Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi is a large library in Mashad, Iran.
Cesena (Cisêna) is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, south of Ravenna and west of Rimini, on the Savio River, co-chief of the Province of Forlì-Cesena.
A chained library is a library where the books are attached to their bookcase by a chain, which is sufficiently long to allow the books to be taken from their shelves and read, but not removed from the library itself.
Charles Alexander Nelson (April 14, 1839 - January 13, 1933) was a United States librarian and bibliographer.
Charles V (21 January 1338 – 16 September 1380), called "the Wise" (le Sage; Sapiens), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1364 to his death.
The Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals is a professional body for librarians, information specialists and knowledge managers in the United Kingdom.
Chartism was a working-class movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857.
Chetham's Library in Manchester, England, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom.
A Children's Library is a library which offers its services mainly to children and adolescents, like children's literature and youth literature.
Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are enjoyed by children.
The Chinese Library Classification (CLC), also known as Classification for Chinese Libraries (CCL), is effectively the national library classification scheme in China.
Chinguetti (Cengiṭ, translit) is a ksar or a Berber medieval trading center in northern Mauritania, located on the Adrar Plateau east of Atar.
A circulating library (also known as lending libraries and rental libraries) was first and foremost a business venture.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾) were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age.
A cloister (from Latin claustrum, "enclosure") is a covered walk, open gallery, or open arcade running along the walls of buildings and forming a quadrangle or garth.
A codex (from the Latin caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book), plural codices, is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials.
Library collection development is the process of meeting the information needs of the people (a service population) in a timely and economical manner using information resources locally held, as well as from other organizations.
The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of the Americas from the start of colonization in the early 16th century until their incorporation into the United States of America.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good.
The Compact Audio Cassette (CAC) or Musicassette (MC), also commonly called the cassette tape or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback.
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus; Κωνστάντιος; 7 August 317 – 3 November 361) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death. In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II dead and Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius defeated him at the battles of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter battle, leaving Constantius as sole ruler of the empire. His subsequent military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. In contrast, the war in the east against the Sassanids continued with mixed results. In 351, due to the difficulty of managing the empire alone, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, to the rank of Caesar. However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle was fought as Constantius became ill and died late in 361, though not before naming Julian as his successor.
Consul (abbrev. cos.; Latin plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire.
Controlled vocabularies provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
The Cortile del Belvedere, (ENG: the Belvedere Courtyard) was a major architectural work of the High Renaissance at the Vatican Palace in Rome.
Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (called 'the Elder' (Italian il Vecchio) and posthumously Father of the Fatherland (Latin pater patriae); 27 September 1389 – 1 August 1464) was an Italian banker and politician, the first member of the Medici political dynasty that served as de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance.
The Cotton or Cottonian library is a collection of manuscripts once owned by Sir Robert Bruce Cotton MP (1571–1631), an antiquarian and bibliophile.
The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from October 8 to November 1, AD 451, at Chalcedon.
The Council of Ephesus was a council of Christian bishops convened in Ephesus (near present-day Selçuk in Turkey) in AD 431 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius II.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.
There are several methods for measuring the prevalence of crime.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Cushing Academy, in Ashburnham, Massachusetts, United States, is a private, coeducational college-preparatory school (grades 9–12 and a postgraduate year) for boarding and day students.
The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.
A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.
The Deipnosophistae is an early 3rd-century AD Greek work (Δειπνοσοφισταί, Deipnosophistaí, lit. "The Dinner Sophists/Philosophers/Experts") by the Greco-Egyptian author Athenaeus of Naucratis.
Demosthenes (Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs;; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens.
Departmentalization (or departmentalisation) refers to the process of grouping activities into departments.
The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), or Dewey Decimal System, is a proprietary library classification system first published in the United States by Melvil Dewey in 1876.
A digital library, digital repository, or digital collection, is an online database of digital objects that can include text, still images, audio, video, or other digital media formats.
Digital reference (or virtual reference) is a service by which a library reference service is conducted online, and the reference transaction is a computer-mediated communication.
Digitization, at WhatIs.com in Collins English Dictionary less commonly digitalization, is the process of converting information into a digital (i.e. computer-readable) format, in which the information is organized into bits.
A distributed library is a collection of materials available for borrowing by members of a group, yet not maintained or owned by a single entity.
A document is a written, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought.
A document management system (DMS) is a system (based on computer programs in the case of the management of digital documents) used to track, manage and store documents and reduce paper.
In ancient Rome, the domus (plural domūs, genitive domūs or domī) was the type of house occupied by the upper classes and some wealthy freedmen during the Republican and Imperial eras.
DVD (an abbreviation of "digital video disc" or "digital versatile disc") is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips and Sony in 1995.
An electronic book (or e-book or eBook) is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) and which secures the approbation of the whole Church.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
El Cerrito del Norte (North Hillock in Spanish) is a BART station located off Cutting Boulevard near San Pablo Avenue and Interstate 80 in El Cerrito, California.
The Royal Site of San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Monasterio y Sitio de El Escorial en Madrid), commonly known as El Escorial, is a historical residence of the King of Spain, in the town of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, about northwest of the capital, Madrid, in Spain.
An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.
The Elementary Education Act 1870, commonly known as Forster's Education Act, set the framework for schooling of all children between the ages of 5 and 12 in England and Wales.
The (Akkadian Cuneiform:, also spelled "Enuma Elish"), is the Babylonian creation myth (named after its opening words).
Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Library is an Internet service that allows access to the resources of 49 European national libraries and an increasing number of research libraries.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
The Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) is a government program created to make U.S. federal government publications available to the public at no cost.
Federico Borromeo (18 August 1564 – 21 September 1631) was an Italian cardinal and archbishop of Milan.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Foster Paul Stockwell (born February 17, 1929, in Bartlesville, Oklahoma) is an American writer, historian and publishing consultant for Chinese publishers and authors.
Francis Place (3 November 1771 in London – 1 January 1854 in London) was an English social reformer.
The Francis Trigge Chained Library is a library in Grantham, Lincolnshire, England which was founded in 1598.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friends of Libraries are non-profit, charitable groups formed to support libraries in their communities.
Gaius Asinius Pollio (sometimes wrongly called Pollius or Philo; 75 BC – AD 4) was a Roman soldier, politician, orator, poet, playwright, literary critic and historian, whose lost contemporary history provided much of the material used by the historians Appian and Plutarch.
Gaius Cilnius Maecenas (15 April 68 BC – 8 BC) was an ally, friend and political advisor to Octavian (who was to become the first Emperor of Rome as Caesar Augustus) as well as an important patron for the new generation of Augustan poets, including both Horace and Virgil.
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
Girolamo Casanata (also Girolamo Casanate or Casanatta) (13 February 1620 in Naples – 3 March 1700 in Rome) was an Italian Cardinal.
GoLibrary or Library-a-Go-Go (Swedish: Bokomaten) is a book lending vending machine used by libraries in Sweden and the U.S. state of California.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.
Grantham is a town in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
A green library is designed to minimize negative impact on the natural environment and maximize indoor environmental quality by means of careful site selection, use of natural construction materials and biodegradable products, conservation of resources (water, energy, paper), and responsible waste disposal (recycling, etc.). In new construction and library renovation, sustainability is increasingly achieved through Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification, a rating system developed and administered by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC).
Gregory of Nazianzus (Γρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos; c. 329Liturgy of the Hours Volume I, Proper of Saints, 2 January. – 25 January 390), also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople, and theologian.
The Han Chinese,.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Sir Hans Sloane, 1st Baronet, (16 April 1660 – 11 January 1753) was an Irish physician, naturalist and collector noted for bequeathing his collection to the British nation, thus providing the foundation of the British Museum.
The Harry Ransom Center is an archive, library and museum at the University of Texas at Austin, USA, specializing in the collection of literary and cultural artifacts from the United States and Europe for the purpose of advancing the study of the arts and humanities.
Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Sir Henry Tate, 1st Baronet (11 March 18195 December 1899) was an English sugar merchant and philanthropist, noted for establishing the Tate Gallery in London.
Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum (Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
A ho trai (หอไตร) is the library of a Thai Buddhist temple.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Nadīm (ابوالفرج محمد بن إسحاق النديم), his surname was Abū al-Faraj Muḥammad ibn Abī Ya'qūb Ishāq ibn Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Warrāq and he is more commonly, albeit erroneously, known as Ibn al-Nadim (d. 17 September 995 or 998 CE) was a Muslim scholar and bibliographer Al-Nadīm was the tenth century Baghdadī bibliophile compiler of the Arabic encyclopedic catalogue known as 'Kitāb al-Fihrist'.
The Imperial Fora (Fori Imperiali in Italian) are a series of monumental fora (public squares), constructed in Rome over a period of one and a half centuries, between 46 BC and 113 AD.
The Imperial Library of Constantinople, in the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, was the last of the great libraries of the ancient world.
An index card (or system card in Australian English) consists of card stock (heavy paper) cut to a standard size, used for recording and storing small amounts of discrete data.
Indian Library Association (ILA) was established on September 22, 1933 Registered under the societies Registration Act (XXI of 1860), on the occasion of the First All India Library Conference held at Calcutta (now Kolkata).
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
Information & Culture: A Journal of History is an academic journal devoted to the study of the history of information, and any topic that would fall under the purview of the modern interdisciplinary schools of information creation, organization, preservation, or utilization.
The United States National Forum on Information Literacy defines information literacy as "...
Information seeking is the process or activity of attempting to obtain information in both human and technological contexts.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Innerpeffray Library was the first lending library in Scotland.
An institutional repository is an archive for collecting, preserving, and disseminating digital copies of the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution.
Interlibrary loan (abbreviated ILL, and sometimes called interloan, interlending, document delivery, or document supply) is a service whereby a patron of one library can borrow books, DVDs, music, etc.
The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) is the leading international body representing the interests of people who rely on libraries and information professionals.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals, computers, and other devices; and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web.
Ipswich is the county town of Suffolk, England, located on the estuary of the River Orwell, about north east of London.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Isocrates (Ἰσοκράτης; 436–338 BC), an ancient Greek rhetorician, was one of the ten Attic orators.
Jacques Auguste de Thou (Thuanus) (8 October 1553, Paris – 7 May 1617, Paris) was a French historian, book collector and president of the Parlement de Paris.
James Hulme Canfield (March 18, 1847 – March 29, 1909), born in Delaware, Ohio, the son of Rev.
James Silk Buckingham (25 August 1786 – 30 June 1855) was a Cornish-born author, journalist and traveller, known for his contributions to Indian journalism.
Jérôme Bignon (1589–1656) was a French lawyer born in Paris.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
John Cotton Dana (born August 19, 1856 in Woodstock, Vermont – d. July 21, 1929 in Newark, New Jersey) was an American library and museum director who sought to make these cultural institutions relevant to the daily lives of citizens.
John Dee (13 July 1527 – 1608 or 1609) was an English mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, occult philosopher, and advisor to Queen Elizabeth I. He devoted much of his life to the study of alchemy, divination, and Hermetic philosophy.
Joseph Brotherton (22 May 1783 – 7 January 1857) was a reforming British politician, Nonconformist minister and pioneering vegetarian.
Joseph Basile Bernard Van Praet (Bruges, 27 July 1754 – Paris, 5 February 1837) was a Flanders-born librarian and scholar active in France.
Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Kidderminster is a large town and civil parish in the Wyre Forest district of Worcestershire, England.
Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.
The Laurentian Library (Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana) is a historic library in Florence, Italy, containing more than 11,000 manuscripts and 4,500 early printed books.
A law library is a special library used by law students, lawyers, judges and their law clerks, historians and other scholars of legal history in order to research the law.
Legal deposit is a legal requirement that a person or group submit copies of their publications to a repository, usually a library.
Leicester ("Lester") is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire.
A lending library is a library from which books and other media are lent out.
The New Zealand Library Association Inc., operating as LIANZA (Library and Information Association of New Zealand Aotearoa), is the professional organization for library and information workers in New Zealand, and also promotes library and information education and professional development within New Zealand.
A librarian is a person who works professionally in a library, providing access to information and sometimes social or technical programming.
Librarianship and human rights in the U.S. are linked by the philosophy and practice of library and information professionals supporting the rights enumerated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), particularly the established rights to information, knowledge and free expression.
Libraries and librarians are recurring elements in fiction.
In the post-Stonewall era, the role of libraries in providing information and services to LGBTQ individuals has been a topic of discussion among library professionals.
Library 2.0 is a loosely defined model for a modernized form of library service that reflects a transition within the library world in the way that services are delivered to users.
Library anxiety refers to the "feeling that one’s research skills are inadequate and that those shortcomings should be hidden.
Library assessment is a process undertaken by libraries to learn about the needs of users (and non-users) and to evaluate how well they support these needs, in order to improve library facilities, services and resources.
A library card can refer to several cards traditionally used for the management of books and patrons in a library.
A library catalog or library catalogue is a register of all bibliographic items found in a library or group of libraries, such as a network of libraries at several locations.
A library classification is a system of knowledge organization by which library resources are arranged according to subject.
The Library Company of Philadelphia (LCP) is a non-profit organization based in Philadelphia.
The Library Freedom Project teaches librarians about surveillance threats, privacy rights, and digital tools to thwart surveillance.
Library instruction, also called bibliographic instruction (BI), user education and library orientation, consists of "instructional programs designed to teach library users how to locate the information they need quickly and effectively.
Library Journal is an American trade publication for librarians.
Library management is a sub-discipline of institutional management that focuses on specific issues faced by libraries and library management professionals.
The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.
The Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, named after Ashurbanipal, the last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, is a collection of thousands of clay tablets and fragments containing texts of all kinds from the 7th century BC.
The Library of Celsus is an ancient Roman building in Ephesus, Anatolia, now part of Selçuk, Turkey.
The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress.
The Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) comprise a thesaurus (in the information science sense, a controlled vocabulary) of subject headings, maintained by the United States Library of Congress, for use in bibliographic records.
The Library of Pergamum in Pergamum, Turkey, was one of the most important libraries in the ancient world.
A library portal is an interface to access library resources and services through a single access and management point for users, combining the circulation and catalog functions of an integrated library system (ILS) with additional tools and facilities.
The Library Services and Construction Act, enacted in 1962 by the U.S. Congress, provides federal assistance to libraries in the United States for the purpose of improving or implementing library services or undertaking construction projects.
In library science and architecture, a stack or bookstack (often referred to as a library building's stacks) is a book storage area, as opposed to a reading area.
A library website provides a library with a website to offer its services and to tell its story to its community.
LibraryThing is a social cataloging web application for storing and sharing book catalogs and various types of book metadata.
The issue of lighting in libraries is one that is still discussed and debated today.
Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in east central England.
A closed stack library contains books and other items that are not available for viewing or browsing by the general public.
The great libraries of the ancient world served as archives for empires, sanctuaries for sacred writings, and depositories of literature and chronicles.
Liu Xiang (77–6BCE), born Liu Gengsheng and bearing the courtesy name Zizheng, was a Chinese politician, historian, and writer of the Western Han Dynasty.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
Louis III, Count Palatine of the Rhine (Ludwig III.) (23 January 1378 – 30 December 1436, Heidelberg), was an Elector Palatine of the Rhine from the house of Wittelsbach in 1410–1436.
The Louvre Palace (Palais du Louvre) is a former royal palace located on the Right Bank of the Seine in Paris, between the Tuileries Gardens and the church of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois.
Domenico Malatesta, best known as Malatesta Novello (5 August 1418 – 20 November 1465) was an Italian condottiero, a member of the Malatesta family.
The Malatestiana Library, also known as the Malatesta Novello Library, is a public library in the city of Cesena in northern Italy.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
A map collection is a storage facility for maps, usually in a library, archive, or museum, or at a map publisher or public-benefit corporation, and the maps and other cartographic items stored within that facility.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
Herbert Marshall McLuhan (July 21, 1911December 31, 1980) was a Canadian professor, philosopher, and public intellectual.
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.
Mashhad (مشهد), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
A health or medical library is designed to assist physicians, health professionals, students, patients, consumers, medical researchers, and information specialists in finding health and scientific information to improve, update, assess, or evaluate health care.
Melville Louis Kossuth "Melvil" Dewey (December 10, 1851 – December 26, 1931) was an American librarian and educator, inventor of the Dewey Decimal system of library classification, and a founder of the Lake Placid Club.
Michael Gorman (born 6 March 1941, Witney, Oxfordshire) is a British-born librarian, library scholar and editor/writer on library issues noted for his traditional views. During his tenure as president of the American Library Association (ALA), he was vocal in his opinions on a range of subjects, notably technology and education. He currently lives in the Chicago area with his wife, Anne Reuland, an academic administrator at Loyola University. Gorman's principles of librarianship derive from core liberal, democratic and humanist values. A key influence is S.R. Ranganathan, whom he regarded as "the greatest figure of librarianship in the 20th century." He maintains that it is through focusing on core professional values that librarians will facilitate personal growth and enhance the success of their institutions.
Michael Symes FRS (1761–22 January 1809) was an Irish soldier, diplomat and politician.
Microforms are scaled-down reproductions of documents, typically either films or paper, made for the purposes of transmission, storage, reading, and printing.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.
Monte Cassino (sometimes written Montecassino) is a rocky hill about southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, to the west of the town of Cassino and altitude.
A monument is a type of—usually three-dimensional—structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or event, or which has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, historical, political, technical or architectural importance.
Mount Athos (Άθως, Áthos) is a mountain and peninsula in northeastern Greece and an important centre of Eastern Orthodox monasticism.
Municipal boroughs were a type of local government district which existed in England and Wales between 1835 and 1974, in Northern Ireland from 1840 to 1973 and in the Republic of Ireland from 1840 to 2002.
The Museums Act 1845 (8 & 9 Vict c. 43) was an act of the United Kingdom Parliament which gave the town councils of larger municipal boroughs the power to establish museums.
A music library contains music-related materials for patron use.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The National Central Library of Florence (Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, BNCF) is a public national library in Florence, the largest in Italy and one of the most important in Europe, one of the two central libraries of Italy, along with the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Rome.
The Legislative Assembly (Assemblée législative) was the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to 20 September 1792 during the years of the French Revolution.
A national library is a library specifically established by the government of a country to serve as the preeminent repository of information for that country.
The National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg (known as the Imperial Public Library from 1795 to 1917; Russian Public Library from 1917 to 1925; State Public Library from 1925 to 1992 (since 1932 named after M.Saltykov-Shchedrin); NLR), is not only the oldest public library in the nation, but also the first national library in the country.
The National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS) is a free library program of braille and audio materials circulated to eligible borrowers in the United States by postage-free mail.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Stephen A. Schwarzman Building of the New York Public Library, originally called the Central Building and more widely known as the Main Branch or as the New York Public Library, is the flagship building in the New York Public Library system and a prominent historic landmark in Midtown Manhattan.
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.
Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.
Nippur (Sumerian: Nibru, often logographically recorded as, EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;": Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010. Akkadian: Nibbur) was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Norwich (also) is a city on the River Wensum in East Anglia and lies approximately north-east of London.
OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated, is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs".
An old master print is a work of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition.
An online public access catalog (often abbreviated as OPAC or simply library catalog) is an online database of materials held by a library or group of libraries.
Open access (OA) refers to research outputs which are distributed online and free of cost or other barriers, and possibly with the addition of a Creative Commons license to promote reuse.
Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
Out of print refers to an item, typically a book (see: out-of-print book), but can include any print or visual medium or sound recording, or video recording (DVD or Blu-Ray, for example), that is no longer being published.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pakistan Library Association (PLA) is a representative national body of librarians in Pakistan.
Saint Pamphilus (Πάμφιλος; latter half of the 3rd century – February 16, 309), was a presbyter of Caesarea and chief among biblical scholars of his generation.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
A paper mill is a factory devoted to making paper from vegetable fibres such as wood pulp, old rags and other ingredients.
The art, science, and technology of papermaking addresses the methods, equipment, and materials used to make paper and cardboard, these being used widely for printing, writing, and packaging, among many other purposes and useful products.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
The Pennsylvania Library Association (PaLA) is the professional association for librarians in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania.
People of the Book/Scripture (أهل الكتاب ′Ahl al-Kitāb) is an Islamic term referring to Jews, Christians, and Sabians and sometimes applied to members of other religions such as Zoroastrians.
Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a published work that appears in a new edition on a regular schedule.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Peterborough is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, England, with a population of 183,631 in 2011.
Philip Romolo Neri (Italian: Filippo Romolo Neri; 21 July 151525 May 1595), known as the Third Apostle of Rome, after Saints Peter and Paul, was an Italian priest noted for founding a society of secular clergy called the Congregation of the Oratory.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Pitakataik (ပိဋကတ်တိုက်; also spelt bidagat taik and pitaka taik) refers to a library of Buddhist scriptures, including the Tipiṭaka, found in pre-colonial Burmese kingdoms.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
In computing, a plug-in (or plugin, add-in, addin, add-on, addon, or extension) is a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing computer program.
Pope Alexander VII (13 February 159922 May 1667), born Fabio Chigi, was Pope from 7 April 1655 to his death in 1667.
Pope Clement XII (Clemens XII; 7 April 1652 – 6 February 1740), born Lorenzo Corsini, was Pope from 12 July 1730 to his death in 1740.
Pope Nicholas V (Nicholaus V) (13 November 1397 – 24 March 1455), born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from 6 March 1447 until his death.
Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484.
Pope Sixtus V or Xystus V (13 December 1521 – 27 August 1590), born Felice Peretti di Montalto, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590.
The Porticus Octaviae (Portico of Octavia; Portico di Ottavia) is an ancient structure in Rome.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.
A print room is either a room or industrial building where printing takes place, or a room in an art gallery or museum, where a collection of old master and modern prints, usually together with drawings, watercolours and photographs, are held and viewed.
Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively.
A private library is a library under the care of private ownership, as compared to that of a public institution, and is usually only established for the use of a small number of people, or even a single person.
The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
Ptolemy I Soter (Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 308/9–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE.
The Public Libraries Act 1850 (13 & 14 Vict c.65) was an Act of the United Kingdom Parliament which first gave local boroughs the power to establish free public libraries.
A public library is a library that is accessible by the general public and is generally funded from public sources, such as taxes.
A public library is a library that is accessible by the general public and is generally funded from public sources, such as taxes.
Public library advocacy is support given to a public library for its financial and philosophical goals or needs.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The reference desk or information desk of a library is a public service counter where professional librarians provide library users with direction to library materials, advice on library collections and services, and expertise on multiple kinds of information from multiple sources.
A reference interview is a conversation between a librarian and a library user, usually at a reference desk, in which the librarian responds to the user's initial explanation of his or her information need by first attempting to clarify that need and then by directing the user to appropriate information resources.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Research Libraries UK (RLUK) (formerly CURL) comprises 37 University, National, and other research libraries in the United Kingdom and Ireland.
Retrofitting refers to the addition of new technology or features to older systems.
Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, KG (5 December 1661 – 21 May 1724) was an English and later British statesman of the late Stuart and early Georgian periods.
Robert K. Logan (born August 31, 1939), originally trained as a physicist, is a media ecologist.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum (Foro Romano), is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Roving reference, also called roaming reference, is a library service model in which, instead of being positioned at a static reference desk, a librarian moves throughout the library to locate patrons with questions or concerns and offer them help in finding or using library resources.
Saint Catherine's Monastery (دير القدّيسة كاترين; Μονὴ τῆς Ἁγίας Αἰκατερίνης), officially "Sacred Monastery of the God-Trodden Mount Sinai" (Ιερά Μονή του Θεοβαδίστου Όρους Σινά), lies on the Sinai Peninsula, at the mouth of a gorge at the foot of Mount Sinai, near the town of Saint Catherine, Egypt.
Sainte-Geneviève Library (Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève) is a public and university library in Paris, which inherited the collection of the Abbey of St Genevieve.
Salford Museum and Art Gallery, in Peel Park, Salford, Greater Manchester, opened to the public in November 1850 as the Royal Museum and Public Library.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The Sapienza University of Rome (Italian: Sapienza – Università di Roma), also called simply Sapienza or the University of Rome, is a collegiate research university located in Rome, Italy.
Scriptorium, literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts by monastic scribes.
A scroll (from the Old French escroe or escroue), also known as a roll, is a roll of papyrus, parchment, or paper containing writing.
In scholarship, a secondary source"".
Selçuk is the central town of Selçuk district, İzmir Province in Turkey, northeast of the ancient city of Ephesus.
In British politics, parliamentary select committees can be appointed from the House of Commons, like the Foreign Affairs Select Committee, from the House of Lords, like the Delegated Powers and Regulatory Reform Committee, or as a "Joint Committee" drawn from both, such as the Joint Committee on Human Rights.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.
Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops.
A signoria (from signore, or "lord"; an abstract noun meaning (roughly) "government; governing authority; de facto sovereignty; lordship"; plural: signorie) was the governing authority in many of the Italian city states during the medieval and renaissance periods.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
A software widget is a relatively simple and easy-to-use software application or component made for one or more different software platforms.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
In library science, special collections (Spec. Coll. or S.C.) are libraries or library units that house materials requiring specialized security and user services.
A special library is a library that provides specialized information resources on a particular subject, serves a specialized and limited clientele, and delivers specialized services to that clientele.
The Sri Lanka Library Association (SLLA) is the main library association of Sri Lanka.
State Public Scientific and Technological Library of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SPSTL SD RAS) is the largest library in Russia east of the Urals, the State Universal Book repository of Siberia, an Informational Center of the federal level, head library of the centralized system.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stephanie Mary Dalley FSA (née Page; March 1943) is a British scholar of the Ancient Near East.
A subscription library (also membership library or independent library) is a library that is financed by private funds either from membership fees or endowments.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
The temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages.
Terry Belanger is the founding director of Rare Book School (RBS), an institute concerned with education for the history of books and printing, and with rare books and special collections librarianship.
The American School Library (1839) was a traveling frontier library in the United States of America published by Harper & Brothers.
The Theatre of Marcellus (Theatrum Marcelli, Teatro di Marcello) is an ancient open-air theatre in Rome, Italy, built in the closing years of the Roman Republic.
Themistius (Θεμίστιος, Themistios; 317, Paphlagonia – c. 390 AD, Constantinople), named εὐφραδής (eloquent), was a statesman, rhetorician, and philosopher.
The Theological Library of Caesarea Maritima, or simply the Library of Caesarea, was the library of the Christians of Caesarea Maritima in Palestine in ancient times.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
In ancient Rome, thermae (from Greek θερμός thermos, "hot") and balneae (from Greek βαλανεῖον balaneion) were facilities for bathing.
Sir Thomas Bodley (2 March 1545 – 28 January 1613) was an English diplomat and scholar who founded the Bodleian Library in Oxford.
Thomas Plume (1630 – 20 November 1704) was an English churchman and philanthropist, and founder of a library which still exists today.
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
The Tianyi Ge, translated as Tianyi Pavilion or Tianyi Chamber, is a library and garden located in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus (translit) commonly known as Celsus (ca. 45 – before ca. 120) was an Ancient Greek Roman citizen who became a senator, and served as suffect consul as the colleague of Lucius Stertinius Avitus.
Timbuktu, also spelt Tinbuktu, Timbuctoo and Timbuktoo (Tombouctou; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu), is an ancient city in Mali, situated north of the Niger River.
Tor is free software for enabling anonymous communication.
Trajan's Forum (Forum Traiani; Foro di Traiano) was the last of the Imperial fora to be constructed in ancient Rome.
A transportation library is a type of library designed to support the study, research, and dissemination of information related to transportation.
Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical locations.
With over 17,000 libraries and 2.5 billion materials circulated annually in the United States alone, libraries are a ubiquitous part of the American landscape.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ugarit (𐎜𐎂𐎗𐎚, ʼUgart; أُوغَارِيت Ūġārīt, alternatively أُوجَارِيت Ūǧārīt) was an ancient port city in northern Syria.
The Bibliotheca Ulpia ("Ulpian Library") was a Roman library founded by the Emperor Trajan in AD 114 in his forum, the Forum of Trajan, located in ancient Rome.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
Valens (Flavius Julius Valens Augustus; Οὐάλης; 328 – 9 August 378) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 364 to 378. He was given the eastern half of the empire by his brother Valentinian I after the latter's accession to the throne. Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the decaying Western Roman Empire.
The Vatican Apostolic Library (Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library or simply the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City.
Videotape is magnetic tape used for storing video and usually sound in addition.
The Villa of the Papyri (Villa dei Papiri, also known as Villa dei Pisoni) is named after its unique library of papyri (or scrolls), but is also one of the most luxurious houses in all of Herculaneum and in the Roman world.
Web 2.0 refers to World Wide Web websites that emphasize user-generated content, usability (ease of use, even by non-experts), and interoperability (this means that a website can work well with other products, systems, and devices) for end users.
Weeding is the systematic removal of resources from a library based on selected criteria.
The Welsh (Cymry) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Wales, Welsh culture, Welsh history, and the Welsh language.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
William Ewart (1 May 1798 – 23 January 1869) was a British politician.
Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England.
The woman's club movement was a social movement that took place throughout the United States.
The Women's Library @ LSE is England's main library and museum resource on women and the women's movement, concentrating on Britain in the 19th and 20th centuries.
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) global cooperative.
Young adult fiction (YA) is a category of fiction published for readers in their youth.
The Załuski Library (Biblioteka Załuskich, Bibliotheca Zalusciana) was built in Warsaw in 1747–1795 by Józef Andrzej Załuski and his brother, Andrzej Stanisław Załuski, both Roman Catholic bishops.
Zeno of Elea (Ζήνων ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of Magna Graecia and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
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