129 relations: Ada (programming language), Address space layout randomization, Application programming interface, Application server, Ar (Unix), Aspect-oriented programming, Berkeley Software Distribution, Bundle (macOS), Burroughs MCP, Bytecode, C Sharp (programming language), C standard library, C++, C++ Standard Library, Class (computer programming), COBOL, Code reuse, Commoditization, Common Object Request Broker Architecture, Compile time, Compiled language, Compiler, Component Library for Cross Platform, Component Object Model, Computer program, Computer science, Configuration file, Data, Data type, Dependency hell, Digital Equipment Corporation, Directory (computing), Distributed computing, Distributed Objects Everywhere, DLL Hell, Dynamic linker, Dynamic loading, Dynamic-link library, Enterprise JavaBeans, Environment variable, Executable, Executable and Linkable Format, Fortran, Framework Class Library, Generic programming, Global Assembly Cache, GNU Libtool, Harcourt (publisher), HP 3000, HP Multi-Programming Executive, ..., IBM, IBM System Object Model, IBM System/360, IBM System/38, IBM Z, Imperative programming, Implementation, Information hiding, JAR (file format), Java (programming language), Java Class Library, Jean E. Sammet, JOVIAL, Late binding, Linker (computing), Loader (computing), Mach-O, MacOS, Mainframe computer, Memory segmentation, Method (computer programming), Method stub, Michigan Terminal System, Microsoft Windows, Minicomputer, Modula-2, Modular programming, Multics, NeXT, Non-volatile memory, Object file, Object Linking and Embedding, Object-oriented programming, OpenStep, Operating system, OS/2, OS/360 and successors, Persistence (computer science), Plug-in (computing), Portable Distributed Objects, Portable Executable, Position-independent code, POSIX, Prelink, Process (computing), Program lifecycle phase, Relocation (computing), Remote procedure call, Run time (program lifecycle phase), Runtime library, Semi-Automatic Ground Environment, Separation of concerns, Setuid, Simula, Single-level store, Smalltalk, Software development, Software system, Soname, Standard library, Static build, Static library, Subroutine, Sun Microsystems, Symbol table, Symbolic link, System call, System image, Type system, University of Arizona, Unix, Unix-like, Value (computer science), Virtual memory, Visual Component Library, Windows API, Windows Registry, .NET Framework, 64-bit computing. Expand index (79 more) » « Shrink index
Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
Address space layout randomization (ASLR) is a computer security technique involved in preventing exploitation of memory corruption vulnerabilities.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
An application server is a software framework that provides both facilities to create web applications and a server environment to run them.
The archiver, also known simply as ar, is a Unix utility that maintains groups of files as a single archive file.
In computing, aspect-oriented programming (AOP) is a programming paradigm that aims to increase modularity by allowing the separation of cross-cutting concerns.
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.
In NeXTSTEP, OPENSTEP, GNUstep, and their lineal descendants macOS and iOS, a bundle is a file directory with a defined structure and file extension, allowing related files to be grouped together as a conceptually single item.
The MCP (Master Control Program) is the proprietary operating system of the Burroughs small, medium and large systems, including the Unisys Clearpath/MCP systems.
Bytecode, also termed portable code or p-code, is a form of instruction set designed for efficient execution by a software interpreter.
C# (/si: ʃɑːrp/) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.
The C standard library or libc is the standard library for the C programming language, as specified in the ANSI C standard.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
In the C++ programming language, the C++ Standard Library is a collection of classes and functions, which are written in the core language and part of the C++ ISO Standard itself.
In object-oriented programming, a class is an extensible program-code-template for creating objects, providing initial values for state (member variables) and implementations of behavior (member functions or methods).
COBOL (an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.
Code reuse, also called software reuse, is the use of existing software, or software knowledge, to build new software, following the reusability principles.
In business literature, commoditization is defined as the process by which goods that have economic value and are distinguishable in terms of attributes (uniqueness or brand) end up becoming simple commodities in the eyes of the market or consumers.
The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a standard defined by the Object Management Group (OMG) designed to facilitate the communication of systems that are deployed on diverse platforms.
In computer science, compile time refers to either the operations performed by a compiler (the "compile-time operations"), programming language requirements that must be met by source code for it to be successfully compiled (the "compile-time requirements"), or properties of the program that can be reasoned about during compilation.
A compiled language is a programming language whose implementations are typically compilers (translators that generate machine code from source code), and not interpreters (step-by-step executors of source code, where no pre-runtime translation takes place).
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
Component Library for Cross Platform (CLX) (pronounced clicks), is a cross-platform visual component-based framework for developing Microsoft Windows and Linux applications.
Component Object Model (COM) is a binary-interface standard for software components introduced by Microsoft in 1993.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
In computing, configuration files (or config files) are files used to configure the parameters and initial settings for some computer programs.
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.
Dependency hell is a colloquial term for the frustration of some software users who have installed software packages which have dependencies on specific versions of other software packages.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
In computing, a directory is a file system cataloging structure which contains references to other computer files, and possibly other directories.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.
Distributed Objects Everywhere (DOE) was a long-running Sun Microsystems project to build a distributed computing environment based on the CORBA system in the 'back end' and OpenStep as the user interface.
In computing, DLL Hell is a term for the complications that arise when working with dynamic-link libraries (DLLs) used with Microsoft Windows operating systems, particularly legacy 16-bit editions, which all run in a single memory space.
In computing, a dynamic linker is the part of an operating system that loads and links the shared libraries needed by an executable when it is executed (at "run time"), by copying the content of libraries from persistent storage to RAM, and filling jump tables and relocating pointers.
Dynamic loading is a mechanism by which a computer program can, at run time, load a library (or other binary) into memory, retrieve the addresses of functions and variables contained in the library, execute those functions or access those variables, and unload the library from memory.
Dynamic-link library (or DLL) is Microsoft's implementation of the shared library concept in the Microsoft Windows and OS/2 operating systems.
Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) is one of several Java APIs for modular construction of enterprise software.
An environment variable is a dynamic-named value that can affect the way running processes will behave on a computer.
In computing, executable code or an executable file or executable program, sometimes simply referred to as an executable or binary, causes a computer "to perform indicated tasks according to encoded instructions," as opposed to a data file that must be parsed by a program to be meaningful.
In computing, the Executable and Linkable Format (ELF, formerly named Extensible Linking Format), is a common standard file format for executable files, object code, shared libraries, and core dumps.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
The Framework Class Library (FCL) is a standard library and Microsoft's.NET Framework implementation of the Standard Libraries as defined in the Common Language Infrastructure.
Generic programming is a style of computer programming in which algorithms are written in terms of types to-be-specified-later that are then instantiated when needed for specific types provided as parameters.
The Global Assembly Cache (GAC) is a machine-wide CLI assembly cache for the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) in Microsoft's.NET Framework.
GNU Libtool is a computer programming tool from the GNU build system used for creating portable compiled libraries.
Harcourt was a United States publishing firm with a long history of publishing fiction and nonfiction for adults and children.
The HP 3000 series is a family of minicomputers released by Hewlett-Packard in 1972.
MPE (Multi-Programming Executive) is a discontinued business-oriented mainframe computer real-time operating system made by Hewlett-Packard.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
In computing, the System Object Model (SOM) is an object-oriented shared library system developed by IBM.
The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.
The System/38 was a midrange computer server platform manufactured and sold by the IBM Corporation.
IBM Z is a family name used by IBM for all of its mainframe computers from the Z900 on.
In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.
Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, algorithm, or policy.
In computer science, information hiding is the principle of segregation of the design decisions in a computer program that are most likely to change, thus protecting other parts of the program from extensive modification if the design decision is changed.
A JAR (Java ARchive) is a package file format typically used to aggregate many Java class files and associated metadata and resources (text, images, etc.) into one file for distribution.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
The Java Class Library (JCL) is a set of dynamically loadable libraries that Java applications can call at run time.
Jean E. Sammet (March 23, 1928 – May 20, 2017) was an American computer scientist who developed the FORMAC programming language in 1962.
JOVIAL is a high-level computer programming language similar to ALGOL, specialized for the development of embedded systems (specialized computer systems designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions, usually embedded as part of a complete device including mechanical parts).
Late binding, or dynamic binding, is a computer programming mechanism in which the method being called upon an object or the function being called with arguments is looked up by name at runtime.
In computing, a linker or link editor is a computer utility program that takes one or more object files generated by a compiler and combines them into a single executable file, library file, or another 'object' file.
In computer systems a loader is the part of an operating system that is responsible for loading programs and libraries.
Mach-O, short for Mach object file format, is a file format for executables, object code, shared libraries, dynamically-loaded code, and core dumps.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
Memory segmentation is the division of a computer's primary memory into segments or sections.
A method in object-oriented programming (OOP) is a procedure associated with a message and an object.
A method stub or simply stub in software development is a piece of code used to stand in for some other programming functionality.
The Michigan Terminal System (MTS) is one of the first time-sharing computer operating systems.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.
Modula-2 is a computer programming language designed and developed between 1977 and 1985 by Niklaus Wirth at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH Zurich) as a revision of Pascal to serve as the sole programming language for the operating system and application software for the personal workstation Lilith.
Modular programming is a software design technique that emphasizes separating the functionality of a programme into independent, interchangeable modules, such that each contains everything necessary to execute only one aspect of the desired functionality.
Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.
NeXT (later NeXT Computer and NeXT Software) was an American computer and software company founded in 1985 by Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs.
Non-volatile memory (NVM) or non-volatile storage is a type of computer memory that can retrieve stored information even after having been power cycled.
An object file is a file containing object code, meaning relocatable format machine code that is usually not directly executable.
Object Linking & Embedding (OLE) is a proprietary technology developed by Microsoft that allows embedding and linking to documents and other objects.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
OpenStep is an object-oriented application programming interface (API) specification for a legacy object-oriented operating system, with the basic goal of offering a NeXTSTEP-like environment on a non-NeXTSTEP operating system.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
OS/2 is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci.
OS/360, officially known as IBM System/360 Operating System, is a discontinued batch processing operating system developed by IBM for their then-new System/360 mainframe computer, announced in 1964; it was heavily influenced by the earlier IBSYS/IBJOB and Input/Output Control System (IOCS) packages.
In computer science, persistence refers to the characteristic of state that outlives the process that created it.
In computing, a plug-in (or plugin, add-in, addin, add-on, addon, or extension) is a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing computer program.
Portable Distributed Objects (PDO) is an application programming interface (API) for creating object-oriented code that can be executed remotely on a network of computers.
The Portable Executable (PE) format is a file format for executables, object code, DLLs, FON Font files, and others used in 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows operating systems.
In computing, position-independent code (PIC) or position-independent executable (PIE) is a body of machine code that, being placed somewhere in the primary memory, executes properly regardless of its absolute address.
The Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) is a family of standards specified by the IEEE Computer Society for maintaining compatibility between operating systems.
In computing, prebinding, also called prelinking, is a method for optimizing application load times by resolving library symbols prior to launch.
In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed.
Program lifecycle phases are the stages a computer program undergoes, from initial creation to deployment and execution.
Relocation is the process of assigning load addresses to position-dependent, but locatable code of a program and adjusting the code and data in the program to reflect the assigned addresses.
In distributed computing, a remote procedure call (RPC) is when a computer program causes a procedure (subroutine) to execute in a different address space (commonly on another computer on a shared network), which is coded as if it were a normal (local) procedure call, without the programmer explicitly coding the details for the remote interaction.
In computer science, run time, runtime or execution time is the time during which a program is running (executing), in contrast to other program lifecycle phases such as compile time, link time and load time.
In computer programming, a runtime library (RTL) is a set of low-level routines used by a compiler to invoke some of the behaviors of a runtime environment, by inserting calls to the runtime library into compiled executable binary.
The Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE, a name selected to mean "wise") was a system of large computers and associated networking equipment that coordinated data from many radar sites and processed it to produce a single unified image of the airspace over a wide area.
In computer science, separation of concerns (SoC) is a design principle for separating a computer program into distinct sections, such that each section addresses a separate concern.
setuid and setgid (short for "set user ID upon execution" and "set group ID upon execution", respectively) are Unix access rights flags that allow users to run an executable with the permissions of the executable's owner or group respectively and to change behaviour in directories.
Simula is the name of two simulation programming languages, Simula I and Simula 67, developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo, by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard.
Single-level storage (SLS) or single-level memory is a computer storage term which has had two meanings.
Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.
Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applications, frameworks, or other software components.
A software system is a system on intercommunicating components based on software forming part of a computer system (a combination of hardware and software).
In Unix and Unix-like operating systems, a soname is a field of data in a shared object file.
A standard library in computer programming is the library made available across implementations of a programming language.
A static build is a compiled version of a program which has been statically linked against libraries.
In computer science, a static library or statically-linked library is a set of routines, external functions and variables which are resolved in a caller at compile-time and copied into a target application by a compiler, linker, or binder, producing an object file and a stand-alone executable.
In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
In computer science, a symbol table is a data structure used by a language translator such as a compiler or interpreter, where each identifier (a.k.a. symbol) in a program's source code is associated with information relating to its declaration or appearance in the source.
In computing, a symbolic link (also symlink or soft link) is a term for any file that contains a reference to another file or directory in the form of an absolute or relative path and that affects pathname resolution.
In computing, a system call is the programmatic way in which a computer program requests a service from the kernel of the operating system it is executed on.
In computing, a system image is a serialized copy of the entire state of a computer system stored in some non-volatile form such as a file.
In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.
The University of Arizona (also referred to as U of A, UA, or Arizona) is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
In computer science, a value is the representation of some entity that can be manipulated by a program.
In computing, virtual memory (also virtual storage) is a memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory." The computer's operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.
The Visual Component Library (VCL) is a visual component-based object-oriented framework for developing the user interface of Microsoft Windows applications.
The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is Microsoft's core set of application programming interfaces (APIs) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems.
The registry is a hierarchical database that stores low-level settings for the Microsoft Windows operating system and for applications that opt to use the registry.
.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows.
In computer architecture, 64-bit computing is the use of processors that have datapath widths, integer size, and memory address widths of 64 bits (eight octets).
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