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Libyan Civil War (2011)

Index Libyan Civil War (2011)

The first Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government. [1]

309 relations: Abdul Fatah Younis, Abdul Hafiz Ghoga, Abu Qatada, Abu Sufian bin Qumu, Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr, Adnkronos, Adobe Flash, Africa, African Union, Aftermath of the 2011 Libyan Civil War, Agence France-Presse, Agenzia Giornalistica Italia, Air Wing of the Armed Forces of Malta, Ajdabiya, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera, Al-Ahram, Al-Masry Al-Youm, Al-Qaeda, Al-Saadi Gaddafi, Alan Cowell, Alcoholic drink, Ali Hassan al-Jaber, Alo!, American involvement in the 2011 Libyan Civil War, Amnesty International, Anthony Shadid, Anti-Gaddafi forces, Arab League, Arab Spring, Arabian Gulf Oil Company, Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project, Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Arutz Sheva, Asharq Al-Awsat, Attacks on humanitarian workers, Bab al-Azizia, Bamako, Bani Walid, Basic People's Congress (country subdivision), Battle of Misrata, Battle of Sirte (2011), Battle of Tawergha, Battle of Tripoli (2011), Battle of Wazzin, Bayda, Libya, BBC News, Beijing, Belarus, Benghazi, ..., Black people, Blockade, Botswana, Brega, Bureaucracy, Business Insider, Cabinet (government), Cabinet of Libya, Capital flight, Capital punishment, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Casualties of the 2011 Libyan Civil War, Chad, Charles Bouchard, Chemical weapon, Child marriage, China, CNN, Combating Terrorism Center, Command and control, Constitution of Libya (1951), Corruption Perceptions Index, Crimes against humanity, Daily News (Sri Lanka), Dassault Mirage F1, De facto, Death of Muammar Gaddafi, Demagogue, Derna, Libya, Direct democracy, Dmitry Medvedev, Domestic responses to the Libyan Civil War (2011), Egypt, Egyptian revolution of 2011, Elizabeth II, Emirates News Agency, Ethnic cleansing, European Conservatives and Reformists, European migrant crisis, European Parliament, European Union, Expatriate, Expressen, Faber and Faber, Factional violence in Libya (2011–14), Fathi Terbil, Foreign Affairs Select Committee, France 24, Free education, Free speech in the media during the 2011 Libyan Civil War, Freedom House, Freedom of speech, Freedom of the Press (report), French Air Force, Frigate, Gaddafi loyalism after the 2011 Libyan Civil War, General People's Committee, General People's Congress (Libya), Geneva Conventions, Ghadames, Global Arab Network, Government of South Africa, Government of Sweden, Great Man-Made River, Guantánamo Bay, Hallucinogen, Hamad bin Ali Al Attiyah, Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani, Helicopter, Hip hop, History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi, HMCS Charlottetown (FFH 339), Hu Jintao, Human Development Index, Human rights in Libya, Human Rights Watch, Humanitarian corridor, Ibn Thabit, Idris bin Abdullah al-Senussi, Idris of Libya, India, Inflation, International Affairs (journal), International Business Times, International Committee of the Red Cross, International Criminal Court, International Crisis Group, International Federation for Human Rights, International humanitarian law, International recognition of the National Transitional Council, Interpol, Islamic Relief, Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, Islamism, Jalal al-Digheily, James G. Stavridis, Jean Ping, Kenya, Khamis Brigade, Khamis Gaddafi, Kleptocracy, La Dépêche du Midi, Libya, Libyan Air Force, Libyan Army (1951–2011), Libyan Civil War (2014–present), Libyan Crisis (2011–present), Libyan dinar, Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, List of modern conflicts in North Africa, List of modern conflicts in the Middle East, Lonely Planet, Luis Moreno Ocampo, Lynsey Addario, Magarha, Mahdi al-Arabi, Mali, Malta, Malta Today, Martyrs' Square, Tripoli, Mass media, Massoud Abdelhafid, Maydan al Shajara, Media bias, MEED, Metaphor, Ministry (government department), Misrata, Mohammed El Senussi, Mohammed Nabbous, Molotov cocktail, Moussa Ibrahim, Moussa Koussa, Muammar Gaddafi, Mustafa Abdul Jalil, Mutassim Gaddafi, National Conference for the Libyan Opposition, National Liberation Army (Libya), National Transitional Council, NATO, Nescafé, Network of Free Ulema – Libya, Niger, North Africa, North Korea, NPR, Oil reserves in Libya, Omar El-Hariri, Operation Unified Protector, Osama bin Laden, Overseas Development Institute, Participatory democracy, PDF, People's Hall, Tripoli, Peru, Philosopher, Piers Morgan Live, Pizza, Political party, Propaganda, Public broadcasting, Purchasing power parity, Qadhadhfa, Qatar Islamic Bank, QNB Group, Ra's Lanuf, Racism, RAND Corporation, Rapping, Ras Ajdir, Refugee camp, Regime change, ReliefWeb, Representative democracy, Reuters, RIA Novosti, Rixos Hotels, Roozonline, Routledge, Royal Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Navy, RT (TV network), Sabha, Libya, Sabratha, Saif al-Arab Gaddafi, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, Saudi Arabia, Scorched earth, Shepherd, Shukri Ghanem, Sirte, Social media, Sorman, Sortie, South Africa, St. Martin's Press, Stephen Farrell (journalist), Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Stratfor, Sub-Saharan Africa, Suleiman Mahmoud, Supranational union, Susan Rice, Sweden, Taliban, Tawergha, Terrorism, The Economist, The Green Book (Muammar Gaddafi), The Guardian, The Independent, The New York Times, The Observer (Uganda), The Sunday Telegraph, The Washington Quarterly, Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå, Times of Malta, Tobruk, Torture chamber, Totebo, Transparency International, Travel warning, Tripoli, Tuareg people, Tunisia, Tunisian Revolution, Tyler Hicks, United Nations, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United Nations Human Rights Council, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, United States Air Force, United States Ambassador to the United Nations, United States diplomatic cables leak, United States Military Academy, Universal health care, Universal Periodic Review, Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Vladimir Putin, Water cannon, Welfare, Wen Jiabao, WikiLeaks, Wired UK, Women in Libya, World Food Programme, World Health Organization, Zawiya, Libya, Zintan, Zuwarah, Zuwayya, 2010 Pakistan floods, 2011 Libyan rebel coastal offensive, 2011 military intervention in Libya. 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Abdul Fatah Younis

Abdul Fatah Younis Al-Obeidi (عبد الفتاح يونس, sometimes transliterated Fattah Younis or Fattah Younes or Fatah Younes; 1944 – 28 July 2011) was a senior military officer in Libya.

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Abdul Hafiz Ghoga

Abdul Hafiz Ghoga (also Ghogha, or Abdelhafed Abdelkader Ghoga, عبد الحافظ غوقة) is a Libyan human rights lawyer who rose to prominence as the spokesman for the National Transitional Council, a body formed in Benghazi during the 2011 Libyan civil war.

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Abu Qatada

Abu Qatada al-Filistini (أبو قتادة الفلسطيني, ’Abū Qatāda al-Filisṭīnī), born Omar Mahmoud Othman (عمر بن محمود بن عثمان ‘Umar ibn Maḥmūd ibn ‘Uṯmān) in 1959/1960, is a Salafi cleric and Jordanian national.

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Abu Sufian bin Qumu

Abu Sufian Ibrahim Ahmed Hamuda Bin Qumu (أبو سفيان إبراهيم أحمد حمودة بن قمو, born 26 June 1959) is a citizen of Libya who was held in extrajudicial detention in the United States Guantanamo Bay detention camps, in Cuba.

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Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr

Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr (أبو بكر يونس جابر, 1940/1952 – 20 October 2011) was the Libyan Minister of Defence during the period of Muammar Gaddafi.

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Adnkronos

Adnkronos is an Italian news agency.

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Adobe Flash

Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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African Union

The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.

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Aftermath of the 2011 Libyan Civil War

The aftermath of the Libyan Civil War has been characterized by marked change in the social and political order of Libya after the overthrow and killing of Muammar Gaddafi in the Libyan Civil War.

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Agence France-Presse

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.

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Agenzia Giornalistica Italia

Agenzia Giornalistica Italia (AGI - Italian Journalist Agency) is an Italian news agency.

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Air Wing of the Armed Forces of Malta

The Air Wing of the Armed Forces of Malta is the aerial component of the current Maltese military.

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Ajdabiya

Ajdabiya (أجدابيا, Agedábia), previously known as Agedabia or Ajdabya, is a town in and capital of the Al Wahat District in northeastern Libya.

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Al Arabiya

Al Arabiya (العربية, transliterated: or; meaning "The Arabic One" or "The Arab One") is a Saudi-owned pan-Arab television news channel broadcast in Modern Standard Arabic.

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Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.

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Al-Ahram

Al-Ahram (الأهرام; The Pyramids), founded on 5 August 1875, is the most widely circulating Egyptian daily newspaper, and the second oldest after al-Waqa'i`al-Masriya (The Egyptian Events, founded 1828).

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Al-Masry Al-Youm

Al-Masry Al-Youm (المصرى اليوم,, meaning The Egyptian Today) is an Egyptian privately owned daily newspaper that was first published in June 2004.

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Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.

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Al-Saadi Gaddafi

Al-Saadi Muammar Gaddafi (الساعدي معمر القذافي; born 25 May 1973), is the third son of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi.

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Alan Cowell

Alan S. Cowell (born 16 March 1947) is a British journalist and a former foreign correspondent for The New York Times.

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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Ali Hassan al-Jaber

Ali Hassan al-Jaber (12 December 1955 – 12 March 2011) was a Qatari national working as a camera operator for the TV channel Al Jazeera.

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Alo!

Alo! is a daily tabloid newspaper published in Belgrade, Serbia.

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American involvement in the 2011 Libyan Civil War

American involvement in the Libyan Civil War initially consisted of diplomatic initiatives and sanctions.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Anthony Shadid

Anthony Shadid (أنتوني شديد; September 26, 1968 – February 16, 2012) was a foreign correspondent for The New York Times based in Baghdad and Beirut.

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Anti-Gaddafi forces

The anti-Gaddafi forces were Libyan groups that opposed and militarily defeated the government of Muammar Gaddafi, killing him in the process.

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Arab League

The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.

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Arab Spring

The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.

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Arabian Gulf Oil Company

The Arabian Gulf Oil Company (Agoco; شركة الخليج العربي للنفط) is an oil company based in Benghazi, Libya, engaged in crude oil and natural gas exploration, production and refining.

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Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project

The Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) is a project that collates data on political violence in developing states, from 1997 to the present.

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Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

The Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya consisted of the Libyan Army, Libyan Air Force and the Libyan Navy and other services including the People's Militia.

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Arutz Sheva

Arutz Sheva (lit), also known in English as Israel National News, is an Israeli media network identifying with Religious Zionism.

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Asharq Al-Awsat

Asharq al-Awsat (الشرق الأوسط, meaning "The Middle East") is an Arabic international newspaper headquartered in London.

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Attacks on humanitarian workers

Humanitarian aid workers belonging to United Nations organisations, PVOs / NGOs or the Red Cross / Red Crescent have traditionally enjoyed both international legal protection, and de facto immunity from attack by belligerent parties.

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Bab al-Azizia

Bab al-Azizia, "The Splendid Gate", is a military barracks and compound situated in the southern suburbs of Tripoli, the capital of Libya.

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Bamako

Bamako is the capital and largest city of Mali, with a population of 1.8 million (2009 census, provisional).

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Bani Walid

Bani Walid (Anglicized:; بني وليد, Libyan pronunciation) is a town in Libya.

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Basic People's Congress (country subdivision)

Basic People's Congress مؤتمر شعبي أساسي (Mu'tamar shaʿbi asāsi) was the smallest administrative subdivision in Libya under the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2012.

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Battle of Misrata

The Battle of Misrata (معركة مصراتة), also known as the Siege of Misrata, was a battle of the 2011 Libyan Civil War for the control of Misrata.

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Battle of Sirte (2011)

The Battle of Sirte (also spelled Surt) was the final battle of the Libyan Civil War, beginning when the National Liberation Army attacked the last remnants of the Libyan army still loyal to Muammar Gaddafi in his hometown and designated capital of Sirte, on the Gulf of Sidra.

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Battle of Tawergha

The Battle of Tawergha was a military engagement of the Libyan Civil War that began on 11 August 2011 when anti-Gaddafi forces based in Misrata advanced southeast along the road to Sirte in the early morning and attacked Libyan Army positions in the town of Tawergha.

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Battle of Tripoli (2011)

The Battle of Tripoli (ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ) was a military confrontation in Tripoli, Libya, between loyalists of Muammar Gaddafi, the longtime leader of Libya, and the National Transitional Council, which was attempting to overthrow Gaddafi and take control of the capital.

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Battle of Wazzin

The Battle of Wazzin was a conflict during the Libyan Civil War for the Libyan-Tunisian border town of Wazzin.

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Bayda, Libya

Bayda, or Elbeida (or; البيضاء) (also spelt az-Zāwiyat al-Bayḑā’, Zāwiyat al-Bayḑā’, Beida and El Beida; known as Beda Littoria under Italian colonial rule), is a commercial and industrial city in eastern Libya.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Beijing

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Belarus

Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

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Benghazi

Benghazi (بنغازي) is the second-most populous city in Libya and the largest in Cyrenaica.

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Black people

Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations.

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Blockade

A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.

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Botswana

Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.

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Brega

Brega, also known as Mersa Brega or Marsa al-Brega (مرسى البريقة, i.e. "Brega Seaport"), is a complex of several smaller towns, industry installations and education establishments situated in Libya on the Gulf of Sidra, the most southerly point of the Mediterranean Sea.

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Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.

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Business Insider

Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.

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Cabinet (government)

A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.

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Cabinet of Libya

The Cabinet of Libya serves as the leadership for the executive branch of the government of Libya.

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Capital flight

Capital flight, in economics, occurs when assets or money rapidly flow out of a country, due to an event of economic consequence.

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Capital punishment

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.

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Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a foreign-policy think tank with centers in Washington D.C., Moscow, Beirut, Beijing, Brussels, and New Delhi.

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Casualties of the 2011 Libyan Civil War

Estimates of deaths in the Libyan Civil War vary with figures from 2,500 to 25,000 given between March 2 and October 2, 2011.

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Chad

Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

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Charles Bouchard

Lieutenant General Joseph Jacques Charles "Charlie" Bouchard is a retired Royal Canadian Air Force general.

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Chemical weapon

A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.

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Child marriage

Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching a certain age, specified by several global organizations such as UNICEF as minors under the age of 18.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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CNN

Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

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Combating Terrorism Center

The Combating Terrorism Center is an academic institution at the United States Military Academy (USMA) in West Point, New York that provides education, research and policy analysis in the specialty areas of terrorism, counterterrorism, homeland security and internal conflict.

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Command and control

Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes...

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Constitution of Libya (1951)

The 1951 Libyan Constitution was brought into force on 7 October 1951, prior to Libya's formal declaration of its independence on 21 December 1951 as a constitutional and hereditary monarchy under King Idris.

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Corruption Perceptions Index

Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".

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Crimes against humanity

Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.

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Daily News (Sri Lanka)

The Daily News is an English-language newspaper in Sri Lanka.

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Dassault Mirage F1

The Dassault Mirage F1 is a French fighter and attack aircraft designed and manufactured by Dassault Aviation.

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De facto

In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

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Death of Muammar Gaddafi

Muammar Gaddafi, the deposed leader of Libya, was captured and killed on 20 October 2011 during the Battle of Sirte.

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Demagogue

A demagogue (from Greek δημαγωγός, a popular leader, a leader of a mob, from δῆμος, people, populace, the commons + ἀγωγός leading, leader) or rabble-rouser is a leader in a democracy who gains popularity by exploiting prejudice and ignorance among the common people, whipping up the passions of the crowd and shutting down reasoned deliberation.

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Derna, Libya

Derna (درنة) is a port city in eastern Libya.

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Direct democracy

Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.

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Dmitry Medvedev

Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.

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Domestic responses to the Libyan Civil War (2011)

During the early stages of the Libyan Civil War of 2011, the Gaddafi regime was still in power: but there was widespread withdrawal of support from that regime by influential persons and organisations within the country.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Egyptian revolution of 2011

The Egyptian revolution of 2011, locally known as the January 25 Revolution (ثورة 25 يناير), and as the Egyptian Revolution of Dignity began on 25 January 2011 and took place across all of Egypt.

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Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

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Emirates News Agency

Emirates News Agency (Wakalat Anba'a al Emarat), also known as WAM, is the official news agency of the United Arab Emirates.

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Ethnic cleansing

Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.

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European Conservatives and Reformists

The European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) is a Eurosceptic and anti-federalist political group in the European Parliament.

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European migrant crisis

The European migrant crisis, or the European refugee crisis, is a term given to a period beginning in 2015 when rising numbers of people arrived in the European Union (EU), travelling across the Mediterranean Sea or overland through Southeast Europe.

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European Parliament

The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Expatriate

An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country.

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Expressen

Expressen ("The Express") is one of two nationwide evening newspapers in Sweden, the other being Aftonbladet.

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Faber and Faber

Faber and Faber Limited, often abbreviated to Faber, is an independent publishing house in the United Kingdom.

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Factional violence in Libya (2011–14)

Since the end of the 2011 Libyan Civil War, which overthrew Muammar Gaddafi, there has been violence involving various militias and the new state security forces.

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Fathi Terbil

Fathi Terbil, also romanized as Fatih Turbel, (فتحي_تربل) is a Libyan lawyer and human rights activist and member of the National Transitional Council representing Libyan youth.

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Foreign Affairs Select Committee

The Foreign Affairs Select Committee is one of many select committees of the British House of Commons, which scrutinises the work of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

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France 24

France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.

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Free education

Free education is education funded through taxation or charitable organizations rather than tuition funding.

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Free speech in the media during the 2011 Libyan Civil War

Free speech in the media during the Libyan civil war describes the ability of domestic and international media to report news inside Libya free from interference and censorship during the civil war.

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Freedom House

Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

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Freedom of the Press (report)

Freedom of the Press is a yearly report by US-based non-governmental organization Freedom House, measuring the level of freedom and editorial independence enjoyed by the press in nations and significant disputed territories around the world.

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French Air Force

The French Air Force (Armée de l'Air Française), literally Aerial Army) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army, then was made an independent military arm in 1934. The number of aircraft in service with the French Air Force varies depending on source, however sources from the French Ministry of Defence give a figure of 658 aircraft in 2014. The French Air Force has 241 combat aircraft in service, with the majority being 133 Dassault Mirage 2000 and 108 Dassault Rafale. As of early 2017, the French Air Force employs a total of 41,160 regular personnel. The reserve element of the air force consisted of 5,187 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The Chief of Staff of the French Air Force (CEMAA) is a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff (CEMA).

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Frigate

A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.

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Gaddafi loyalism after the 2011 Libyan Civil War

Gaddafi loyalism after the Libyan Civil War refers to sympathetic sentiment towards the overthrown government of Muammar Gaddafi, who was killed in October 2011.

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General People's Committee

The General People's Committee (اللجنة الشعبية العامة, al-lajna ash-sha'bēya al-'āmma), often abbreviated as the GPCO, was the executive branch of government during the era of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.

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General People's Congress (Libya)

The General People's Congress of Libya (Mu'tammar al-sha'ab al 'âmm) (مؤتمر الشعب العام الليبي) was the national legislature of Muammar Gaddafi's Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya governance structure.

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Geneva Conventions

Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.

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Ghadames

Ghadames or Ghadamis (Berber: ʕademis; غدامس ɣadāmis, Libyan vernacular: ɣdāməs, Latin: Cidamus, Cydamus) is an oasis Berber town in the Nalut District of the Tripolitania region in northwestern Libya.

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Global Arab Network

Global Arab Network (GAN) (in Arabic غلوبال اراب نتورك) is a comprehensive news and information service about the Arab world in English and Arabic, registered and based in London, UK.

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Government of South Africa

The Republic of South Africa is a parliamentary republic with three-tier system of government and an independent judiciary, operating in a parliamentary system.

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Government of Sweden

The Government of the Kingdom of Sweden (Konungariket Sveriges regering) is the national cabinet and the supreme executive authority in Sweden.

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Great Man-Made River

The Great Man-Made River (GMR, النهر الصناعي العظيم) is a network of pipes that supplies water to the Sahara in Libya, from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System fossil aquifer.

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Guantánamo Bay

Guantánamo Bay (Bahía de Guantánamo) is a bay located in Guantánamo Province at the southeastern end of Cuba.

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Hallucinogen

A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.

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Hamad bin Ali Al Attiyah

Hamad bin Ali Al Attiyah (حمد بن علي العطية) is a Qatari politician who served as the State Minister for Defense.

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Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani

Sheikh Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber bin Mohammed bin Thani Al Thani (born 11 January 1959) (Arabic: حمد بن جاسم بن جبر آل ثاني) is a Qatari politician.

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Helicopter

A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.

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Hip hop

Hip hop, or hip-hop, is a subculture and art movement developed in the Bronx in New York City during the late 1970s.

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History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi

Muammar Gaddafi became the de facto leader of Libya on 1 September 1969 after leading a group of young Libyan military officers against King Idris I in a bloodless coup d'état.

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HMCS Charlottetown (FFH 339)

HMCS Charlottetown is a that has served in the Royal Canadian Navy since 1995.

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Hu Jintao

---- Hu Jintao (born 21 December 1942) is a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of China from 2002 to 2012.

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Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Human rights in Libya

Human rights in Libya is the record of human rights upheld and violated in various stages of Libya's history.

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Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

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Humanitarian corridor

A humanitarian corridor is a type of temporary demilitarized zone intended to allow the safe transit of humanitarian aid in, and/or refugees out of a crisis region.

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Ibn Thabit

Ibn Thabit is an anonymous Hip hop musician from Libya known for his anti-government songs.

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Idris bin Abdullah al-Senussi

Prince Idris bin Abdullah al-Senussi (born 18 January 1957) is a member of the Libyan Royal family and a leader of the Sanussiyyah movement.

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Idris of Libya

Idris, GBE (إدريس الأول; El Sayyid Prince Muhammad Idris bin Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Senussi; 12 March 1889 – 25 May 1983), was a Libyan political and religious leader who served as the Emir of Cyrenaica and then as the King of Libya from 1951 to 1969.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Inflation

In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

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International Affairs (journal)

International Affairs is a leading peer-reviewed academic journal of international relations.

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International Business Times

The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.

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International Committee of the Red Cross

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.

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International Criminal Court

The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.

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International Crisis Group

The International Crisis Group (ICG; also simply known as the Crisis Group) is a transnational non-profit, non-governmental organization founded in 1995 that carries out field research on violent conflict and advances policies to prevent, mitigate or resolve conflict.

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International Federation for Human Rights

The International Federation for Human Rights (Fédération internationale des ligues des droits de l'homme; FIDH) is a non-governmental federation for human rights organizations.

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International humanitarian law

International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).

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International recognition of the National Transitional Council

International recognition of the National Transitional Council of Libya was given by the majority of international states but was not universal.

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Interpol

The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates international police cooperation.

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Islamic Relief

Islamic Relief Worldwide (IRW) is an international humanitarian organisation that provides development programs and humanitarian relief around the globe, regardless of race, political affiliation, gender or belief.

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Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting

The Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) (صدا و سيمای جمهوری اسلامی ايران, Sedā va Sīmā-ye Jomhūri-ye Eslāmi-ye Īrān, lit. Voice and Vision of the Islamic Republic of Iran), formerly called National Iranian Radio and Television until the Iranian revolution of 1979, is an Iranian media corporation which hold the monopoly of domestic radio and television services in Iran, is also among the largest media organizations in Asian and Pacific region, and a regular member of Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union.

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Islamism

Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.

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Jalal al-Digheily

Jalal Muhammad Mansur al-Digheily, sometimes transliterated al-Dogheily, is a Libyan politician who served as the Defence Minister of Libya under the National Transitional Council during the 2011 Libyan civil war.

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James G. Stavridis

James George Stavridis (born February 15, 1955) is a retired United States Navy admiral and the current dean of the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, a graduate school for international affairs.

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Jean Ping

Jean Ping (born 24 November 1942).

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Kenya

Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.

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Khamis Brigade

The Khamis Brigade, formally the 32nd Reinforced Brigade of the Armed People, was a regime security brigade of the Libyan Armed Forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi, the official leader of Libya from 1969 until 2011.

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Khamis Gaddafi

Khamis Gaddafi (27 May 1983 – 29 August 2011) was the seventh and youngest son of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, and the military commander in charge of the Khamis Brigade of the Libyan Army.

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Kleptocracy

Kleptocracy (from Greek κλέπτης kléptēs, "thief", κλέπτω kléptō, "I steal", and -κρατία -kratía from κράτος krátos, "power, rule") is a government with corrupt leaders (kleptocrats) that use their power to exploit the people and natural resources of their own territory in order to extend their personal wealth and political powers.

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La Dépêche du Midi

La Dépêche, formally La Dépêche du Midi, is a regional daily newspaper published in Toulouse in south-west France with 17 editions for different areas of the Midi-Pyrénées region.

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Libya

Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Libyan Air Force

The Libyan Air Force (القوات الجوية الليبية) is the branch of the Libyan military responsible for aerial warfare.

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Libyan Army (1951–2011)

The Libyan Army was the branch of the Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, the Libyan Arab Republic and the Libyan Kingdom responsible for ground warfare.

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Libyan Civil War (2014–present)

The second Libyan Civil War is an ongoing conflict among rival factions seeking control of the territory and oil of Libya.

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Libyan Crisis (2011–present)

The Libyan Crisis refers to the ongoing conflicts in Libya, beginning with the Arab Spring protests of 2011, which led to the First Libyan Civil War, foreign military intervention, and the ousting and death of Muammar Gaddafi.

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Libyan dinar

The dinar (دينار dīnār) is the currency of Libya.

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Libyan Islamic Fighting Group

The Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG), also known as Al-Jama'a al-Islamiyyah al-Muqatilah bi-Libya (الجماعة الإسلامية المقاتلة بليبيا), was an armed Islamist group.

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List of modern conflicts in North Africa

Note.

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List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East.

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Lonely Planet

Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.

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Luis Moreno Ocampo

Luis Gabriel Moreno OcampoMoreno Ocampo's surnames are often hyphenated in English-language media to distinguish Moreno as a surname, rather than a given name.

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Lynsey Addario

Lynsey Addario (born November 13, 1973) is an American photojournalist.

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Magarha

The Magarha (also al-Magarha) is one of the major Arab tribes of Libya.

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Mahdi al-Arabi

Mahdi al-Arabi, is a Libyan Brigadier-General who served under the Libyan Armed Forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi.

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Mali

Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.

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Malta

Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Malta Today

MaltaToday is a twice-weekly English language newspaper published in Malta.

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Martyrs' Square, Tripoli

The Martyrs' Square (ميدان الشهداء); known as Green Square (الساحة الخضراء) under the Gaddafi government; Independence Square (ميدان الاستقلال) during the monarchy; and originally (during Italian colonial rule) known as Piazza Italia ("Italy Square") is a downtown landmark at the bay in the city of Tripoli, Libya.

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Mass media

The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.

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Massoud Abdelhafid

Massoud Abdelhafid was a prominent Libyan General during the government of Muammar Gaddafi.

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Maydan al Shajara

Maydan al-Shajara (Arabic: ميدان الشجرة; The Tree Square), is a major town square in Benghazi, the second largest city in Libya.

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Media bias

Media bias is the bias or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media in the selection of events and stories that are reported and how they are covered.

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MEED

MEED, abbreviated from the former name Middle East Economic Digest, is a business intelligence tool for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing analysis and commentary on Middle Eastern markets, companies, people and data on the regional projects market.

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Metaphor

A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.

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Ministry (government department)

A ministry is a governmental organisation, headed by a minister, that is meant to manage a specific sector of public administration.

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Misrata

Misurata (مصراته, Misurata, ⵎⵉⵙⵓⵔⴰⵜⴰ) is a city in the Misrata District in northwestern Libya, situated to the east of Tripoli and west of Benghazi on the Mediterranean coast near Cape Misurata.

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Mohammed El Senussi

Mohammed El Senussi (محمد السنوسي; Sayyid Mohammed al-Rida bin Sayyid Hasan ar-Rida al-Mahdi El Senussi; occasionally spelled as "...Al Senussi", "as-Senussi", "al/el-Senussi", and, most accurately, "al-Sanusi", born 20 October 1962) is the son of Crown Prince Hasan as-Senussi of Libya, and of Crown Princess Fawzia bint Tahir Bakeer.

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Mohammed Nabbous

Mohamed "Mo" Nabbous (محمد نبوس ‎; 27 February 1983 – 19 March 2011) was a Libyan information technologist, blogger, businessperson and civilian journalist who created and founded Libya Alhurra TV.

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Molotov cocktail

A Molotov cocktail, also known as a petrol bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, Molotovin koktaili (Finnish), polttopullo (Finnish), fire bomb (not to be confused with an actual fire bomb) or just Molotov, commonly shortened as Molly, is a generic name used for a variety of bottle-based improvised incendiary weapons.

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Moussa Ibrahim

Moussa Ibrahim (موسى إبراهيم; romanized also as Mussa and Musa, born 7 December 1974) is a Libyan political figure who rose to international attention in 2011 as Muammar Gaddafi's Information Minister and official spokesman, serving in this role until the government was toppled in the Libyan Civil War.

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Moussa Koussa

Moussa Muhammad Koussa (موسى كوسا,; born 1949?) is a Libyan political figure and diplomat, who held several high-profile positions in the Libyan government, lastly as Minister of Foreign Affairs from March 2009, into the Libyan Civil War, when he resigned his position on 30 March 2011.

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Muammar Gaddafi

Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Mustafa Abdul Jalil

Mustafa Abdul Jalil (مصطفى عبد الجليل, also transcribed Abdul-Jelil, Abd-al-Jalil, Abdel-Jalil, Abdeljalil or Abdu Al Jeleil) (born 1952) is a Libyan politician who was the Chairman of the National Transitional Council from 5 March 2011 until its dissolution on 8 August 2012.

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Mutassim Gaddafi

Al-Mutassim-Billah Muammar al-Gaddafi (مُعْتَصِمٌ بِٱللهِ ٱلْقَذَّافِيّ., also transliterated as Al-Moa'tassem Bellah or Al-Mutasim-bi-'llah; 18 December 1974 – 20 October 2011) was a Libyan Army officer, and the National Security Advisor of Libya from 2008 until 2011.

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National Conference for the Libyan Opposition

The National Conference for the Libyan Opposition (NCLO) was a Libyan opposition organization during the later years of the Gaddafi government.

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National Liberation Army (Libya)

The National Liberation Army (جيش التحرير الوطني الليبي jaysh al-taḥrīr al-waṭanī al-lībī), formerly known as the Free Libyan Army, was a Libyan military organisation affiliated with the National Transitional Council, which was constituted during the Libyan Civil War by defected military members and civilian volunteers, in order to engage in battle against both remaining members of the Libyan Armed Forces and paramilitia loyal to the rule of Muammar Gaddafi.

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National Transitional Council

The National Transitional Council of Libya (المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي), sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, was the de facto government of Libya for a period during and after the Libyan Civil War, in which rebel forces overthrew the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya of Muammar Gaddafi.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Nescafé

Nescafé is a brand of coffee made by Nestlé.

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Network of Free Ulema – Libya

The Network of Free Ulema – Libya is a group of senior religious leaders, or ulama, from all areas of Libya.

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Niger

Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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North Korea

North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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NPR

National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.

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Oil reserves in Libya

Oil reserves in Libya are the largest in Africa and among the ten largest globally with as of 2010.

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Omar El-Hariri

Omar Mokhtar El-Hariri (– 2 November 2015) was a leading figure of the National Transitional Council of Libya who served as the Minister of Military Affairs in 2011, during the Libyan Civil War.

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Operation Unified Protector

Operation Unified Protector was a NATO operation in 2011 enforcing United Nations Security Council resolutions 1970 and 1973 concerning the Libyan Civil War and adopted on 26 February and 17 March 2011, respectively.

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Osama bin Laden

Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.

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Overseas Development Institute

The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.

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Participatory democracy

Participatory democracy emphasizes the broad participation of constituents in the direction and operation of political systems.

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PDF

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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People's Hall, Tripoli

The People's Hall was a large government building in Tripoli, Libya, constructed in the 1970s/80s.

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Peru

Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Philosopher

A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.

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Piers Morgan Live

Piers Morgan Live (formerly known as Piers Morgan Tonight) is a talk show that was hosted by Piers Morgan and broadcast on CNN.

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Pizza

Pizza is a traditional Italian dish consisting of a yeasted flatbread typically topped with tomato sauce and cheese and baked in an oven.

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Political party

A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.

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Propaganda

Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.

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Public broadcasting

Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

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Qadhadhfa

The Qadhadhfa (also al-Qaddafa, Gaddadfa, Qaddadfa, Gaddafa; القذاذفـة) is one of the branches of the Houara tribe, living in the Sirte District in present-day northwestern Libya as one of the greatest and powerful tribes in the country itself.

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Qatar Islamic Bank

Qatar Islamic Bank (QIB) was established in 1982 as the first Islamic financial institution in Qatar.

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QNB Group

Qatar National Bank (QNB Group) (بنك قطر الوطني) is a Qatari commercial bank headquartered in Doha, Qatar.

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Ra's Lanuf

Ra's Lanuf ((راس لانوف, also: Ra’s al-Unūf) is a Mediterranean town in northern Libya, on the Gulf of Sidra. The town is also home to the Ra's Lanuf Refinery, completed in 1984, with a crude oil refining capacity of. The oil refinery is operated by the Ra's Lanuf Oil & Gas Processing Company, a subsidiary of the state-owned National Oil Corporation. Additionally, the city houses the Ra's Lanuf petrochemical complex – a major oil terminal – and oil pipelines: the Amal–Ra's Lanuf, the Messla–Ra's Lanuf, and the Defa-Ra's Lanuf pipeline.

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Racism

Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.

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RAND Corporation

RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.

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Rapping

Rapping (or rhyming, spitting, emceeing, MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular", which is performed or chanted in a variety of ways, usually over a backbeat or musical accompaniment.

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Ras Ajdir

Ras Ajdir, alternatively Ras Jdir or Ras Ejder (راس اجدير), is a small coastal town on the border between Tunisia and Libya and Libya's most northerly point.

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Refugee camp

A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees and people in refugee-like situations.

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Regime change

Regime change is the replacement of one government regime with another.

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ReliefWeb

ReliefWeb is the largest humanitarian information portal in the world.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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RIA Novosti

RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.

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Rixos Hotels

Rixos Hotels is a Turkish luxury hotel chain.

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Roozonline

Rooz (روز, literally day) is a Persian and English news website.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Royal Air Force

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.

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Royal Canadian Air Force

The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF; Aviation royale canadienne, ARC) is the air force of Canada.

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Royal Canadian Navy

The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN; French: Marine royale canadienne) is the naval force of Canada.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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RT (TV network)

RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.

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Sabha, Libya

Sabha, or Sebha (سبها Sabhā), is an oasis city in southwestern Libya, approximately south of Tripoli.

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Sabratha

Sabratha, Sabratah or Siburata (صبراتة), in the Zawiya District, accessed 20 July 2009, in Arabic of Libya, was the westernmost of the ancient "three cities" of Roman Tripolis.

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Saif al-Arab Gaddafi

Saif al-Arab Gaddafi (سيف العرب القذافي, lit. Sword of the Arabs; of the Gaddafa; 1982 – 30 April 2011) was the sixth son of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi.

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Saif al-Islam Gaddafi

Saif al-Islam Gaddafi (سيف الإسلام معمر القذافي; born 25 June 1972) is a Libyan political figure.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Scorched earth

A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.

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Shepherd

A shepherd or sheepherder is a person who tends, herds, feeds, or guards herds of sheep.

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Shukri Ghanem

Shukri Mohammed Ghanem (شكري محمد إمحمد غانم October 1942 – 29 April 2012) was a Libyan politician who was the General Secretary of the General People's Committee of Libya (prime minister) from June 2003 until March 2006 when, in the first major government re-shuffle in over a decade, he was replaced by his deputy, Baghdadi Mahmudi.

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Sirte

Sirte (سرت,; from Σύρτις), also spelled Sirt, Surt, Sert or Syrte, is a city in Libya.

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Social media

Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.

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Sorman

Sorman or Surman (صرمان) is a town near the Mediterranean coast, in the Zawiya District of the Tripolitania region in northwestern Libya.

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Sortie

A sortie (from the French word meaning ''exit'') is a deployment or dispatch of one military unit, be it an aircraft, ship, or troops, from a strongpoint.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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St. Martin's Press

St.

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Stephen Farrell (journalist)

Stephen Farrell is a journalist who holds both Irish and British citizenship.

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Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an international institute based in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.

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Stratfor

Stratfor is an American geopolitical intelligence platform and publisher founded in 1996 in Austin, Texas, by George Friedman, who was the company's chairman.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

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Suleiman Mahmoud

Suleiman Mahmoud al-Obeidi (Arabic: سليمان محمود العبيدي) is a senior military officer in Libya.

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Supranational union

A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states.

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Susan Rice

Susan Elizabeth Rice (born November 17, 1964) is an American public official who served as the 24th United States National Security Advisor from 2013 to 2017.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Taliban

The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.

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Tawergha

Tawargha (Berber: ⵜⴰⵡⴻⵔⵖⴰ, تاورغاء), also transliterated Tawarga, Tauorga, Taworgha, Tawurgha or Torghae, is, as of August 2011,Murray, Rebecca:.

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Terrorism

Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Green Book (Muammar Gaddafi)

The Green Book (الكتاب الأخضر) is a short book setting out the political philosophy of Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Observer (Uganda)

The Weekly Observer is a Ugandan weekly newspaper headquartered in Kampala.

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The Sunday Telegraph

The Sunday Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper, founded in February 1961, and is published by the Telegraph Media Group, a division of Press Holdings.

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The Washington Quarterly

The Washington Quarterly, often abbreviated TWQ, is a quarterly magazine of international affairs, analyzing global strategic changes and their public policy implications, hosted by the Elliott School of International Affairs (George Washington University) and published by Taylor & Francis.

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Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå

TT News Agency (TT) – former Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå – is a Swedish news agency, the largest in Scandinavia, owned jointly by the country's newspapers and the media groups behind them.

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Times of Malta

The Times of Malta is an English-language daily newspaper in Malta.

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Tobruk

Tobruk or Tubruq (Αντίπυργος) (طبرق Ṭubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt.

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Torture chamber

A torture chamber is a room where torture is inflicted.

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Totebo

Totebo is a locality situated in Västervik Municipality, Kalmar County, Sweden with 239 inhabitants in 2010.

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Transparency International

Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.

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Travel warning

A travel warning, travel alert, or travel advisory is an official warning statement issued by a government agency to provide information about the relative safety of travelling to or visiting one or more specific foreign countries or destinations.

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Tripoli

Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.

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Tuareg people

The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.

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Tunisia

Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Tunisian Revolution

The Tunisian Revolution was an intensive campaign of civil resistance, including a series of street demonstrations taking place in Tunisia, and led to the ousting of longtime president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011.

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Tyler Hicks

Tyler Portis Hicks (born July 9, 1969) is a Pulitzer Prize winning photojournalist who works as a staff photographer for The New York Times.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.

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United Nations Human Rights Council

The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.

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United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is a United Nations (UN) body formed in December 1991 by General Assembly Resolution 46/182.

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United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970 was a measure adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on 26 February 2011.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, on the situation in Libya, is a measure that was adopted on 17 March 2011.

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United States Air Force

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Ambassador to the United Nations

The United States Ambassador to the United Nations is the leader of the U.S. delegation, the U.S. Mission to the United Nations.

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United States diplomatic cables leak

The United States diplomatic cables leak, widely known as Cablegate, began on Sunday, 28 November 2010 when WikiLeaks—a non-profit organization that publishes submissions from anonymous whistleblowers—began releasing classified cables that had been sent to the U.S. State Department by 274 of its consulates, embassies, and diplomatic missions around the world.

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United States Military Academy

The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.

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Universal health care

Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.

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Universal Periodic Review

The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is a mechanism of the United Nations (UN) Human Rights Council (HRC) that emerged from the 2005 UN reform process.

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Uppsala Conflict Data Program

The Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) is a data collection project on organized violence housed at Uppsala University in Sweden that has been collecting information on armed conflict since 1946 and making it publicly available through its annual report, States in Armed Conflict. Beginning in Since 2004, the constantly-updated UCDP is also publicly available.

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Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.

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Water cannon

A water cannon is a device that shoots a high-velocity stream of water.

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Welfare

Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.

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Wen Jiabao

Wen Jiabao (born 15 September 1942) was the sixth Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government for a decade between 2003 and 2013.

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WikiLeaks

WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media provided by anonymous sources.

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Wired UK

Wired UK is a full-colour monthly magazine that reports primarily on the effects of science and technology.

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Women in Libya

Women in Libya are women who were born in, who live in, or are from Libya.

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World Food Programme

The World Food Programme (WFP) is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Zawiya, Libya

Zawiya (officially Zawia) (الزاوية, transliteration: Az Zāwiyaẗ), (variants: الزاوية الغربية Az Zawiyah Al Gharbiyah, Ḩārat az Zāwiyah, Al Ḩārah, El-Hára and Haraf Az Zāwīyah), is a city in northwestern Libya, situated on the Libyan coastline of the Mediterranean Sea about west of Tripoli, in the historic region of Tripolitania.

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Zintan

Zintan (الزنتان, Amazigh: Tigharmin, meaning "small castles") is one of the biggest cities in north western Libya, situated roughly southwest of Tripoli, in the area.

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Zuwarah

Zuwarah, or Zuwara or Zwara, is a port city in northwestern Libya, with a population of around 350,000 (2013), famous for its beaches and seafood.

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Zuwayya

The Zuwayya (الزوية Al-Zuwayya) are an independent Murabtin tribe, one of the major Arab Bedouin tribes of Cyrenaica and Fezzan, Libya.

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2010 Pakistan floods

The floods in Pakistan began in late July 2010, resulting from heavy monsoon rains in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Punjab and, Balochistan regions of Pakistan, which affected the Indus River basin.

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2011 Libyan rebel coastal offensive

The 2011 Libyan rebel coastal offensive was a major rebel offensive of the Libyan Civil War.

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2011 military intervention in Libya

On 19 March 2011, a multi-state NATO-led coalition began a military intervention in Libya, ostensibly to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973.

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Redirects here:

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libyan_Civil_War_(2011)

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