279 relations: Acritarch, Adaptive capacity, Aerosol, Agaric, Agglutination (biology), Air pollution, Al-Tamimi, the physician, Albert Bernhard Frank, Algae, Allelopathy, Alpine tundra, Antibiotic, Apoplast, Appressorium, Archaeology, Arctic, Areolate, Ascocarp, Ascomycota, Ascus, Baelo Claudia, Basidiolichen, Basidiomycota, Binomial nomenclature, Bioindicator, Biological soil crust, Boaz, Book of Ruth, Brown algae, Byssoid lichen, Caloplaca, Caloplaca marina, Candidiasis, Carbon dioxide, Cellular differentiation, Celtic rain forest, Cephalodium, Chemical element, Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta, Cladonia, Cladonia rangiferina, Cladoniaceae, Clavarioid fungi, Cliffed coast, Collema, Collema nigrescens, Commensalism, Common footman, Cortex (botany), ..., Corticioid fungi, Corticolous lichen, Crustose, Crustose lichen, Cryptobiosis, Cyanobacteria, Cyanolichen, Deciduous, Degelia, Desert, Desiccation, Devonian, Dew, Diaspore (botany), Dickinsonia, Dictyonema, Diffusion, Diskagma, Doctrine of signatures, Dorsiventral, Dothideales, Doushantuo Formation, Dye, Ecological succession, Ediacaran, Ediacaran biota, Endolithic lichen, Enoch Zundel ben Joseph, Epiphyllous lichen, Epiphyte, Erythritol, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, European Space Agency, Evernia prunastri, Family (biology), Fern, Filamentous lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata, Fog, Foliose lichen, Fruticose lichen, Fungi imperfecti, Fungus, Genotype, Genus, Geomorphology, Geosiphon, German Aerospace Center, Glomeromycota, Glossary of botanical terms, Glucose, Greek language, Green algae, Groundcover, Gyalectales, Harris Tweed, Haustorium, Headstone, Heinrich Anton de Bary, Herbivore, Hermann Hellriegel, Hoh Rainforest, Holobiont, Homothallism, Horodyskia, Hypha, Hypogymnia, Iceland moss, John Wyndham, Kingdom (biology), Larva, Latin, Leaf, Lecanora, Lecidea, Leotiales, Lepidoptera, Lepraria, Leprose lichen, Leptogium, Letharia vulpina, Lichen, Lichenicolous fungus, Lichenology, Lichenometry, Lichenomphalia, Lignicolous lichen, Limestone, Lineage (evolution), List of common names of lichen genera, Lithophyte, Litmus, Lobaria, Lobaria oregana, Lobaria pulmonaria, Longevity, Lumen (anatomy), Marbled beauty, Marchantiophyta, Medulla (lichenology), Meiosis, Melchior Treub, Metabolite, Microorganism, Microscopy, Midrash, Midrash Rabba, Miocene, Monophyly, Morphogenesis, Morphology (biology), Moss, Mount Rushmore, Mucilage, Multiclavula, Mushroom, Mutualism (biology), Mycorrhiza, Myrmecia (alga), Nematothallus, Nitrogen fixation, Northern flying squirrel, Nostoc, Nutrient, Obligate, Orcein, Order (biology), Organism, Ozone, P-Phenylenediamine, Paleontology, Parasitism, Parmelia saxatilis, Parmeliaceae, Pathogenic fungus, Peltigera, Peltigera leucophlebia, Peltigerales, Pertusariales, Pezizales, PH indicator, Phosphorite, Photosynthesis, Pin lichen, Pioneer species, Plant cuticle, Poikilohydry, Polysaccharide, Prokaryote, Proterozoic, Prototaxites, Pruinescence, Pycnidium, Rail transport modelling, Rainforest, Redox, Reindeer, Resurrection plant, Rhizocarpon, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Rhynie chert, Ribitol, Rimose, Roccella tinctoria, Roccellaceae, Rock tripe, Romania, Roof, Rose water, Rumen, Ruth (biblical figure), Saprotrophic nutrition, Saxicolous lichen, Scytonema, Sea level, Secondary metabolite, Sequoia National Park, Silurian, Simon Schwendener, Simulation, Slag, Sorbitol, Speciation, Species, Spoil tip, Spongiophyton, Spore, Squamulose lichen, Staphylococcus aureus, Stoma, Substrate (biology), Sugar alcohol, Surface exposure dating, Symbiosis, Synecdoche, Taxonomy (biology), Teased wool, Teloschistales, Terete, Terricolous lichen, Thallus, Timișoara, Traditional dyes of the Scottish Highlands, Traditional medicine, Trebouxia, Trebouxiophyceae, Trentepohlia (alga), Trouble with Lichen, Tundra, Umbilicaria esculenta, Umbilicate lichen, Usnea, Usnic acid, Vagrant lichen, Vascular plant, Vegetative reproduction, Vinegar, Vulpinic acid, Water, Weathering, Wila (lichen), William Nylander (botanist), Woodland, Xanthoparmelia, Xanthoria, Xanthoria elegans, Xanthoria parietina, Yosemite National Park. Expand index (229 more) » « Shrink index
Acritarchs are organic microfossils, present from approximately to the present.
Adaptive capacity is the capacity of a system to adapt if the environment where the system exists is changing.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
An agaric is a type of mushroom fungus fruiting body characterized by the presence of a pileus (cap) that is clearly differentiated from the stipe (stalk), with lamellae (gills) on the underside of the pileus.
Agglutination is the clumping of particles.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Muhammad ibn Sa'id al-Tamimi (أبو عبد الله محمد بن سعيد التميمي), (d. 990), known by his kunya, "Abu Abdullah," but more commonly as Al-Tamimi, the physician, was a tenth century Arab physician, who came to renown on account of his medical works.
Albert Bernhard Frank (January 17, 1839 in Dresden – September 27, 1900 in Berlin) was a German botanist, plant pathologist, and mycologist.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Allelopathy is a biological phenomenon by which an organism produces one or more biochemicals that influence the germination, growth, survival, and reproduction of other organisms.
Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high altitude.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Inside a plant, the apoplast is the space outside the plasma membrane within which material can diffuse freely.
An appressorium is a specialized cell typical of many fungal plant pathogens that is used to infect host plants.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
Areolate lichens are crustose lichens (that is, lichens that grow like a crust of paint) that appear to be broken up into somewhat polygonal pieces like old cracked paint.
An ascocarp, or ascoma (plural: ascomata), is the fruiting body (sporocarp) of an ascomycete phylum fungus.
Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya.
An ascus (plural asci; from Greek ἀσκός 'skin bag') is the sexual spore-bearing cell produced in ascomycete fungi.
Baelo Claudia is the name of an ancient Roman town, located outside of Tarifa, near the village of Bolonia, in southern Spain.
Basidiolichens are lichenized members of the Basidiomycota, a much smaller group of lichens than the far more common ascolichens in the Ascomycota.
Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya (often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
A bioindicator is any species (an indicator species) or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal the qualitative status of the environment.
Biological soil crusts are communities of living organisms on the soil surface in arid and semi-arid ecosystems.
Boaz (Modern Hebrew: בועז Bốʿaz; Massoretical Hebrew: בֹּ֫עַז Bṓʿaz) is a biblical figure appearing in the Book of Ruth in the Hebrew Bible and in the genealogies of Jesus in the New Testament and also the name of a pillar in the portico of the historic Temple in Jerusalem.
The Book of Ruth (מגילת רות, Ashkenazi pronunciation:, Megilath Ruth, "the Scroll of Ruth", one of the Five Megillot) is included in the third division, or the Writings (Ketuvim), of the Hebrew Bible; in most Christian canons it is treated as a history book and placed between Judges and 1 Samuel, as it is set "in the days when the judges judged", although the Syriac Christian tradition places it later, between Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs.
The brown algae (singular: alga), comprising the class Phaeophyceae, are a large group of multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder waters within the Northern Hemisphere.
A Byssoid lichen is a lichen with a wispy growth form, having the appearance of teased wool.
Caloplaca is a lichen genus, composed of a number of distinct species.
Caloplaca marina the Orange Sea Lichen is a crustose, placodioid lichen.
Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast).
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
The Celtic rain forest is the wet forest in Ireland, western Scotland, and western Wales, near the Atlantic Ocean, which is dominated by sessile oak (Quercus petraea), downy birch (Betula pubescens) and hazel (Corylus avellana).
Cephalodia (singular cephalodium) are small gall-like structures found in some species of lichens that contain cyanobacterial symbionts.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
The Chlorophyceae are one of the classes of green algae, distinguished mainly on the basis of ultrastructural morphology.
Chlorophyta is a division of green algae, informally called chlorophytes.
Cladonia (cup lichen) is a genus of moss-like lichens in the family Cladoniaceae.
Cladonia rangiferina, also known as reindeer lichen (c.p. Sw. renlav), lat., is a light-colored, fruticose lichen belonging to the Cladoniaceae family.
The Cladoniaceae are a family of lichenized fungi in the order Lecanorales.
The clavarioid fungi are a group of fungi in the Basidiomycota typically having erect, simple or branched basidiocarps (fruit bodies) that are formed on the ground, on decaying vegetation, or on dead wood.
A cliffed coast, also called an abrasion coast, is a form of coast where the action of marine waves has formed steep cliffs that may or may not be precipitous.
Collema (jelly lichen) is a genus of lichens in the family Collemataceae.
Collema nigrescens is a leafy (foliose) jelly lichen (Collema genus) found growing on the bark of trees such as bigleaf maples, in wetter coastal parts of California.
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
The common footman (Manulea lurideola) is a moth of the family Erebidae.
A cortex is the outermost layer of a stem or root in a plant, or the surface layer or "skin" of the nonfruiting part of the body of some lichens.
The corticioid fungi are a group of fungi in the Basidiomycota typically having effused, smooth basidiocarps (fruit bodies) that are formed on the undersides of dead tree trunks or branches.
A corticolous lichen is a lichen that grows on bark.
Crustose is a habit of some types of algae and lichens in which the plant grows tightly appressed to a substrate forming a biological layer of the adhering organism.
Crustose lichens form a crust that strongly adheres to the substrate (soil, rock, tree bark, etc.), making separation from the substrate impossible without destruction.
Cryptobiosis is an ametabolic state of life entered by an organism in response to adverse environmental conditions such as desiccation, freezing, and oxygen deficiency.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cyanolichens are lichens that contain cyanobacteria, otherwise known as blue-green algae.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
Degelia is a genus of lichenized fungi in the family Pannariaceae.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening due to condensation.
In botany, a diaspore is a plant dispersal unit consisting of a seed or spore plus any additional tissues that assist dispersal.
Dickinsonia is a genus of iconic fossils of the Ediacaran biota.
Dictyonema is a large and diverse genus of mainly tropical basidiolichens in the family Hygrophoraceae.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Diskagma ("disc-like fragment") is a genus of problematic fossil from a Paleoproterozoic (2200 million years old) paleosol from South Africa, and significant as the oldest likely eukaryote and earliest evidence for life on land.
The doctrine of signatures, dating from the time of Dioscorides and Galen, states that herbs resembling various parts of the body can be used by herbalists to treat ailments of those body parts.
A dorsiventral (Lat. dorsum, "the back", venter, "the belly") organ is one that has two surfaces differing from each other in appearance and structure, as an ordinary leaf.
Dothideales are an order of bitunicate fungi consisting mainly of saprobic or plant parasitic species.
The Doushantuo Formation is a fossil Lagerstätte in Weng'an County, Guizhou Province, China that is notable for being one of the oldest beds to contain minutely preserved microfossils, phosphatic fossils that are so characteristic they have given their name to "Doushantuo type preservation".
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Ecological succession is the process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time.
The Ediacaran Period, spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya.
The Ediacaran (formerly Vendian) biota consisted of enigmatic tubular and frond-shaped, mostly sessile organisms that lived during the Ediacaran Period (ca. 635–542 Mya).
An endolithic lichen is a crustose lichen that grows inside solid rock, growing between the grains, with only the fruiting bodies exposed to the air.
Enoch Zundel ben Joseph (died 1867) was a Russian Talmudist best known as author of a commentary on Midrash Rabbah.
An epiphyllous lichen ("epi".
An epiphyte is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water (in marine environments) or from debris accumulating around it.
Erythritol ((2R,3S)-butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol) is a sugar alcohol (or polyol) that has been approved for use as a food additive in the United States and throughout much of the world.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
Evernia prunastri, also known as oakmoss, is a species of lichen.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
A filamentous lichen is a lichen that has a growth form like a mass of thin, stringy, non-branching hairs or filaments.
Flavoparmelia caperata, the common greenshield lichen, is a medium to large foliose lichen that has a very distinctive pale yellow green upper cortex when dry.
Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of minute water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface.
Foliose lichen is one of a variety of lichens, which are complex organisms that arise from the symbiotic relationship between fungi and a photosynthetic partner, typically algae.
A fruticose lichen is a form of lichen fungi that is characterized by a coral-like shrubby or bushy growth structure.
The fungi imperfecti or imperfect fungi, also known as Deuteromycota, are fungi which do not fit into the commonly established taxonomic classifications of fungi that are based on biological species concepts or morphological characteristics of sexual structures because their sexual form of reproduction has never been observed.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
Geosiphon is a genus of fungus in the family Geosiphonaceae.
The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.), abbreviated DLR, is the national center for aerospace, energy and transportation research of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Glomeromycota (informally glomeromycetes) is one of eight currently recognized divisions within the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 230 described species.
This glossary of botanical terms is a list of terms relevant to botany and plants in general.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
Groundcover or ground cover is any plant that grows over an area of ground.
Gyalectales is an order of Leotiomycetes include many of the tropical lichens.
Harris Tweed is a tweed cloth that is handwoven by islanders at their homes in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland, finished in the Outer Hebrides, and made from pure virgin wool dyed and spun in the Outer Hebrides.
In botany and mycology, a haustorium (plural haustoria) is a structure that grows into or around another structure to absorb water or nutrients.
A headstone, tombstone, or gravestone is a stele or marker, usually stone, that is placed over a grave.
Heinrich Anton de Bary (26 January 183119 January 1888) was a German surgeon, botanist, microbiologist, and mycologist (fungal systematics and physiology).
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
Hermann Hellriegel (October 21, 1831 – September 24, 1895) was a German agricultural chemist who discovered that leguminous plants assimilate the free nitrogen of the atmosphere.
The Hoh Rainforest is located on the Olympic Peninsula in western Washington state, USA.
Holobionts are assemblages of different species that form ecological units.
Homothallic refers to the possession, within a single organism, of the resources to reproduce sexually; i.e., having male and female reproductive structures on the same thallus.
A hypha (plural hyphae, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, "web") is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium.
Hypogymnia is a genus of lichenized fungi within the Parmeliaceae family.
Iceland moss (Cetraria islandica) is a lichen whose erect or upright, leaflike habit gives it the appearance of a moss, where its name likely comes from.
John Wyndham Parkes Lucas Beynon Harris (10 July 1903 – 11 March 1969) was an English science fiction writer best known for his works written using the pen name John Wyndham, although he also used other combinations of his names, such as John Beynon and Lucas Parkes.
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Lecanora is a genus of lichen commonly called rim lichens.
Lecidea is a genus of crustose lichens with a carbon black ring or outer margin (exciple) around the fruiting body disc (apothecium), usually (or always) found growing on (saxicolous) or in (endolithic) rock.
The Leotiales are an order of ascomycete fungi.
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).
Lepraria is a genus of leprose crustose lichens that grows on its substrate like patches of granular, caked up, mealy dust grains.
A leprose lichen is a lichen with a powdery or granular surface.
Leptogium is a lichenized genus of fungi within the Collemataceae family.
Letharia vulpina, commonly known as the wolf lichen (although the species name vulpina, from vulpine relates to the fox), is a fruticose lichenized species of fungus in the family Parmeliaceae.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
A lichenicolous fungus is a parasitic fungus that only lives on lichen as the host.
Lichenology is the branch of mycology that studies the lichens, symbiotic organisms made up of an intimate symbiotic association of a microscopic alga (or a cyanobacterium) with a filamentous fungus.
In archaeology, palaeontology, and geomorphology, lichenometry is a geomorphic method of geochronologic dating that uses lichen growth to determine the age of exposed rock, based on a presumed specific rate of increase in radial size over time.
Lichenomphalia is both a basidiolichen and an agaric genus.
A lignocolous lichen is a lichen that grows on wood that has the bark stripped from it.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
An evolutionary lineage is a temporal series of organisms, populations, cells, or genes connected by a continuous line of descent from ancestor to descendent.
This is a list of common names of lichen genera.
Lithophytes are plants that grow in or on rocks.
Litmus is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens.
Lobaria is a genus of lichens commonly known as "lungwort" or "lung moss" as their physical shape somewhat resembles a lung.
Lobaria oregana, also known as lettuce lichen and as Oregon lungwort, is a species of foliose lichen occurring in North American old-growth forests, such as the Hoh Rainforest in Washington State.
Lobaria pulmonaria is a large epiphytic lichen consisting of an ascomycete fungus and a green algal partner living together in a symbiotic relationship with a cyanobacterium—a symbiosis involving members of three kingdoms of organisms.
The word "longevity" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy" in demography.
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.
The marbled beauty (Cryphia domestica) is a moth of the family Noctuidae.
The Marchantiophyta are a division of non-vascular land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts.
The medulla is a horizontal layer within a lichen thallus.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Melchior Treub (26 December 1851 – 3 October 1910) was a Dutch botanist.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
In Judaism, the midrash (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. מִדְרָשׁ; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture (Tanakh).
Midrash Rabba or Midrash Rabbah can refer to part of or the collective whole of aggadic midrashim on the books of the Tanakh, generally having the term "Rabbah" (רבה), meaning "great," as part of their name.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
Mount Rushmore National Memorial is a sculpture carved into the granite face of Mount Rushmore, a batholith in the Black Hills in Keystone, South Dakota, United States.
Mucilage is a thick, gluey substance produced by nearly all plants and some microorganisms.
Multiclavula is a genus of fungi in the family Clavulinaceae.
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.
Myrmecia is a genus of green algae that is associated with lichens.
Nematothallus is a form genus comprising cuticle-like fossils.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
The northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) is one of three species of the genus Glaucomys, the only flying squirrels found in North America.
Nostoc is a genus of cyanobacteria found in various environments that forms colonies composed of filaments of moniliform cells in a gelatinous sheath.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
As an adjective, obligate means "by necessity" (antonym facultative) and is used mainly in biology in phrases such as.
Orcein, also archil, orchil, lacmus and C.I. Natural Red 28, are names for dyes extracted from several species of lichen, commonly known as "orchella weeds", found in various parts of the world.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(NH2)2.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Parmelia saxatilis, commonly known as the salted shield lichen or crottle, is a species of foliose lichen in the family Parmeliaceae.
The Parmeliaceae is a large and diverse family of Lecanoromycetes.
Pathogenic fungi are fungi that cause disease in humans or other organisms.
Peltigera is a genus of approximately 91 species of foliose lichens in the family Peltigeraceae.
Peltigera leucophlebia is a lichenized fungus in the family Peltigeraceae.
Peltigerales is an order of lichen-forming fungi belonging to the class Lecanoromycetes in the division Ascomycota.
The Pertusariales are an order of fungi in the class Lecanoromycetes.
The Pezizales are an order of the subphylum Pezizomycotina within the phylum Ascomycota.
A pH indicator is a halochromic chemical compound added in small amounts to a solution so the pH (acidity or basicity) of the solution can be determined visually.
Phosphorite, phosphate rock or rock phosphate is a non-detrital sedimentary rock which contains high amounts of phosphate minerals.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A pin lichen, or calicoid lichen, is a crustose lichen with small fruiting bodies pointing up that look like a dressmaker's pin.
Pioneer species are hardy species which are the first to colonize previously biodiverse steady-state ecosystems.
A plant cuticle is a protecting film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm.
Poikilohydry is the lack of ability (structural or functional mechanism) to maintain and/or regulate water content to achieve homeostasis of cells and tissue connected with quick equilibration of cell/tissue water content to that of the environment.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
The Proterozoic is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth.
Prototaxites is a genus of terrestrial fossil fungi dating from the Late Silurian until the Late Devonian periods, approximately.
Pruinescence, or pruinosity, is a "frosted" or dusty looking coating on top of a surface.
A pycnidium (plural pycnidia) is an asexual fruiting body produced by mitosporic fungi in the form order Sphaeropsidales (Deuteromycota, Coelomycetes).
Railway modelling (UK, Australia and Ireland) or model railroading (US and Canada) is a hobby in which rail transport systems are modelled at a reduced scale.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
A resurrection plant is any poikilohydric plant that can survive extreme dehydration, even over months or years.
Rhizocarpon is a genus of lichenized fungi in the family Rhizocarpaceae.
Rhizocarpon geographicum (the map lichen) is a species of lichen, which grows on rocks in mountainous areas of low air pollution.
The Rhynie chert is an Early Devonian sedimentary deposit exhibiting extraordinary fossil detail or completeness (a Lagerstätte).
Ribitol, or adonitol, is a crystalline pentose alcohol (C5H12O5) formed by the reduction of ribose.
Rimose is an adjective used to describe a surface that is cracked or fissured.
Roccella tinctoria is a lichenised species of fungus in the genus Roccella, homotypic synonym of Lecanora tinctoria (DC.) Czerwiak., 1849.
The Roccellaceae are a family of fungi in the order Arthoniomycetes.
Rock tripe is the common name for various lichens of the genus Umbilicaria that grow on rocks.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
A roof is part of a building envelope.
Rose water (گلاب; golāb) is a flavoured water made by steeping rose petals in water.
The rumen, also known as a paunch, forms the larger part of the reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals.
Ruth, is the title character of the Book of Ruth; along with her mother-in-law Naomi, she is the book's heroine.
Saprotrophic nutrition or lysotrophic nutrition is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed (dead or waste) organic matter.
A sacicolous lichen is a lichen that grows on rock.
Scytonema is a genus of photosynthetic cyanobacteria that contains over 100 species.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.
Sequoia National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada east of Visalia, California, in the United States.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
Simon Schwendener (10 February 1829 – 27 May 1919) was a Swiss botanist who was a native of Buchs in the Canton of St. Gallen.
Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.
Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
Sorbitol, less commonly known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol with a sweet taste which the human body metabolizes slowly.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
A spoil tip (also called a spoil bank, boney pile, gob pile, bing, batch, boney dump or pit heap) is a pile built of accumulated spoil – the overburden or other waste rock removed during coal and ore mining.
Spongiophyton was a thallose fossil of the early to mid Devonian, which is notoriously difficult to classify.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
A squamulose lichen is a lichen that is composed of small, often overlapping "scales" called squamules.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomata (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.
In biology, a substrate is the surface on which an organism (such as a plant, fungus, or animal) lives.
Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compounds, typically derived from sugars, that comprise a class of polyols.
Surface exposure dating is a collection of geochronological techniques for estimating the length of time that a rock has been exposed at or near Earth's surface.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
A synecdoche (from Greek συνεκδοχή, synekdoche,. "simultaneous understanding") is a figure of speech in which a term for a part of something refers to the whole of something or vice versa.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Teased wool is the stage of wool fiber in preparation for spinning, after it is teased out, prior to carding.
The Teloschistales are an order of mostly lichen-forming fungi belonging to the class Lecanoromycetes in the division Ascomycota.
Terete is a term used in botany to describe a cross section that is circular, or like a distorted circle, with a single surface wrapping around it.
A terricolous lichen is a lichen that grows on the soil as a substrate.
Thallus (plural: thalli), from Latinized Greek θαλλός (thallos), meaning "a green shoot" or "twig", is the undifferentiated vegetative tissue of some organisms in diverse groups such as algae, fungi, some liverworts, lichens, and the Myxogastria.
Timișoara (Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar; Temesvár,; טעמשוואר; Темишвар / Temišvar; Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár; Temeşvar; Temešvár) is the capital city of Timiș County, and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania.
Traditional dyes of the Scottish Highlands are the native vegetable dyes used in Scottish Gaeldom.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
Trebouxia is a genus of unicellular green algae in the family Trebouxiaceae.
The Trebouxiophyceae are a class of green algae, in the division Chlorophyta.
Trentepohlia is a genus of filamentous chlorophyte green algae in the family Trentepohliaceae, living free on terrestrial supports such as tree trunks and wet rocks or symbiotically in lichens.
Trouble with Lichen (published 1960) is a science fiction novel by John Wyndham.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
Umbilicaria esculenta is a lichen of the genus Umbilicaria that grows on rocks, also known as rock tripe.
An umbilicate lichen is a lichen that is only attached to its substrate at a single point.
Usnea is a genus of mostly pale grayish-green fruticose lichens that grow like leafless mini-shrubs or tassels anchored on bark or twigs.
Usnic acid is a naturally occurring dibenzofuran derivative found in several lichen species with the formula C18H16O7.
A vagrant lichen is a lichen that is either not attached to a substrate, or can become unattached then blow around, yet continue to grow and flourish.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
Vulpinic acid is a naturally occurring methyl ester derivative of pulvinic acid found in several lichen species, as well as some non-lichenized fungi.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
Wila (Bryoria fremontii) is a dark brown, hair-like lichen that grows hanging from trees in western North America, and northern Europe and Asia.
William (Wilhem) Nylander (3 January 1822 in Oulu – 29 March 1899 in Paris) was a Finnish botanist and entomologist.
Woodland, is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade.
Xanthoparmelia (rock-shield lichen) is a genus of foliose lichen in the Parmeliaceae family.
Xanthoria is a genus of lichenized fungi in the family Teloschistaceae.
Xanthoria elegans, commonly known as the elegant sunburst lichen, is a lichenized species of fungus in the genus Xanthoria, family Teloschistaceae.
Xanthoria parietina is a foliose, or leafy, lichen.
Yosemite National Park is an American national park lying in the western Sierra Nevada of California.
Biatorine, Cortication, Crottle, Crustose placodioid lichen, Crustose placoidioid, Ecorticate, Epinecral layer, Exciple, Lecideine, Lichenes, Lichenized fungus, Lichens, Lirellae, Macro-lichen, Macrolichen, Mazaedium, Micro-lichen, Microlichen, Mycobiont, Pd test, Photobiont, Phycobiont, Placodiod lichen, Placoidioid, Rhizene, Rhizenes, Yellow reindeer moss.