452 relations: Abiogenesis, Acetyl-CoA, Adaptation, Adenine, Adenosine triphosphate, Afterlife, Age of the Earth, Age of the universe, Alexander Oparin, Algebraic topology, Amino acid, Amoebozoa, Amphibian, Anabolism, Animal, Annalen der Physik, Antiparallel (biochemistry), Archaea, Archaeplastida, Archean, Aristotle, Aristotle's biology, Arizona State University, Artificial life, Asexual reproduction, Associated Press, Asteroid, Astrobiology, Astrobiology (journal), Astrobiology Magazine, Atmosphere of Earth, Atomism, Australia, Autonomous agent, Autopoiesis, Backbone chain, Bacteria, Base pair, BBC News, BBC Online, Big Bang, Binomial nomenclature, Biochemistry, Bioenergetics, Biogenesis, Biogenic substance, Biogeochemical cycle, Biological engineering, Biological interaction, Biological life cycle, ..., Biological network, Biological organisation, Biological process, Biology, Biomass (ecology), Biomolecule, Biophysics, Biopolymer, BIOS-3, Biosignature, Biosphere, Biosphere 2, Biotechnology, Biotic material, Bya, Carbon, Carl Linnaeus, Catabolism, Catalysis, Category theory, Cell (biology), Cell adhesion, Cell biology, Cell division, Cell growth, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cell signaling, Cell theory, Cellular respiration, Cengage, Centipede, Cephalopod, Cetacea, Charles Darwin, Chemical element, Chemotaxis, Chicken or the egg, Chirality (chemistry), Chloroplast, CHON, Chromatin, Chromosome, Circumstellar habitable zone, Clade, Cladistics, Classical element, Clone (cell biology), Colony (biology), Common descent, Cosmic dust, Covalent bond, Crustacean, Cyanobacteria, Cysteine, Cytoplasm, Cytosine, Darwinism, Death, Defective interfering particle, Demiurge, Democritus, Deoxyribose, Detritivore, Detritus, Diffusion, Digital data, Disease, Dispersion (chemistry), DNA, DNA replication, Domain (biology), Drake equation, Dynamical system, Earliest known life forms, Earth, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Earth system science, East Tennessee State University, Echinoderm, Ecosystem, Empedocles, Endocrine system, Endolith, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endosymbiont, Energy flow (ecology), Entropy and life, Environment (biophysical), Enzyme catalysis, Epicurus, Epigenetics, Ernst Haeckel, Erwin Schrödinger, Eugene Wigner, Eukaryote, European Geosciences Union, Everyday life, Evolution, Evolutionary developmental biology, Evolutionary history of life, Excavata, Excite, Extinction, Extinction event, Extraterrestrial life, Extreme environment, Extremophile, Fission (biology), Flux, Food chain, Forbes, Fossil, Francesco Redi, Francis Crick, Friedrich Miescher, Friedrich Nietzsche, Friedrich Wöhler, Functional organization, Fungus, Gaia hypothesis, Gene, Gene expression, Genetic code, Genetics, Geologic time scale, Georg Ernst Stahl, Geosphere, Gerald Joyce, Germ cell, Giant planet, Gizmodo, Glycerol, Glycerol 3-phosphate, Golgi apparatus, Grand Prismatic Spring, Graphite, Gravitational biology, Guanine, Habitability of natural satellites, Habitat, Harold J. Morowitz, Helper virus, Henri Bergson, Henri Dutrochet, Herbert Copeland, Heredity, Hermann von Helmholtz, Histone, History of Earth, Hoh Rainforest, Holocene, Homeopathy, Homeostasis, Hot spring, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrosphere, Hydrothermal vent, Hylomorphism, Hypothetical types of biochemistry, Inorganic compound, International Journal of Astrobiology, Interphase, Invertebrate, James Grier Miller, James Hutton, James Lovelock, James Watson, John Desmond Bernal, John Scales Avery, Julius von Mayer, Justus von Liebig, Juxtacrine signalling, Kingdom (biology), Kitaa, Last universal common ancestor, Late Heavy Bombardment, Lichen, Life on Mars, Life on Venus, Linnaean taxonomy, Lipid, Lipid bilayer, Lists of organisms by population, Lithosphere, Live Science, Living systems, Louis Pasteur, Lysosome, Maasai Mara, Macromolecule, Main sequence, Malnutrition, Mammal, Mariana Trench, Marie François Xavier Bichat, Mechanism (philosophy), Membrane, Metabolism, Metasedimentary rock, Meteorite, Meteoroid, Methionine, Microbial mat, Microbiology, Microorganism, Microstate (statistical mechanics), Miller–Urey experiment, Mindspark Interactive Network, Mitochondrion, Mitosis, Molecular biology, Molecule, Mollusca, Monera, Monomer, Monosaccharide, Morphology (biology), Multi-agent system, Multicellular organism, Mutation, NASA, National Geographic, National Science Foundation, Natural environment, Natural satellite, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Nature Geoscience, Negative feedback, Negentropy, Nervous system, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nitrogen, Nitrogenous base, Non-cellular life, Non-coding DNA, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid double helix, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleobase, Nucleotide, Nutrient, Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt, Odic force, Oligotroph, On the Soul, Open system (systems theory), Opisthokont, Organelle, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organic matter, Organism, Outer space, Oxygen, Ozone layer, Panspermia, Paraphyly, PDF, Personal life, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Phosphate, Phosphite ester, Phospholipid, Phosphorus, Phosphorylation, Photosynthesis, Phototropism, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Physical body, Physics, Physiology, Planetary system, Plant, PLOS Biology, Poison, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polymer, Polynucleotide, Polyphyly, Polysaccharide, Positive feedback, Predation, Prion, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Prokaryote, Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Protist, Protocell, Protozoa, Pseudoscience, Psychrophile, Publishing houses in the Soviet Union, Pyrimidine, Radioresistance, Range (biology), Red dwarf, Red giant, Reductionism, Reincarnation, René Descartes, Reproduction, Resurrection, Reuters, Ribosome, Ribozyme, RNA, RNA world, Robert Rosen (theoretical biologist), Robert Ulanowicz, Robert Whittaker, Robotics, Rock (geology), Rosalind Franklin, Rudolf Virchow, Rwenzori Mountains, Sandstone, SAR supergroup, Satellite (biology), Scavenger, Schreibersite, Science Daily, Scientific consensus, Scorpion, Search for extraterrestrial intelligence, Sedimentary rock, Self-organization, Self-sustainability, Senescence, Sexual reproduction, Sidney W. Fox, Signalling theory, Simulation, Small Solar System body, Soil, Solar System, Soul, Species, Spontaneous generation, Springer Science+Business Media, Stellar evolution, Stephen Blair Hedges, Stimulus (physiology), Stoicism, Stratum, Stuart Kauffman, Sulfur, Supernova, Symbiosis, Synthetic biology, System, Systems biology, Taxon, Taxonomy (biology), Teleology, Thallophyte, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Theodor Schwann, Theory of forms, Thermodynamic cycle, Thermodynamic free energy, Thermodynamic system, Thomas Cech, Three-domain system, Thymine, Tidal locking, Timeline of the evolutionary history of life, Tonne, Trace fossil, Transcription (biology), Ultraviolet, Unicellular organism, Universe, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Uracil, Urea, Vacuole, Vermes, Vertebrate, Viable system theory, Viroid, Virology, Virus, Virus classification, Vitalism, Wöhler synthesis, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, Western Australia, Wilhelm Dilthey, Wired (magazine), World view, X-ray crystallography, Xerophile, Yale University Press, Yellowstone National Park, Zoophyte, 1,000,000,000. 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Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed.
In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.
Alexander Ivanovich Oparin (Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Опа́рин) (– April 21, 1980) was a Soviet biochemist notable for his theories about the origin of life, and for his book The Origin of Life.
Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amoebozoa is a major taxonomic group containing about 2,400 described species of amoeboid protists, often possessing blunt, fingerlike, lobose pseudopods and tubular mitochondrial cristae.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.
In biochemistry, two biopolymers are antiparallel if they run parallel to each other but with opposite alignments.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
The Archaeplastida (or kingdom Plantae sensu lato) are a major group of eukaryotes, comprising the red algae (Rhodophyta), the green algae, and the land plants, together with a small group of freshwater unicellular algae called glaucophytes.
The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Aristotle's biology is the theory of biology, grounded in systematic observation and collection of data, mainly zoological, embodied in Aristotle's books on the science.
Arizona State University (commonly referred to as ASU or Arizona State) is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix metropolitan area, and four regional learning centers throughout Arizona.
Artificial life (often abbreviated ALife or A-Life) is a field of study wherein researchers examine systems related to natural life, its processes, and its evolution, through the use of simulations with computer models, robotics, and biochemistry.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
Astrobiology is a branch of biology concerned with the origins, early evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.
Astrobiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life across the universe.
Astrobiology Magazine (exploring the solar system and beyond), or Astrobiology Mag, is an American NASA-sponsored international online popular science magazine containing popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
An autonomous agent is an intelligent agent operating on an owner's behalf but without any interference of that ownership entity.
The term autopoiesis refers to a system capable of reproducing and maintaining itself.
In polymer science, the backbone chain of a polymer is the longest series of covalently bonded atoms that together create the continuous chain of the molecule.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
BBC Online, formerly known as BBCi, is the BBC's online service.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Bioenergetics is a field in biochemistry and cell biology that concerns energy flow through living systems.
Biogenesis is the production of new living organisms or organelles.
A biogenic substance is a substance produced by life processes.
In geography and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.
Biological engineering or bio-engineering is the application of principles of biology and the tools of engineering to create usable, tangible, economically viable products.
Biological interactions are the effects that the organisms in a community have on each other.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
A biological network is any network that applies to biological systems.
Biological organization is the hierarchy of complex biological structures and systems that define life using a reductionistic approach.
Biological processes are the processes vital for a living organism to live.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.
BIOS-3 is a closed ecosystem at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk, Russia.
A biosignature (sometimes called chemical fossil or molecular fossil) is any substance – such as an element, isotope, molecule, or phenomenon – that provides scientific evidence of past or present life.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Biosphere 2 is an American Earth system science research facility located in Oracle, Arizona.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from living organisms.
bya or b.y.a. is an abbreviation for "billion years ago".
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Category theory formalizes mathematical structure and its concepts in terms of a labeled directed graph called a category, whose nodes are called objects, and whose labelled directed edges are called arrows (or morphisms).
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell adhesion is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell surface.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.
Centipedes (from Latin prefix centi-, "hundred", and pes, pedis, "foot") are arthropods belonging to the class Chilopoda of the subphylum Myriapoda, an arthropod group which also includes Millipedes and other multi-legged creatures.
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus.
The chicken or the egg causality dilemma is commonly stated as "which came first: the chicken or the egg?".
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
CHON is a mnemonic acronym for the four most common elements in living organisms: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
In astronomy and astrobiology, the circumstellar habitable zone (CHZ), or simply the habitable zone, is the range of orbits around a star within which a planetary surface can support liquid water given sufficient atmospheric pressure.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
A clone is a group of identical cells that share a common ancestry, meaning they are derived from the same cell.
In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.
Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
In virology, defective interfering particles (DIPs), also known as defective interfering viruses, are spontaneously generated virus mutants in which a critical portion of the particle's genome has been lost due to defective replication or non-homologous recombination.
In the Platonic, Neopythagorean, Middle Platonic, and Neoplatonic schools of philosophy, the demiurge is an artisan-like figure responsible for fashioning and maintaining the physical universe.
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C.
Detritivores, also known as detrivores, detritophages, detritus feeders, or detritus eaters, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as feces).
In biology, detritus is dead particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material).
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
A dispersion is a system in which particles are dispersed in a continuous phase of a different composition (or state).
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist.
The Drake equation is a probabilistic argument used to estimate the number of active, communicative extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy.
In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space.
The earliest known life forms on Earth are putative fossilized microorganisms found in hydrothermal vent precipitates.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on physical, chemical and mechanical processes of the Earth and other planets, including extrasolar ones.
Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences.
East Tennessee State University (ETSU) is a public university located in Johnson City, Tennessee.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
An endolith is an organism (archaeon, bacterium, fungus, lichen, algae or amoeba) that lives inside rock, coral, animal shells, or in the pores between mineral grains of a rock.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.
Left: Energy flow diagram of a frog.
Research concerning the relationship between the thermodynamic quantity entropy and the evolution of life began around the turn of the 20th century.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.
Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.
Eugene Paul "E.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
The European Geosciences Union (EGU) is a non-profit international union in the fields of Earth, planetary, and space sciences.
Everyday life, daily life or routine life comprises the ways in which people typically act, think, and feel on a daily basis.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary developmental biology (informally, evo-devo) is a field of biological research that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to infer the ancestral relationships between them and how developmental processes evolved.
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.
Excavata is a major supergroup of unicellular organisms belonging to the domain Eukaryota.
Excite (stylized as excite) is an internet portal launched in December 1995 that provides a variety of content including news and weather, a metasearch engine, a web-based email, instant messaging, stock quotes, and a customizable user homepage.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.
Extraterrestrial life,Where "extraterrestrial" is derived from the Latin extra ("beyond", "not of") and terrestris ("of Earth", "belonging to Earth").
An 'extreme environment' contains conditions that are hard to survive for most known life forms.
An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.
Fission, in biology, is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original.
Flux describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
Forbes is an American business magazine.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Francesco Redi (18 February 1626 – 1 March 1697) was an Italian physician, naturalist, biologist and poet.
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
Johannes Friedrich Miescher (13 August 1844 – 26 August 1895) was a Swiss physician and biologist.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.
Functional organization is a type of organizational structure that uses the principle of specialization based on function or role.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The Gaia hypothesis, also known as the Gaia theory or the Gaia principle, proposes that living organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic and self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
Georg Ernst Stahl (22 October 1659 – 24 May 1734) was a German chemist, physician and philosopher.
There are several conflicting definitions for geosphere.
Gerald Francis "Jerry" Joyce (born 1956) is a professor and researcher at Salk Institute for Biological Studies and the director of the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation.
A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.
A giant planet is any massive planet.
Gizmodo is a design, technology, science and science fiction website that also features articles on politics.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
sn-Glycerol 3-phosphate is a phosphoric ester of glycerol, which is a component of glycerophospholipids.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
The Grand Prismatic Spring in Yellowstone National Park is the largest hot spring in the United States, and the third largest in the world, after Frying Pan Lake in New Zealand and Boiling Lake in Dominica.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Gravitational biology is the study of the effects gravity has on living organisms.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
The habitability of natural satellites is a measure of the potential of natural satellites to have environments hospitable to life.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Harold Joseph Morowitz (December 4, 1927 – March 22, 2016) was an American biophysicist who studied the application of thermodynamics to living systems.
A helper virus is a virus used when producing copies of a helper dependent viral vector which does not have the ability to replicate on its own.
Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.
René Joachim Henri Dutrochet (November 14, 1776 – February 4, 1847) was a French physician, botanist and physiologist.
Herbert Faulkner Copeland (May 21, 1902 – Jan 31, 1968) was an American Copeland, Herb.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day.
The Hoh Rainforest is located on the Olympic Peninsula in western Washington state, USA.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
Hylomorphism (or hylemorphism) is a philosophical theory developed by Aristotle, which conceives being (ousia) as a compound of matter and form.
Hypothetical types of biochemistry are forms of biochemistry speculated to be scientifically viable but not proven to exist at this time.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
The International Journal of Astrobiology (IJA) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 2002 and published by Cambridge University Press that covers research on the prebiotic chemistry, origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life on Earth and beyond, SETI (Search for extraterrestrial intelligence), societal and educational aspects of astrobiology.
Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
James Grier Miller (19167 November 2002, California) was an American biologist, a pioneer of systems science and academic administrator, who originated the modern use of the term "behavioral science", founded and directed the multi-disciplinary Mental Health Research Institute at the University of Michigan,G.A. Swanson.
James Hutton (3 June 1726 – 26 March 1797) was a Scottish geologist, physician, chemical manufacturer, naturalist, and experimental agriculturalist.
James Ephraim Lovelock, (born 26 July 1919) is an independent scientist, environmentalist, and futurist who lives in Dorset, England.
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.
John Desmond Bernal (10 May 1901 – 15 September 1971) was an Irish scientist who pioneered the use of X-ray crystallography in molecular biology.
John Scales Avery (born in 1933 in Lebanon to American parents) is a theoretical chemist noted for his research publications in quantum chemistry, thermodynamics, evolution, and history of science.
Julius Robert Mayer (November 25, 1814 – March 20, 1878) was a German physician, chemist and physicist and one of the founders of thermodynamics.
Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.
In biology, juxtacrine signalling (or contact-dependent signalling) is a type of cell / cell or cell / extracellular matrix signalling in multicellular organisms that requires close contact.
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
Kitaa, originally Vestgrønland ("West Greenland"), is a former administrative division (landsdel) of Greenland.
The last universal common ancestor (LUCA), also called the last universal ancestor (LUA), cenancestor, or (incorrectlyThere is a common misconception that definitions of LUCA and progenote are the same; however, progenote is defined as an organism “still in the process of evolving the relationship between genotype and phenotype”, and it is only hypothesed that LUCA is a progenote.) progenote, is the most recent population of organisms from which all organisms now living on Earth have a common descent.
The Late Heavy Bombardment (abbreviated LHB and also known as the lunar cataclysm) is an event thought to have occurred approximately 4.1 to 3.8 billion years (Ga) ago, at a time corresponding to the Neohadean and Eoarchean eras on Earth.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
The possibility of life on Mars is a subject of significant interest to astrobiology due to its proximity and similarities to Earth.
The speculation of life currently existing on Venus decreased significantly since the early 1960s, when spacecraft began studying Venus and it became clear that the conditions on Venus are extreme compared to those on Earth.
Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
This is a collection of lists of organisms by their population.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
Live Science is a science news website run by Purch, which it purchased from Imaginova in 2009.
Living systems are open self-organizing life forms that interact with their environment.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
Maasai Mara National Reserve (also known as Maasai Mara, Masai Mara and by the locals as The Mara) is a large game reserve in Narok County, Kenya, contiguous with the Serengeti National Park in Mara Region, Tanzania.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part of the world's oceans.
Marie François Xavier Bichat (14 November 1771 – 22 July 1802) was a French anatomist and pathologist, known as the father of histology.
Mechanism is the belief that natural wholes (principally living things) are like complicated machines or artifacts, composed of parts lacking any intrinsic relationship to each other.
A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
In geology, metasedimentary rock is a type of metamorphic rock.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
A microbial mat is a multi-layered sheet of microorganisms, mainly bacteria and archaea.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
In statistical mechanics, a microstate is a specific microscopic configuration of a thermodynamic system that the system may occupy with a certain probability in the course of its thermal fluctuations.
The Miller–Urey experiment (or Miller experiment) was a chemical experiment that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early Earth, and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions.
Mindspark Interactive Network, Inc. was an operating business unit of IAC known for the development and marketing of entertainment and personal computing software, as well as mobile application development.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Monera (Greek - μονήρης (monḗrēs), "single", "solitary") is a kingdom that contains unicellular organisms with a prokaryotic cell organization (having no nuclear membrane), such as bacteria.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
A multi-agent system (MAS or "self-organized system") is a computerized system composed of multiple interacting intelligent agents.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nature Geoscience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
The negentropy has different meanings in information theory and theoretical biology.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
A nitrogenous base, or nitrogen-containing base, is an organic molecule with a nitrogen atom that has the chemical properties of a base.
Non-cellular life is life that exists without a cellular structure for at least part of its life cycle.
In genomics and related disciplines, noncoding DNA sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
The Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt (NGB) is a sequence of metamorphosed mafic to ultramafic volcanic and associated sedimentary rocks (a greenstone belt) located on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay, 40 km southeast of Inukjuak, Quebec.
The Odic force (also called Od, Odyle, Önd, Odes, Odylic, Odyllic, or Odems) is the name given in the mid-19th century to a hypothetical vital energy or life force by Baron Carl von Reichenbach.
An oligotroph is an organism that can live in an environment that offers very low levels of nutrients.
On the Soul (Greek Περὶ Ψυχῆς, Peri Psychēs; Latin De Anima) is a major treatise written by Aristotle c.350 B.C..
An open system is a system that has external interactions.
The opisthokonts (Greek: ὀπίσθιος (opísthios).
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.
Panspermia is the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed by space dust, meteoroids, asteroids, comets, planetoids, and also by spacecraft carrying unintended contamination by microorganisms.
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Personal life is the course of an individual's life, especially when viewed as the sum of personal choices contributing to one's personal identity.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
In chemistry a phosphite ester or organophosphite usually refers to an organophosphorous compound with the formula P(OR)3.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phototropism is the growth of an organism which responds to a light stimulus.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
In physics, a physical body or physical object (or simply a body or object) is an identifiable collection of matter, which may be constrained by an identifiable boundary, and may move as a unit by translation or rotation, in 3-dimensional space.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in or out of orbit around a star or star system.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
PLOS Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of Biology.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
A polynucleotide molecule is a biopolymer composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers covalently bonded in a chain.
A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
A protocell (or protobiont) is a self-organized, endogenously ordered, spherical collection of lipids proposed as a stepping-stone to the origin of life.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
Psychrophiles or cryophiles (adj. psychrophilic or cryophilic) are extremophilic organisms that are capable of growth and reproduction in low temperatures, ranging from −20 °C to +10 °C.
Publishing houses in the Soviet Union, were a series of publishing enterprises which existed in the Soviet Union.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
Radioresistance is the level of ionizing radiation that organisms are able to withstand.
In biology, the range of a species is the geographical area within which that species can be found.
A red dwarf (or M dwarf) is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
Resurrection is the concept of coming back to life after death.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes) are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
The RNA world is a hypothetical stage in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, in which self-replicating RNA molecules proliferated before the evolution of DNA and proteins.
Robert Rosen (June 27, 1934 – December 28, 1998) was an American theoretical biologist and Professor of Biophysics at Dalhousie University.
Robert Edward Ulanowicz is an American theoretical ecologist and philosopher of Polish descent who in his search for a unified theory of ecology has formulated a paradigm he calls Process Ecology.
Robert Harding Whittaker (December 27, 1920 – October 20, 1980) was a distinguished American plant ecologist, active in the 1950s to the 1970s.
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 192016 April 1958) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.
Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health.
The Rwenzori Mountains, previously called the "Ruwenzori Range" (spelling changed around 1980 to conform more closely with the local name Rwenjura), is a mountain range of eastern equatorial Africa, located on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Sar or Harosa (informally the SAR supergroup) is a clade that includes stramenopiles (heterokonts), alveolates, and Rhizaria.
A satellite is a subviral agent composed of nucleic acid that depends on the co-infection of a host cell with a helper virus for its replication.
Scavenging is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.
Schreibersite is generally a rare iron nickel phosphide mineral, (Fe,Ni)3P, though common in iron-nickel meteorites.
Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of study.
Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.
The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) is a collective term for scientific searches for intelligent extraterrestrial life, for example, monitoring electromagnetic radiation for signs of transmissions from civilizations on other planets.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Self-organization, also called (in the social sciences) spontaneous order, is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system.
Self-sustainability (also called self-sufficiency) is the state of not requiring any aid, support, or interaction for survival; it is a type of personal or collective autonomy.
Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Sidney Walter Fox (24 March 1912 – 10 August 1998) was a Los Angeles-born biochemist responsible for discoveries on the origins of life.
Within evolutionary biology, signalling theory is a body of theoretical work examining communication between individuals, both within species and across species.
Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.
A small Solar System body (SSSB) is an object in the Solar System that is neither a planet, nor a dwarf planet, nor a natural satellite.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Spontaneous generation refers to an obsolete body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organisms without descent from similar organisms.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes over the course of time.
Stephen Blair Hedges (known as S. Blair Hedges) is Laura H. Carnell Professor of Science and director of the Center for Biodiversity at Temple University where he researches the tree of life and leads conservation efforts in Haiti and elsewhere.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
Stuart Alan Kauffman (born September 28, 1939) is an American medical doctor, theoretical biologist, and complex systems researcher who studies the origin of life on Earth.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.
The thallophytes (Thallophyta or Thallobionta) are a polyphyletic group of non-mobile organisms traditionally described as "thalloid plants", "relatively simple plants" or "lower plants".
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Theodor Schwann (7 December 1810 – 11 January 1882) was a German physiologist.
The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.
A thermodynamic cycle consists of a linked sequence of thermodynamic processes that involve transfer of heat and work into and out of the system, while varying pressure, temperature, and other state variables within the system, and that eventually returns the system to its initial state.
The thermodynamic free energy is the amount of work that a thermodynamic system can perform.
A thermodynamic system is the material and radiative content of a macroscopic volume in space, that can be adequately described by thermodynamic state variables such as temperature, entropy, internal energy, and pressure.
Thomas Robert Cech (born December 8, 1947) is an American chemist who shared the 1989 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Sidney Altman, for their discovery of the catalytic properties of RNA.
The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1977 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
Tidal locking (also called gravitational locking or captured rotation) occurs when the long-term interaction between a pair of co-orbiting astronomical bodies drives the rotation rate of at least one of them into the state where there is no more net transfer of angular momentum between this body (e.g. a planet) and its orbit around the second body (e.g. a star); this condition of "no net transfer" must be satisfied over the course of one orbit around the second body.
This timeline of the evolutionary history of life represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
A trace fossil, also ichnofossil (ιχνος ikhnos "trace, track"), is a geological record of biological activity.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.
Vermes ("worms") is an obsolete taxon used by Carl Linnaeus and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck for non-arthropod invertebrate animals.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Viable system theory (VST) concerns cybernetic processes in relation to the development/evolution of dynamical systems.
Viroids are the smallest infectious pathogens known.
Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Virus classification is the process of naming viruses and placing them into a taxonomic system.
Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".
The Wöhler synthesis is the conversion of ammonium cyanate into urea.
Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd (established 1948), often shortened to W&N or Weidenfeld, is a British publisher of fiction and reference books.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
Wilhelm Dilthey (19 November 1833 – 1 October 1911) was a German historian, psychologist, sociologist, and hermeneutic philosopher, who held G. W. F. Hegel's Chair in Philosophy at the University of Berlin.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
A xerophile is an extremophilic organism that can grow and reproduce in conditions with a low availability of water, also known as water activity.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho.
A zoophyte is an animal that visually resembles a plant.
1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.
Biological life, Biota (biology), Biota (taxonomy), Characteristics of life, Characteristics of living things, Definition of life, Earthlife, Living systems theories, Living thing, Organic lifeform, Vital state.