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# Lift (force)

A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it. [1]

122 relations: Aerobatics, Aerodynamic force, Aerostatics, Airfoil, Airplane, Angle of attack, Bat, Bernoulli's principle, Bilgeboard, Biot–Savart law, Bird, Blown flap, Boomerang, Boundary layer, Boundary value problem, Branch point, Buoyancy, Camber (aerodynamics), Centreboard, Chimney, Chord (aeronautics), Circulation (fluid dynamics), Circulation control wing, Climb (aeronautics), Computational fluid dynamics, Conformal map, Conservation of energy, Conservation of mass, Conservative vector field, Control volume, Correlation and dependence, Cruise (aeronautics), Curl (mathematics), Delta wing, Density of air, Descent (aeronautics), Dimensional analysis, Dimensionless quantity, Diving plane, Downforce, Drag (physics), Drag coefficient, Entrainment (hydrodynamics), Equation of state, Euler equations (fluid dynamics), Fin, Fixed-wing aircraft, Flettner rotor, Flipper (anatomy), Flow separation, ... Expand index (72 more) »

## Aerobatics

Aerobatics (a portmanteau of aerial-acrobatics) is the practice of flying maneuvers involving aircraft attitudes that are not used in normal flight.

## Aerodynamic force

The aerodynamic force is the force exerted on a body by the air (or some other gas) in which the body is immersed, and is due to the relative motion between the body and the gas.

## Aerostatics

A subfield of fluid statics, aerostatics is the study of gases that are not in motion with respect to the coordinate system in which they are considered.

## Airfoil

An airfoil (American English) or aerofoil (British English) is the shape of a wing, blade (of a propeller, rotor, or turbine), or sail (as seen in cross-section).

## Airplane

An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine.

## Angle of attack

In fluid dynamics, angle of attack (AOA, or \alpha (Greek letter alpha)) is the angle between a reference line on a body (often the chord line of an airfoil) and the vector representing the relative motion between the body and the fluid through which it is moving.

## Bat

Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.

## Bernoulli's principle

In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.

## Bilgeboard

A bilgeboard is a lifting foil used in a sailboat, which resembles a cross between a centerboard and a leeboard.

## Biot–Savart law

In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the Biot–Savart law is an equation describing the magnetic field generated by a stationary electric current.

## Bird

Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

## Blown flap

Blown flaps, or jet flaps, are powered aerodynamic high-lift devices used on the wings of certain aircraft to improve their low-speed flight characteristics.

## Boomerang

A boomerang is a thrown tool, typically constructed as a flat airfoil, that is designed to spin about an axis perpendicular to the direction of its flight.

## Boundary layer

In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is an important concept and refers to the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant.

## Boundary value problem

In mathematics, in the field of differential equations, a boundary value problem is a differential equation together with a set of additional constraints, called the boundary conditions.

## Branch point

In the mathematical field of complex analysis, a branch point of a multi-valued function (usually referred to as a "multifunction" in the context of complex analysis) is a point such that the function is discontinuous when going around an arbitrarily small circuit around this point.

## Buoyancy

In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.

## Camber (aerodynamics)

In aeronautics and aeronautical engineering, camber is the asymmetry between the two acting surfaces of an aerofoil, with the top surface of a wing (or correspondingly the front surface of a propeller blade) commonly being more convex (positive camber).

## Centreboard

A centreboard or centerboard (US) is a retractable keel which pivots out of a slot in the hull of a sailboat, known as a centreboard trunk (UK) or centerboard case (US).

## Chimney

A chimney is a structure that provides ventilation for hot flue gases or smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside atmosphere.

## Chord (aeronautics)

In aeronautics, chord refers to the imaginary straight line joining the leading and trailing edges of an aerofoil.

## Circulation (fluid dynamics)

In fluid dynamics, circulation is the line integral around a closed curve of the velocity field.

## Circulation control wing

A circulation control wing (CCW) is a form of high-lift device for use on the main wing of an aircraft to increase the maximum lift coefficient.

## Climb (aeronautics)

An Embraer ERJ 145 climbing In aviation, a climb is the operation of increasing the altitude of an aircraft.

## Computational fluid dynamics

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows.

## Conformal map

In mathematics, a conformal map is a function that preserves angles locally.

## Conservation of energy

In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.

## Conservation of mass

The law of conservation of mass or principle of mass conservation states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy, the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as system's mass cannot change, so quantity cannot be added nor removed.

## Conservative vector field

In vector calculus, a conservative vector field is a vector field that is the gradient of some function, known in this context as a scalar potential.

## Control volume

In continuum mechanics and thermodynamics, a control volume is a mathematical abstraction employed in the process of creating mathematical models of physical processes.

## Correlation and dependence

In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.

## Cruise (aeronautics)

Cruise is a flight phase that occurs when the aircraft levels after a climb to a set altitude and before it begins to descend.

## Curl (mathematics)

In vector calculus, the curl is a vector operator that describes the infinitesimal rotation of a vector field in three-dimensional Euclidean space.

## Delta wing

The delta wing is a wing shaped in the form of a triangle.

## Density of air

The density of air ρ (Greek: rho) (air density) is the mass per unit volume of Earth's atmosphere.

## Descent (aeronautics)

A descent during air travel is any portion where an aircraft decreases altitude, and is the opposite of an ascent or climb.

## Dimensional analysis

In engineering and science, dimensional analysis is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities by identifying their base quantities (such as length, mass, time, and electric charge) and units of measure (such as miles vs. kilometers, or pounds vs. kilograms) and tracking these dimensions as calculations or comparisons are performed.

## Dimensionless quantity

In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned.

## Diving plane

Diving planes, also known as hydroplanes, are control surfaces found on a submarine which allow the vessel to pitch its bow and stern up or down to assist in the process of submerging or surfacing the boat, as well as controlling depth when submerged.

## Downforce

Downforce is a downwards thrust created by the aerodynamic characteristics of a car.

## Drag (physics)

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.

## Drag coefficient

In fluid dynamics, the drag coefficient (commonly denoted as: \scriptstyle C_\mathrm d\,, \scriptstyle C_\mathrm x\, or \scriptstyle C_\mathrm w\) is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment, such as air or water.

## Entrainment (hydrodynamics)

Entrainment is the transport of fluid across an interface between two bodies of fluid by a shear induced turbulent flux.

## Equation of state

In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation relating state variables which describe the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions, such as pressure, volume, temperature (PVT), or internal energy.

## Euler equations (fluid dynamics)

In fluid dynamics, the Euler equations are a set of quasilinear hyperbolic equations governing adiabatic and inviscid flow.

## Fin

A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure.

## Fixed-wing aircraft

A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft, such as an airplane or aeroplane (note the two different spellings), which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the vehicle's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings.

## Flettner rotor

A Flettner rotor is a smooth cylinder with disc end plates which is spun along its long axis and, as air passes at right angles across it, the Magnus effect causes an aerodynamic force to be generated in the third dimension.

## Flipper (anatomy)

A flipper is a typically flat forelimb evolved for movement through water.

## Flow separation

All solid objects traveling through a fluid (or alternatively a stationary object exposed to a moving fluid) acquire a boundary layer of fluid around them where viscous forces occur in the layer of fluid close to the solid surface.

## Fluid

In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.

## Fluid dynamics

In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.

## Foil (fluid mechanics)

A foil is a solid object with a shape such that when placed in a moving fluid at a suitable angle of attack the lift (force generated perpendicular to the fluid flow) is substantially larger than the drag (force generated parallel to the fluid flow).

## Force

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

## Formula One car

A Formula One car is a single-seat, open cockpit, open-wheel racing car with substantial front and rear wings, and an engine positioned behind the driver, intended to be used in competition at Formula One racing events.

## Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

## Glider (aircraft)

A glider is a heavier-than-air aircraft that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its lifting surfaces, and whose free flight does not depend on an engine.

In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative.

## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

## Helicopter rotor

A helicopter main rotor or rotor system is the combination of several rotary wings (rotor blades) and a control system that generates the aerodynamic lift force that supports the weight of the helicopter, and the thrust that counteracts aerodynamic drag in forward flight.

## Henri Coandă

Henri Marie Coandă (7 June 1886 – 25 November 1972Flight 1973) was a Romanian inventor, aerodynamics pioneer, and builder of an experimental aircraft, the Coandă-1910 described by Coandă in the mid-1950s as the world's first jet, a controversial claim disputed by some and supported by others.

## Hydrofoil

A hydrofoil is a lifting surface, or foil, that operates in water.

## Insect

Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

## Integral

In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.

Jef Raskin (March 9, 1943 – February 26, 2005) was an American human–computer interface expert best known for conceiving and starting the Macintosh project at Apple in the late 1970s.

## Jet (fluid)

A jet is a stream of fluid that is projected into a surrounding medium, usually from some kind of a nozzle, aperture or orifice.

## Kármán vortex street

In fluid dynamics, a Kármán vortex street (or a von Kármán vortex street) is a repeating pattern of swirling vortices, caused by a process known as vortex shedding, which is responsible for the unsteady separation of flow of a fluid around blunt bodies.

## Küssner effect

In fluid dynamics, the Küssner effect describes the unsteady aerodynamic forces on an airfoil or hydrofoil caused by encountering a transverse gust.

## Keel

On boats and ships, the keel is either of two parts: a structural element that sometimes resembles a fin and protrudes below a boat along the central line, or a hydrodynamic element.

## Kite types

Kites are tethered flying objects which fly by using aerodynamic lift, requiring wind, (or towing), for generation of airflow over the lifting surfaces.

## Kutta condition

The Kutta condition is a principle in steady-flow fluid dynamics, especially aerodynamics, that is applicable to solid bodies with sharp corners, such as the trailing edges of airfoils.

## Kutta–Joukowski theorem

The Kutta–Joukowski theorem is a fundamental theorem in aerodynamics used for the calculation of lift of an airfoil and any two-dimensional bodies including circular cylinders translating in a uniform fluid at a constant speed large enough so that the flow seen in the body-fixed frame is steady and unseparated.

## Laplace's equation

In mathematics, Laplace's equation is a second-order partial differential equation named after Pierre-Simon Laplace who first studied its properties.

## Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.

## Lift coefficient

The lift coefficient (CL, CN or Cz) is a dimensionless coefficient that relates the lift generated by a lifting body to the fluid density around the body, the fluid velocity and an associated reference area.

## Lift-induced drag

In aerodynamics, lift-induced drag, induced drag, vortex drag, or sometimes drag due to lift, is an aerodynamic drag force that occurs whenever a moving object redirects the airflow coming at it.

## Lift-to-drag ratio

In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio, is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, divided by the aerodynamic drag it creates by moving through the air.

## Lifting-line theory

The Prandtl lifting-line theory is a mathematical model that predicts lift distribution over a three-dimensional wing based on its geometry.

## Mach number

In fluid dynamics, the Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound.

## Magnus effect

The Magnus effect is an observable phenomenon that is commonly associated with a spinning object that drags air faster around one side, creating a difference in pressure that moves it in the direction of the lower-pressure side.

## Material derivative

In continuum mechanics, the material derivative describes the time rate of change of some physical quantity (like heat or momentum) of a material element that is subjected to a space-and-time-dependent macroscopic velocity field variations of that physical quantity.

## Momentum

In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

## Navier–Stokes equations

In physics, the Navier–Stokes equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of viscous fluid substances.

## Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.

## No-slip condition

In fluid dynamics, the no-slip condition for viscous fluids assumes that at a solid boundary, the fluid will have zero velocity relative to the boundary.

## Oscillation

Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.

## Parasitic drag

Parasitic drag is drag that results when an object is moved through a fluid medium.

## Partial differential equation

In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.

## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

## Planing (boat)

Planing is the mode of operation for a waterborne craft in which its weight is predominantly supported by hydrodynamic lift, rather than hydrostatic lift (buoyancy).

## Potential

Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability.

## Potential flow

In fluid dynamics, potential flow describes the velocity field as the gradient of a scalar function: the velocity potential.

## Pressure

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

## Propeller

A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust.

## Resonance

In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.

## Reynolds number

The Reynolds number is an important dimensionless quantity in fluid mechanics used to help predict flow patterns in different fluid flow situations.

## Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations

The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (or RANS equations) are time-averaged equations of motion for fluid flow.

## Romania

Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

## Rudder

A rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium (generally air or water).

## Sail

A sail is a tensile structure—made from fabric or other membrane materials—that uses wind power to propel sailing craft, including sailing ships, sailboats, windsurfers, ice boats, and even sail-powered land vehicles.

## Sailboat

A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat propelled partly or entirely by sails smaller than a sailing ship.

## Skeg

A skeg, (skegg or skag) is a sternward extension of the keel of boats and ships which have a rudder mounted on the centre line.

## Skin friction drag

Skin friction drag is a component of profile drag, which is resistant force exerted on an object moving in a fluid.

## Spoiler (car)

A spoiler is an automotive aerodynamic device whose intended design function is to 'spoil' unfavorable air movement across a body of a vehicle in motion, usually described as turbulence or drag.

## Stall (fluid mechanics)

In fluid dynamics, a stall is a reduction in the lift coefficient generated by a foil as angle of attack increases.

## Stick and Rudder

Stick and Rudder: An Explanation of the Art of Flying is a book written in 1944 by Wolfgang Langewiesche, describing how airplanes fly and how they should be flown by pilots.

## Streamlines, streaklines, and pathlines

Streamlines, streaklines and pathlines are field lines in a fluid flow.

## Strouhal number

In dimensional analysis, the Strouhal number (St) is a dimensionless number describing oscillating flow mechanisms.

## Superfluidity

Superfluidity is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without loss of kinetic energy.

## Superposition principle

In physics and systems theory, the superposition principle, also known as superposition property, states that, for all linear systems, the net response caused by two or more stimuli is the sum of the responses that would have been caused by each stimulus individually.

## Surface force

Surface force denoted fs is the force that acts across an internal or external surface element in a material body.

## Surfboard fin

A surfboard fin or skeg is a hydrofoil mounted at the tail of a surfboard or similar board to improve directional stability and control through foot-steering.

## True airspeed

The true airspeed (TAS; also KTAS, for knots true airspeed) of an aircraft is the speed of the aircraft relative to the airmass in which it is flying.

## Turbulence modeling

Turbulence modeling is the construction and use of a model to predict the effects of turbulence.

## Viscosity

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

## Vortex

In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved.

## Vortex shedding

In fluid dynamics, vortex shedding is an oscillating flow that takes place when a fluid such as air or water flows past a bluff (as opposed to streamlined) body at certain velocities, depending on the size and shape of the body.

## Vortex-induced vibration

In fluid dynamics, vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) are motions induced on bodies interacting with an external fluid flow, produced by – or the motion producing – periodical irregularities on this flow.

## Vorticity

In continuum mechanics, the vorticity is a pseudovector field that describes the local spinning motion of a continuum near some point (the tendency of something to rotate), as would be seen by an observer located at that point and traveling along with the flow.

## Wind turbine

A wind turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical energy.

## Wing

A wing is a type of fin that produces lift, while moving through air or some other fluid.

## Wingtip vortices

Wingtip vortices are circular patterns of rotating air left behind a wing as it generates lift.

## References

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