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Ligand

Index Ligand

In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex. [1]

153 relations: Acetonitrile, Acetylacetone, Agostic interaction, Alfred Stock, Alfred Werner, Alkene, Alkoxide, Amine, Aminopolycarboxylic acid, Ammonia, Associative substitution, Asymmetric hydrogenation, Aufbau principle, Azide, BAPTA, Benzene, Bioinorganic chemistry, Bis(diphenylphosphino)methane, Bite angle, Bond order, Bromide, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbonate, Carboxylate, Chelation, Chemical reaction, Chirality (chemistry), Chloride, Cholescintigraphy, Color, Coordination complex, Coordination number, Coordination polymer, Copper(II) sulfate, Corrole, Covalent bond, Crown ether, Cryptand, Crystal field theory, Cyanide, Cyclopentadienyl, Cyclopentadienyl complex, Denticity, Diethylenetriamine, Dimethylglyoxime, Dissociative substitution, DNA-binding protein, DOTA (chelator), EGTA (chemical), ..., Electron density, Electron pair, Entropy, Environmental chemistry, Eta, Ether, Ethylenediamine, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Fluoride, Functional group, Fura-2, Glycine, Ground state, Halide, Hapticity, Heme, Hexadentate ligand, Hexol, HOMO/LUMO, Homogeneous catalysis, HSAB theory, Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity, Hydrocarbon, Hydroformylation, Hydrogen, Hydroxide, Iminodiacetic acid, Inorganic chemistry, Iodide, Ion, Ionic bonding, Iron, Isothiocyanate, Josiphos ligands, Kappa, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, Ligand cone angle, Ligand dependent pathway, Ligand field theory, Ligand isomerism, Linkage isomerism, Lone pair, Malcolm Green (chemist), Medicinal chemistry, Metal, Metal ammine complex, Metal carbon dioxide complex, Metal carbonyl, Metal–ligand multiple bond, Molecular geometry, Molecule, Mu (letter), Nitrate, Nitrilotriacetic acid, Nitrite, Nitroso, Non-innocent ligand, Nucleophilic abstraction, Octahedron, Organometallic chemistry, Oxalate, Oxidative addition, Pentetic acid, Phenanthroline, Phosphine, Pi backbonding, Plant, Porphyrin, Properties of water, Protein Data Bank, Prussian blue, Pseudohalogen, Pyrazine, Pyridine, Radioactive tracer, Reactivity (chemistry), Redox, Resonance (chemistry), Scintigraphy, Scorpionate ligand, Silane, Spectrochemical series, Sulfide, Sulfite, Tanabe–Sugano diagram, Technetium-99m, Terpyridine, Thiocyanate, Thioether, Transition metal oxo complex, Tricyclohexylphosphine, Tridentate ligand, Triethylenetetramine, Trimethylphosphine, Triphenylphosphine, Tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, Tropylium cation, Vaska's complex, 1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane, 1,3-Butadiene, 1,4,7-Triazacyclononane, 2,2'-Bipyridine. Expand index (103 more) »

Acetonitrile

Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Acetylacetone

Acetylacetone is an organic compound that exists in two tautomeric forms that interconvert rapidly and are treated as a single compound in most applications.

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Agostic interaction

Agostic interaction is a term in organometallic chemistry for the interaction of a coordinatively-unsaturated transition metal with a C−H bond, when the two electrons involved in the C−H bond enter the empty d-orbital of a transition metal, resulting in a three-center two-electron bond.

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Alfred Stock

Alfred Stock (July 16, 1876 – August 12, 1946) was a German inorganic chemist.

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Alfred Werner

Alfred Werner (12 December 1866 – 15 November 1919) was a Swiss chemist who was a student at ETH Zurich and a professor at the University of Zurich.

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Alkene

In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

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Alkoxide

An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.

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Amine

In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Aminopolycarboxylic acid

a metal complex with the EDTA anion glycinate ion can form a chelate complex with a metal ion An aminopolycarboxylic acid (sometimes abbreviated APCA) is a chemical compound containing one or more nitrogen atoms connected through carbon atoms to two or more carboxyl groups.

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Ammonia

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Associative substitution

Associative substitution describes a pathway by which compounds interchange ligands.

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Asymmetric hydrogenation

Asymmetric hydrogenation is a chemical reaction that adds two atoms of hydrogen preferentially to one of two faces of an unsaturated substrate molecule, such as an alkene or ketone.

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Aufbau principle

The aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels.

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Azide

Azide is the anion with the formula N. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid (HN3).

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BAPTA

BAPTA (1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid) is a calcium-specific aminopolycarboxylic acid.

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Benzene

Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.

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Bioinorganic chemistry

Bioinorganic chemistry is a field that examines the role of metals in biology.

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Bis(diphenylphosphino)methane

1,1-Bis(diphenylphosphino)methane (dppm), is an organophosphorus compound with the formula CH2(PPh2)2.

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Bite angle

The bite angle is a geometric parameter used to classify chelating ligands in coordination chemistry, including organometallic complexes.

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Bond order

Bond order is the number of chemical bonds between a pair of atoms.

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Bromide

A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbonate

In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.

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Carboxylate

A carboxylate is a salt or ester of a carboxylic acid.

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Chelation

Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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Chirality (chemistry)

Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.

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Chloride

The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.

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Cholescintigraphy

Cholescintigraphy or hepatobiliary scintigraphy is scintigraphy of the hepatobiliary tract, including the gallbladder and bile ducts.

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Color

Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.

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Coordination complex

In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

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Coordination number

In chemistry, crystallography, and materials science the coordination number, also called ligancy, of a central atom in a molecule or crystal is the number of atoms, molecules or ions bonded to it.

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Coordination polymer

A coordination polymer is an inorganic or organometallic polymer structure containing metal cation centers linked by ligands.

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Copper(II) sulfate

Copper(II) sulfate, also known as cupric sulfate, or copper sulphate, is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuSO4(H2O)x, where x can range from 0 to 5.

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Corrole

A corrole is an aromatic organic chemical tetrapyrrole, the structure of which is similar to the corrin ring, which is also present in cobalamin (vitamin B12).

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Crown ether

Crown ethers are cyclic chemical compounds that consist of a ring containing several ether groups.

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Cryptand

Cryptands are a family of synthetic bi- and polycyclic multidentate ligands for a variety of cations.

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Crystal field theory

Crystal Field Theory (CFT) is a model that describes the breaking of degeneracies of electron orbital states, usually d or f orbitals, due to a static electric field produced by a surrounding charge distribution (anion neighbors).

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Cyanide

A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.

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Cyclopentadienyl

Cyclopentadienyl can refer to.

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Cyclopentadienyl complex

A cyclopentadienyl complex is a metal complex with one or more cyclopentadienyl groups (abbreviated as Cp−).

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Denticity

Denticity refers to the number of donor groups in a single ligand that bind to a central atom in a coordination complex.

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Diethylenetriamine

Diethylenetriamine (abbreviated DETA and also known as 2,2’-Iminodi(ethylamine)) is an organic compound with the formula HN(CH2CH2NH2)2.

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Dimethylglyoxime

Dimethylglyoxime is a chemical compound described by the formula CH3C(NOH)C(NOH)CH3.

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Dissociative substitution

Dissociative substitution describes a pathway by which compounds interchange ligands.

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DNA-binding protein

DNA-binding proteins are proteins that have DNA-binding domains and thus have a specific or general affinity for single- or double-stranded DNA.

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DOTA (chelator)

DOTA (also known as tetraxetan) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2CH2NCH2CO2H)4.

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EGTA (chemical)

EGTA (ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid), also known as egtazic acid (INN, USAN), is an aminopolycarboxylic acid, a chelating agent.

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Electron density

Electron density is the measure of the probability of an electron being present at a specific location.

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Electron pair

In chemistry, an electron pair or a Lewis pair consists of two electrons that occupy the same molecular orbital but have opposite spins.

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Entropy

In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.

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Environmental chemistry

Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.

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Eta

Eta (uppercase, lowercase; ἦτα ē̂ta or ήτα ita) is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Ether

Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.

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Ethylenediamine

Ethylenediamine (abbreviated as en when a ligand) is the organic compound with the formula C2H4(NH2)2.

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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is a chemical originating in multiseasonal plants with dormancy stages as a lipidopreservative which helps to develop the stem, currently used for both industrial and medical purposes.

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Fluoride

Fluoride.

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Functional group

In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.

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Fura-2

Fura-2, an aminopolycarboxylic acid, is a ratiometric fluorescent dye which binds to free intracellular calcium.

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Glycine

Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.

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Ground state

The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.

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Halide

A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.

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Hapticity

Hapticity is the coordination of a ligand to a metal center via an uninterrupted and contiguous series of atoms.

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Heme

Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.

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Hexadentate ligand

A hexadentate ligand in coordination chemistry is a ligand that combines with a central metal atom with six bonds.

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Hexol

Hexol is the name for various salts of a coordination complex that has historical significance.

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HOMO/LUMO

In chemistry, HOMO and LUMO are types of molecular orbitals.

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Homogeneous catalysis

In chemistry, homogeneous catalysis is catalysis in a solution by a soluble catalyst.

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HSAB theory

HSAB concept is an initialism for "hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases".

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Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity

Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity is a rule based on observation of atomic spectra, which is used to predict the ground state of an atom or molecule with one or more open electronic shells.

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Hydrocarbon

In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydroformylation

Hydroformylation, also known as oxo synthesis or oxo process, is an industrial process for the production of aldehydes from alkenes.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydroxide

Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.

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Iminodiacetic acid

Iminodiacetic acid, HN(CH2CO2H)2, often abbreviated to IDA, is a dicarboxylic acid amine (the nitrogen atom forms a secondary amino group, not an imino group as the name suggests).

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Inorganic chemistry

Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.

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Iodide

An iodide ion is the ion I−.

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Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ionic bonding

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Isothiocyanate

Isothiocyanate is the chemical group –N.

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Josiphos ligands

A Josiphos ligand is a type of chiral diphosphine which has been modified to be substrate specific and is widely used for enantioselective synthesis.

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Kappa

Kappa (uppercase Κ, lowercase κ or cursive ϰ; κάππα, káppa) is the 10th letter of the Greek alphabet, used to represent the sound in Ancient and Modern Greek.

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Lewis acids and bases

A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.

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Ligand

In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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Ligand cone angle

thumb The ligand cone angle (a common example being the Tolman cone angle or θ) is a measure of the size of a ligand.

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Ligand dependent pathway

There are two types of pathway for substitution of ligands in a complex.

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Ligand field theory

Ligand field theory (LFT) describes the bonding, orbital arrangement, and other characteristics of coordination complexes.

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Ligand isomerism

Ligand isomerism is a type of structural isomerism which arises from the presence of ligands which can adopt different isomeric forms.

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Linkage isomerism

Linkage isomerism is the existence of coordination compounds that have the same composition differing with the connectivity of the metal to a ligand.

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Lone pair

In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.

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Malcolm Green (chemist)

Malcolm Leslie Hodder Green (born 16 April 1936) is Emeritus Professor of inorganic chemistry at the University of Oxford.

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Medicinal chemistry

Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).

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Metal

A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Metal ammine complex

In coordination chemistry, metal ammine complexes are metal complexes containing at least one ammonia (NH3) ligand.

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Metal carbon dioxide complex

Metal carbon dioxide complexes are coordination complexes that contain carbon dioxide ligands.

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Metal carbonyl

Metal carbonyls are coordination complexes of transition metals with carbon monoxide ligands.

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Metal–ligand multiple bond

In Chemistry, a metal–ligand multiple bond describes the interaction of certain ligands with a metal with a bond order greater than one.

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Molecular geometry

Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Mu (letter)

Mu (uppercase Μ, lowercase μ; Ancient Greek μῦ, μι or μυ—both) or my is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Nitrate

Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.

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Nitrilotriacetic acid

Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) is the aminopolycarboxylic acid with the formula N(CH2CO2H)3.

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Nitrite

The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.

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Nitroso

Nitroso refers to a functional group in organic chemistry which has the NO group attached to an organic moiety.

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Non-innocent ligand

In chemistry, a (redox) non-innocent ligand is a ligand in a metal complex where the oxidation state is not clear.

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Nucleophilic abstraction

Nucleophilic abstraction is a type of an organometallic reaction which can be defined as a nucleophilic attack on a ligand which causes part or all of the original ligand to be removed from the metal along with the nucleophile.

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Octahedron

In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices.

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Organometallic chemistry

Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.

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Oxalate

Oxalate (IUPAC: ethanedioate) is the dianion with the formula, also written.

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Oxidative addition

Oxidative addition and reductive elimination are two important and related classes of reactions in organometallic chemistry.

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Pentetic acid

Pentetic acid or diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an aminopolycarboxylic acid consisting of a diethylenetriamine backbone with five carboxymethyl groups.

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Phenanthroline

Phenanthroline (phen) is a heterocyclic organic compound.

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Phosphine

Phosphine (IUPAC name: phosphane) is the compound with the chemical formula PH3.

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Pi backbonding

π backbonding, also called π backdonation, is a concept from chemistry in which electrons move from an atomic orbital on one atom to an appropriate symmetry antibonding orbital on a π-acceptor ligand.

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Plant

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Porphyrin

Porphyrins (/phɔɹfɚɪn/ ''POUR-fer-in'') are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (.

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Properties of water

Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.

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Protein Data Bank

The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.

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Prussian blue

Prussian blue is a dark blue pigment produced by oxidation of ferrous ferrocyanide salts.

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Pseudohalogen

The pseudohalogens are polyatomic analogues of halogens, whose chemistry, resembling that of the true halogens, allows them to substitute for halogens in several classes of chemical compounds.

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Pyrazine

Pyrazine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C4H4N2.

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Pyridine

Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.

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Radioactive tracer

A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.

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Reactivity (chemistry)

In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.

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Redox

Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Resonance (chemistry)

In chemistry, resonance or mesomerism is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure.

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Scintigraphy

Scintigraphy ("scint", Latin scintilla, spark) is a diagnostic test in nuclear medicine, where radioisotopes attached to drugs that travel to a specific organ or tissue (radiopharmaceuticals) are taken internally and the emitted gamma radiation is captured by external detectors (gamma cameras) to form two-dimensional images in a similar process to the capture of x-ray images.

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Scorpionate ligand

The term scorpionate ligand refers to a tridentate ligand which would bind to a metal in a ''fac'' manner.

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Silane

Silane is an inorganic compound with chemical formula, SiH4, making it a group 14 hydride.

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Spectrochemical series

A spectrochemical series is a list of ligands ordered on ligand strength and a list of metal ions based on oxidation number, group and its identity.

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Sulfide

Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.

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Sulfite

Sulfites or sulphites are compounds that contain the sulfite ion (or the sulfate(IV) ion, from its correct systematic name),.

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Tanabe–Sugano diagram

Tanabe–Sugano diagrams are used in coordination chemistry to predict absorptions in the UV, visible and IR electromagnetic spectrum of coordination compounds.

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Technetium-99m

Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99 (itself an isotope of technetium), symbolized as 99mTc, that is used in tens of millions of medical diagnostic procedures annually, making it the most commonly used medical radioisotope.

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Terpyridine

Terpyridine (2,2';6',2"-terpyridine, often abbreviated to Terpy or Tpy) is a heterocyclic compound derived from pyridine.

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Thiocyanate

Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.

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Thioether

A thioether is a functional group in organosulfur chemistry with the connectivity C–S–C as shown on right.

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Transition metal oxo complex

A transition metal oxo complex is a coordination complex containing an oxo ligand.

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Tricyclohexylphosphine

Tricyclohexylphosphine is the tertiary phosphine with the formula P(C6H11)3.

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Tridentate ligand

A tridentate ligand (or terdentate ligand) is a ligand that has three atoms that can function as donor atoms in a coordination compound.

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Triethylenetetramine

Triethylenetetramine, abbreviated TETA and trien and also called trientine (INN), is an organic compound with the formula 2.

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Trimethylphosphine

Trimethylphosphine is the organophosphorus compound with the formula P(CH3)3, commonly abbreviated as PMe3.

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Triphenylphosphine

Triphenylphosphine (IUPAC name: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 - often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P.

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Tris(2-aminoethyl)amine

Tris(2-aminoethyl)amine is the organic compound with the formula N(CH2CH2NH2)3.

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Tropylium cation

In organic chemistry, the tropylium ion is an aromatic species with a formula of +. Its name derives from the molecule tropine (itself named for the molecule atropine).

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Vaska's complex

Vaska's complex is the trivial name for the chemical compound trans-carbonylchlorobis(triphenylphosphine)iridium(I), which has the formula IrCl(CO)2.

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1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane

1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (dppe) is an organophosphorus compound with the formula (Ph2PCH2)2 (Ph.

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1,3-Butadiene

1,3-Butadiene is the organic compound with the formula (CH2.

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1,4,7-Triazacyclononane

1,4,7-Triazacyclononane, known as "TACN" which is pronounced "tack-en," is a cyclic organic compound with the formula C6H12(NH)3.

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2,2'-Bipyridine

2,2′-Bipyridine (bipy or bpy, pronounced) is an organic compound with the formula (C10H8N2).

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Ambidentate ligand, Bidentate Ligand, Bidentate ligand, Binucleating ligand, Bulky ligand, L-type ligand, Ligand (chemistry), Ligand exchange, Ligand exchange reaction, Ligands, Polydentate Ligand, Polydentate ligand, Protein Ligand.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ligand

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