232 relations: A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Aether (classical element), Albert A. Michelson, Albert Einstein, André-Marie Ampère, Antiparticle, Aphrodite, Arthur Compton, Asteroid, Atomic theory, Atomism, Augustin-Jean Fresnel, Aurora, Automotive lighting, Étienne-Louis Malus, Ballistic photon, Bioluminescence, Black body, Black hole, Black-body radiation, Bose–Einstein condensate, Bremsstrahlung, Buddhism, Cathode ray tube, Cathodoluminescence, Charge-coupled device, Chemical substance, Chemiluminescence, Cherenkov radiation, Christiaan Huygens, Chromosphere, Classical element, Color, Color temperature, Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Compton scattering, Computer monitor, Cone cell, Contact lens, Corpuscularianism, Crookes radiometer, Cyclotron radiation, Dharmakirti, Dielectric, Diffraction, Dignāga, Double-slit experiment, Earth, Electric discharge in gases, Electric light, ..., Electroluminescence, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electromagnetism, Electron, Emission spectrum, Empedocles, Euclid, Faraday effect, Fermat's principle, Fire, Firefly, Fluorescence, Francesco Maria Grimaldi, French Academy of Sciences, Frequency, Galileo Galilei, Gamma ray, Gear, George F. R. Ellis, Gilbert N. Lewis, Glasses, Gravity, Harvard University, Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Health effects of sunlight exposure, Heinrich Hertz, Hertz, Hindu, Hippolyte Fizeau, History of electric power transmission, History of science and technology in the Indian subcontinent, Human eye, Huygens–Fresnel principle, Ibn al-Haytham, Incandescent light bulb, Infrared, Infrared sensing in snakes, Intensity (physics), International Commission on Illumination, Io (moon), Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Jean-Baptiste Biot, Johannes Kepler, Journal of Luminescence, Journal of the Optical Society of America, Jupiter, Laser, Laser pointer, Léon Foucault, Lens (optics), Leonhard Euler, Light art, Light beam, Light Fantastic (TV series), Light painting, Light pollution, Light therapy, Light-emitting diode, Lighting, List of light sources, Lucretius, Luminescence (journal), Luminiferous aether, Luminous efficacy, Magnetic field, Magnifying glass, Maser, Mathematical constant, Matter, Max Planck, Maxwell's equations, Mechanism (philosophy), Mercury-vapor lamp, Metre per second, Michael Faraday, Michelson–Morley experiment, Micrographia, Micrometre, Microscope, Microwave, Mount San Antonio, Mount Wilson (California), Nanoelectromechanical systems, Nanometre, NASA, Natural gas, Natural satellite, Near and far field, Neon lamp, Neon sign, Newsweek, Newton (unit), Nichols radiometer, Normal (geometry), Ole Rømer, Optical medium, Optical phenomena, Opticks, Optics, Orthogonality, Penny (United States coin), Perpendicular, Phosphorescence, Photic sneeze reflex, Photodetector, Photoelectric effect, Photometry (optics), Photomorphogenesis, Photon, Photosynthesis, Physicist, Physics, Pierre Gassendi, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Polariton, Polarization (waves), Power (physics), Ptolemy, Quantum computing, Quantum mechanics, Radio wave, Radioactive decay, Radiometry, Rainbow, Reflection (physics), Refracting telescope, Refraction, Refractive index, René Descartes, Retina, Retinal, Right to light, Robert Grosseteste, Robert Hooke, Rod cell, Rowland Institute for Science, Rubidium, Samkhya, Science (journal), Scintillation (physics), Siméon Denis Poisson, Snell's law, Sodium, Solar sail, Sonoluminescence, Source, Spectral line, Spectroscopy, Spectrum, Speed of light, Spontaneous emission, Springer Science+Business Media, Stephen Hawking, Stimulated emission, Sun, Sunlight, Synchrotron radiation, Telescope, Television set, Thermal radiation, Thermography, Thomas Young (scientist), Transparency and translucency, Transverse wave, Treatise on Light, Triboluminescence, Ultraviolet, Vacuum, Vaisheshika, Vishnu Purana, Visible spectrum, Visual perception, Vitello, Wave function collapse, Wave packet, Wave–particle duality, Wavelength, Welding, Windmill, X-ray. Expand index (182 more) » « Shrink index
A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism is a two-volume treatise on electromagnetism written by James Clerk Maxwell in 1873.
According to ancient and medieval science, aether (αἰθήρ aithēr), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.
Albert Abraham Michelson FFRS HFRSE (December 19, 1852 – May 9, 1931) was an American physicist known for his work on measuring the speed of light and especially for the Michelson–Morley experiment.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
André-Marie Ampère (20 January 177510 June 1836) was a French physicist and mathematician who was one of the founders of the science of classical electromagnetism, which he referred to as "electrodynamics".
In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.
Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.
Augustin-Jean Fresnel (10 May 178814 July 1827) was a French civil engineer and physicist whose research in optics led to the almost unanimous acceptance of the wave theory of light, excluding any remnant of Newton's corpuscular theory, from the late 1830s until the end of the 19th century.
An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
The lighting system of a motor vehicle consists of lighting and signalling devices mounted or integrated to the front, rear, sides, and in some cases the top of a motor vehicle.
Étienne-Louis Malus (23 July 1775 – 24 February 1812) was a French officer, engineer, physicist, and mathematician.
Ballistic photons are the light photons that travel through a scattering (turbid) medium in a straight line.
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.
A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).
A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.
Bremsstrahlung, from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
Cathodoluminescence is an optical and electromagnetic phenomenon in which electrons impacting on a luminescent material such as a phosphor, cause the emission of photons which may have wavelengths in the visible spectrum.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemiluminescence (also chemoluminescence) is the emission of light (luminescence), as the result of a chemical reaction.
Cherenkov radiation (sometimes spelled "Cerenkov") is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium.
Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.
The chromosphere (literally, "sphere of color") is the second of the three main layers in the Sun's atmosphere and is roughly 3,000 to 5,000 kilometers deep.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source.
Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (English: Proceedings of the Academy of sciences), or simply Comptes rendus, is a French scientific journal which has been published since 1666.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.
Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).
A contact lens, or simply contact, is a thin lens placed directly on the surface of the eye.
Corpuscularianism is a physical theory that supposes all matter to be composed of minute particles.
The Crookes radiometer, also known as a light mill, consists of an airtight glass bulb, containing a partial vacuum.
Cyclotron radiation is electromagnetic radiation emitted by accelerating charged particles deflected by a magnetic field.
Dharmakīrti (fl. c. 6th or 7th century) was an influential Indian Buddhist philosopher who worked at Nālandā.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
Dignāga (a.k.a. Diṅnāga, c. 480 – c. 540 CE) was an Indian Buddhist scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian logic (hetu vidyā).
In modern physics, the double-slit experiment is a demonstration that light and matter can display characteristics of both classically defined waves and particles; moreover, it displays the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical phenomena.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Electric discharge in gases occurs when electric current flows through a gaseous medium due to ionization of the gas.
An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.
Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to the passage of an electric current or to a strong electric field.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".
In physics, the Faraday effect or Faraday rotation is a magneto-optical phenomenon—that is, an interaction between light and a magnetic field in a medium.
In optics, Fermat's principle or the principle of least time, named after French mathematician Pierre de Fermat, is the principle that the path taken between two points by a ray of light is the path that can be traversed in the least time.
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products.
The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Francesco Maria Grimaldi (2 April 1618 – 28 December 1663) was an Italian Jesuit priest, mathematician and physicist who taught at the Jesuit college in Bologna.
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut like teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque.
George Francis Rayner Ellis, FRS, Hon.
Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 25 (or 23), 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.
Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spectacles, are devices consisting of glass or hard plastic lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes, typically using a bridge over the nose and arms which rest over the ears.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a research institute which carries out a broad program of research in astronomy, astrophysics, earth and space sciences, and science education.
The ultraviolet radiation in sunlight has both positive and negative health effects, as it is both a principal source of vitamin D3 and a mutagen.
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau FRS FRSE MIF (23 September 181918 September 1896) was a French physicist, best known for measuring the speed of light in the namesake Fizeau experiment.
The history of the technology of moving electricity far from where it was generated dates from the late 19th century.
The history of science and technology in the Indian Subcontinent begins with prehistoric human activity in the Indus Valley Civilization to early states and empires.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
The Huygens–Fresnel principle (named after Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens and French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel) is a method of analysis applied to problems of wave propagation both in the far-field limit and in near-field diffraction.
Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.
An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The ability to sense infrared thermal radiation evolved independently in several different families of snakes.
In physics, intensity is the power transferred per unit area, where the area is measured on the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the energy.
The International Commission on Illumination (usually abbreviated CIE for its French name, Commission internationale de l'éclairage) is the international authority on light, illumination, colour, and colour spaces.
Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
Jean-Baptiste Biot (21 April 1774 – 3 February 1862) was a French physicist, astronomer, and mathematician who established the reality of meteorites, made an early balloon flight, and studied the polarization of light.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
Journal of Luminescence (ISSN 0953-4075) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published monthly.
The Journal of the Optical Society of America is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of optics, published by The Optical Society.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
A laser pointer or laser pen is a small handheld device with a power source (usually a battery) and a laser diode emitting a very narrow coherent low-powered laser beam of visible light, intended to be used to highlight something of interest by illuminating it with a small bright spot of colored light.
Jean Bernard Léon Foucault (18 September 1819 – 11 February 1868) was a French physicist best known for his demonstration of the Foucault pendulum, a device demonstrating the effect of the Earth's rotation.
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.
Light art or luminism is an applied art form in which light is the main medium of expression.
A light beam or beam of light is a directional projection of light energy radiating from a light source.
Light Fantastic is the title of a television documentary series that explores the phenomenon of light and aired in December 2004 on BBC Four.
Light painting, light drawing, or light art performance photography is a photographic technique in which exposures are made by moving a hand-held light source while taking a long exposure photograph, either to illuminate a subject or to shine a point of light directly at the camera, or by moving the camera itself during exposure.
Light pollution, also known as photopollution, is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment.
Light therapy—or phototherapy, classically referred to as heliotherapy—consists of exposure to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light using polychromatic polarised light, lasers, light-emitting diodes, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.
This is a list of sources of light, including both natural and artificial processes that emit light.
Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.
Luminescence: The Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original scientific papers, short communications, technical notes, and reviews on fundamental and applied aspects of all forms of luminescence, including bioluminescence, chemiluminescence, electrochemiluminescence, sonoluminescence, triboluminescence, fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, and phosphorescence.
In the late 19th century, luminiferous aether or ether ("luminiferous", meaning "light-bearing"), was the postulated medium for the propagation of light.
Luminous efficacy is a measure of how well a light source produces visible light.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
A magnifying glass (called a hand lens in laboratory contexts) is a convex lens that is used to produce a magnified image of an object.
A maser (an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation") is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.
A mathematical constant is a special number that is "significantly interesting in some way".
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.
Mechanism is the belief that natural wholes (principally living things) are like complicated machines or artifacts, composed of parts lacking any intrinsic relationship to each other.
A mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp that uses an electric arc through vaporized mercury to produce light.
Metre per second (American English: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
The Michelson–Morley experiment was performed between April and July, 1887 by Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley at what is now Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and published in November of the same year.
Micrographia: or Some Phyſiological Deſcriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
Mount San Antonio, colloquially referred to as Mount Baldy, is the highest peak of the San Gabriel Mountains, and the highest point in Los Angeles County, California.
Mount Wilson is a peak in the San Gabriel Mountains, located within the San Gabriel Mountains National Monument and Angeles National Forest in Los Angeles County, California.
Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) are a class of devices integrating electrical and mechanical functionality on the nanoscale.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
The near field and far field are regions of the electromagnetic field (EM) around an object, such as a transmitting antenna, or the result of radiation scattering off an object.
A neon lamp (also neon glow lamp) is a miniature gas discharge lamp.
In the signage industry, neon signs are electric signs lighted by long luminous gas-discharge tubes that contain rarefied neon or other gases.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
A Nichols radiometer was the apparatus used by Ernest Fox Nichols and Gordon Ferrie Hull in 1901 for the measurement of radiation pressure.
In geometry, a normal is an object such as a line or vector that is perpendicular to a given object.
Ole Christensen Rømer (25 September 1644 – 19 September 1710) was a Danish astronomer who in 1676 made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light.
An optical medium is material through which electromagnetic waves propagate.
Optical phenomena are any observable events that result from the interaction of light and matter.
Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light is a book by English natural philosopher Isaac Newton that was published in English in 1704.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.
The United States one-cent coin, often called a penny, is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar.
In elementary geometry, the property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle (90 degrees).
Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.
The photic sneeze reflex (also known as, Autosomal Compelling Helio-Ophthalmic Outburst (ACHOO) and colloquially sun sneezing) is a condition that causes sneezing in response to numerous stimuli, such as looking at bright lights or periocular (surrounding the eyeball) injection.
Photosensors or photodetectors are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
Photometry is the science of the measurement of light, in terms of its perceived brightness to the human eye.
In developmental biology, photomorphogenesis is light-mediated development, where plant growth patterns respond to the light spectrum.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Pierre Gassendi (also Pierre Gassend, Petrus Gassendi; 22 January 1592 – 24 October 1655) was a French philosopher, priest, astronomer, and mathematician.
Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy.
In physics, polaritons are quasiparticles resulting from strong coupling of electromagnetic waves with an electric or magnetic dipole-carrying excitation.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radiometry is a set of techniques for measuring electromagnetic radiation, including visible light.
A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky.
Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.
A refracting telescope (also called a refractor) is a type of optical telescope that uses a lens as its objective to form an image (also referred to a dioptric telescope).
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.
Right to light is a form of easement in English law that gives a long-standing owner of a building with windows a right to maintain the level of illumination.
Robert Grosseteste (Robertus Grosseteste; – 9 October 1253) was an English statesman, scholastic philosopher, theologian, scientist and Bishop of Lincoln.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
The Rowland Institute for Science was founded by Edwin H. Land, founder of Polaroid Corporation, as a nonprofit, privately-endowed basic research organization in 1980.
Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.
Samkhya or Sankhya (सांख्य, IAST) is one of the six āstika schools of Hindu philosophy.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scintillation is a flash of light produced in a transparent material by the passage of a particle (an electron, an alpha particle, an ion, or a high-energy photon).
Baron Siméon Denis Poisson FRS FRSE (21 June 1781 – 25 April 1840) was a French mathematician, engineer, and physicist, who made several scientific advances.
Snell's law (also known as Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water, glass, or air.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Solar sails (also called light sails or photon sails) are a proposed method of spacecraft propulsion using radiation pressure exerted by sunlight on large mirrors.
Sonoluminescence is the emission of short bursts of light from imploding bubbles in a liquid when excited by sound.
Source (or subsource) may refer to.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
Spontaneous emission is the process in which a quantum mechanical system (such as an atom, molecule or subatomic particle) transitions from an excited energy state to a lower energy state (e.g., its ground state) and emits a quantum in the form of a photon.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.
Stimulated emission is the process by which an incoming photon of a specific frequency can interact with an excited atomic electron (or other excited molecular state), causing it to drop to a lower energy level.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
A television set or television receiver, more commonly called a television, TV, TV set, or telly, is a device that combines a tuner, display, and loudspeakers for the purpose of viewing television.
Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.
Infrared thermography (IRT), thermal imaging, and thermal video are examples of infrared imaging science.
Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
A transverse wave is a moving wave that consists of oscillations occurring perpendicular (right angled) to the direction of energy transfer (or the propagation of the wave).
Treatise on Light (Traité de la Lumière) is a 1690 book written by the Dutch polymath Christiaan Huygens on his wave theory of light.
Triboluminescence is an optical phenomenon in which light is generated through the breaking of chemical bonds in a material when it is pulled apart, ripped, scratched, crushed, or rubbed (see tribology).
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
Vaisheshika or (वैशेषिक) is one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy (Vedic systems) from ancient India.
The 'Vishnu Purana' (IAST: Viṣṇu Purāṇa) is one of the eighteen Mahapuranas, a genre of ancient and medieval texts of Hinduism.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
Witelo (also Erazmus Ciołek Witelo; Witelon; Vitellio; Vitello; Vitello Thuringopolonis; Vitulon; Erazm Ciołek); born ca.
In quantum mechanics, wave function collapse is said to occur when a wave function—initially in a superposition of several eigenstates—appears to reduce to a single eigenstate (by "observation").
In physics, a wave packet (or wave train) is a short "burst" or "envelope" of localized wave action that travels as a unit.
Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic theory of light, Exciting light, Light Wave, Light generation, Light in space, Light reflection, Light source, Light wave, Light wavelength, Light waves, Lightsource, Optic light, Propagation of light, Properties of light, Undulatory theory, Undulatory theory of light, Visible Light, Visible light, Vislble light, Wave theory of light.