353 relations: Airbus, Airbus A320 family, Alberto Barbieri, Aluminium gallium arsenide, Aluminium gallium indium phosphide, Aluminium gallium nitride, Aluminium gallium phosphide, Aluminium nitride, AmBX, American Medical Association, Angle of incidence (optics), Anode, Antiparallel (electronics), Architectural lighting design, Arduino, Arsenic, Assistive listening device, Atom, Audi A4, Automotive lighting, Backlight, Band gap, Barcode reader, Bell Labs, Black body, Blacklight, Blu-ray, Blue, Boeing 787 Dreamliner, Boron nitride, Breakdown voltage, Button cell, Cambridge University Press, Cardiff University, Carrier generation and recombination, Cathode, Cerium, Chroma key, Circadian rhythm, Closed-circuit television, Coating, Collimated light, Color rendering index, Color temperature, Color vision, Compact fluorescent lamp, Conjugated system, Constant current, Counterfeit, Cree Inc., ..., Crystal, Crystal detector, Cyan, Daisy chain (electrical engineering), Dallas, Daytime running lamp, Delocalized electron, Delta (letter), Destination sign, Diamond, Die (integrated circuit), Diffusion, Digital Light Processing, Dimmer, Diode, Direct and indirect band gaps, Disc jockey, DNA, Doping (semiconductor), Dot-matrix display, Edison Tech Center, Electric current, Electric field, Electrical polarity, Electrode, Electroluminescence, Electron, Electron hole, Electronic band structure, Electronic control unit, Emergency vehicle lighting, Energy, Energy conservation, Energy level, Epistar, Epitaxy, European Photonics Industry Consortium, Europium, Exciton, Exit sign, Exponential decay, Exponential growth, Extrinsic semiconductor, Facet, Fairchild Semiconductor, Flash (photography), Flashlight, Flexible organic light-emitting diode, Fluorescence, Fluorescent lamp, Focus (optics), Forbes, Fourteen-segment display, Free-space optical communication, Frequency, Fresnel lens, Gallium antimonide, Gallium arsenide, Gallium arsenide phosphide, Gallium nitride, Gallium phosphide, Gamut, General Electric, Georges Destriau, Germanium, Glow stick, Green, Grow light, H. J. Round, Haitz's law, Halogen lamp, Heat sink, Hewlett-Packard, High-energy visible light, High-intensity discharge lamp, Hiroshi Amano, History of display technology, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, IBM, Incandescence, Incandescent light bulb, Indium gallium nitride, Indium phosphide, Indium tin oxide, Infrared, Infrared Data Association, Ingo Maurer, International Commission on Illumination, Isamu Akasaki, James R. Biard, Junction temperature, Kilowatt hour, Kurt Lehovec, L Prize, Lambert's cosine law, Lantern, Laptop, Laser, Laser diode, Laser safety, Lead, Lead (electronics), LED art, LED circuit, LED display, LED filament, LED lamp, LED street light, LED strip light, LED tattoo, LED wallpaper, LED-backlit LCD, Li-Fi, Light, Light fixture, Light pollution, Light-emitting diode, Light-emitting electrochemical cell, Lighting, Liquid-crystal display, List of LED failure modes, List of semiconductor materials, Lumen (unit), Lumileds, Luminosity function, Luminous efficacy, M. George Craford, Machine vision, Marconi Company, Marie Curie, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Materials science, Melatonin, Mercury (element), Metamerism (color), Meystyle, Microparticle, Microsecond, Millennium Technology Prize, Mining, Mirror, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Mobile phone, Molecule, Monsanto, Moore's law, Motion detection, Multivibrator, Nagoya, Nanocrystal, Nanolaser, NASA, National Central University, Nature Photonics, Near-field scanning optical microscope, Neon lamp, Nichia, Nick Holonyak, Nickel, Night vision, Nixie tube, NOAA Weather Radio, Nobel Prize in Physics, Non-radiative recombination, Nonimaging optics, Nuclear power in France, Nuclear power in the United States, OLED, Oleg Losev, Optical communication, Optical fiber, Optical mouse, Opto-isolator, Orange (colour), Organic compound, Organic semiconductor, Osram, Oxygen saturation, Panasonic, Parabolic reflector, P–n diode, P–n junction, Phase (matter), Phase-change material, Philips, Phosphor, Photodiode, Photon, Photosynthesis, Photovoltaics, Pi bond, Pink, Planar process, Plant, Point source, Polymer, Potting (electronics), Power density, Primary color, Printed circuit board, Projection screen, Pulse oximetry, Pulse-width modulation, Purple, Quantum dot, Quantum dot display, Quantum well, Radiant flux, Radiation pattern, Radium, RCA, Rectifier, Red, Refractive index, Refrigerator, Remote control, Resistor, Retroreflector, RGB color model, Room temperature, Samsung, Sapphire, Science History Institute, Scotopic vision, Semiconductor, Sensor, Seven-segment display, Shockley diode equation, Shuji Nakamura, Silicon, Silicon carbide, Silicon-germanium, Silver, Skyglow, SMD LED Module, Sodium-vapor lamp, Solar cell, Solar lamp, Solid-state lighting, Specific Area Message Encoding, Stage lighting instrument, Stanford University, Sterilization (microbiology), Stokes shift, Street light, Strobe light, Stroboscopic effect, Stylus, Surface-mount technology, Sustainable architecture, Tetrachromacy, Texas, Texas Instruments, Textile, The New York Times, Thermal adhesive, Thermal conductivity, Thermal grease, Thermal management of high-power LEDs, Thermal resistance, Thermally conductive pad, Three-dimensional space, Through-hole technology, Torraca, TOSLINK, Total internal reflection, Touchscreen, Traffic light, Trichromacy, Tunnel diode, Two-dimensional space, Ultraviolet, United States, United States Department of Energy, United States dollar, United States Naval Research Laboratory, United States Patent and Trademark Office, University of Washington, UV curing, Valence and conduction bands, Vanderbilt University, Variable-message sign, Vermilion, Video camera, Video production, Violet (color), Visible spectrum, Voltage drop, Voltage reference, Wafer (electronics), Waste heat, Watt, Wavelength, Wear and tear, Weather radio, White, Wii, Xenon, Yellow, Yttrium aluminium garnet, Zener diode, Zinc selenide, Zinc sulfide. 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Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.
The Airbus A320 family consists of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus.
Alberto Barbieri is an Argentine academic, current rector of the University of Buenos Aires.
Aluminium gallium arsenide (also gallium aluminium arsenide) (AlxGa1−xAs) is a semiconductor material with very nearly the same lattice constant as GaAs, but a larger bandgap.
Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (also AlInGaP, InGaAlP, GaInP, etc.) is a semiconductor material that provides a platform for the development of novel multi-junction photovoltaics and optoelectronic devices, as it spans a direct bandgap from deep ultraviolet to infrared.
Aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN) is a semiconductor material.
Aluminium gallium phosphide, (Al,Ga)P, a phosphide of aluminium and gallium, is a semiconductor material.
Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a nitride of aluminium.
AmBX (officially stylised amBX) is a technology (originally developed by Philips) for controlling incandescent and white/coloured LED lighting and other compatible peripherals.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
In geometric optics, the angle of incidence is the angle between a ray incident on a surface and the line perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence, called the normal.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
In electronics, two anti-parallel or inverse-parallel devices are connected in parallel but with their polarities reversed.
Architectural lighting design is a field within architecture, interior design and electrical engineering that is concerned with the design of lighting systems, including natural light, electric light, or both, to serve human needs.
Arduino is an open source computer hardware and software company, project, and user community that designs and manufactures single-board microcontrollers and microcontroller kits for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control objects in the physical and digital world.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
An Assistive listening device (ALD) is used to improve hearing ability for people in a variety of situations where they are unable to distinguish speech in noise.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The Audi A4 is a line of compact executive cars produced since 1994 by the German car manufacturer Audi, a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group.
The lighting system of a motor vehicle consists of lighting and signalling devices mounted or integrated to the front, rear, sides, and in some cases the top of a motor vehicle.
A backlight is a form of illumination used in liquid crystal displays (LCDs).
In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.
A bar code reader (or bar code scanner) is an electronic device that can read and output printed barcodes to a computer.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
A blacklight (or often black light), also referred to as a UV-A light, Wood's lamp, or simply ultraviolet light, is a lamp that emits long-wave (UV-A) ultraviolet light and not much visible light.
Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a digital optical disc data storage format.
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.
The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is an American long-haul, mid-size widebody, twin-engine jet airliner made by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
Boron nitride is a heat and chemically resistant refractory compound of boron and nitrogen with the chemical formula BN.
The breakdown voltage of an insulator is the minimum voltage that causes a portion of an insulator to become electrically conductive.
A watch battery or button cell is a small single cell battery shaped as a squat cylinder typically in diameter and high — like a button on a garment, hence the name.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cardiff University (Prifysgol Caerdydd) is a public research university in Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom.
In the solid-state physics of semiconductors, carrier generation and recombination are processes by which mobile charge carriers (electrons and electron holes) are created and eliminated.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
Chroma key compositing, or chroma keying, is a visual effects/post-production technique for compositing (layering) two images or video streams together based on color hues (chroma range).
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate.
Collimated light is light whose rays are parallel, and therefore will spread minimally as it propagates.
A color rendering index (CRI) is a quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to reveal the colors of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural light source.
The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
A compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), also called compact fluorescent light, energy-saving light, and compact fluorescent tube, is a fluorescent lamp designed to replace an incandescent light bulb; some types fit into light fixtures designed for incandescent bulbs.
In chemistry, a conjugated system is a system of connected p-orbitals with delocalized electrons in molecules which are conventionally represented as having alternating single and multiple bonds, which in general may lower the overall energy of the molecule and increase stability.
A constant current (steady current, time-independent current, stationary current) is a type of Direct Current (DC) that does not change its intensity with time.
The counterfeit means to imitate something.
Cree, Inc. is an American worldwide manufacturer and marketer of lighting-class LEDs, lighting products and products for power and radio frequency (RF) applications.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
A crystal detector is an obsolete electronic component in some early 20th century radio receivers that used a piece of crystalline mineral as a detector (demodulator) to rectify the alternating current radio signal to extract the audio modulation which produced the sound in the earphones.
Cyan is a greenish-blue color.
In electrical and electronic engineering a daisy chain is a wiring scheme in which multiple devices are wired together in sequence or in a ring.
Dallas is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.
A daytime running lamp (DRL, also daytime running light) is an automotive lighting and bicycle lighting device on the front of a roadgoing motor vehicle or bicycle, automatically switched on when the vehicle is in drive, emitting white, yellow, or amber light to increase the conspicuity of the vehicle during daylight conditions.
In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or a covalent bond.
Delta (uppercase Δ, lowercase δ or 𝛿; δέλτα délta) is the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet.
A destination sign (North American English), or destination indicator/destination blind (British English) is a sign mounted on the front, side or rear of a public transport vehicle, such as a bus, tram/streetcar or light rail vehicle, that displays the vehicle's route number and destination, or the route's number and name on transit systems using route names.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
A die (pronunciation: /daɪ/) in the context of integrated circuits is a small block of semiconducting material, on which a given functional circuit is fabricated.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Digital Light Processing (DLP) is a display device based on optical micro-electro-mechanical technology that uses a digital micromirror device.
Dimmers are devices connected to a light fixture and used to lower the brightness of light.
A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.
In semiconductor physics, the band gap of a semiconductor is of two types, a direct band gap or an indirect band gap.
A disc jockey, often abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays existing recorded music for a live audience.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.
A dot-matrix display is a display device used to display information on machines, clocks, railway departure indicators and many other devices requiring a simple display device of limited resolution.
The Edison Tech Center is an interactive learning center with a central theme of electricity and engineering.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
Electrical polarity is a term used throughout industries and fields that involve electricity.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to the passage of an electric current or to a strong electric field.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.
In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a solid describes the range of energies that an electron within the solid may have (called energy bands, allowed bands, or simply bands) and ranges of energy that it may not have (called band gaps or forbidden bands).
An Electronic Control Unit (ECU) is any embedded system in automotive electronics that controls one or more of the electrical systems or subsystems in a vehicle.
Emergency vehicle lighting is one or more visual warning lights fitted to a vehicle for use when the driver wishes to convey to other road users the urgency of their journey, to provide additional warning of a hazard when stationary, or in the case of law enforcement as a means of signalling another driver to stop for interaction with an officer.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service.
A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.
Epistar Corp. is the largest manufacturer of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in Taiwan.
Epitaxy refers to the deposition of a crystalline overlayer on a crystalline substrate.
The European Photonics Industry Consortium (EPIC) is a not-for-profit association with headquarters in Brussels, Belgium.
Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63.
An exciton is a bound state of an electron and an electron hole which are attracted to each other by the electrostatic Coulomb force.
An exit sign is a device in a public facility (such as a building, aircraft or boat) denoting the location of the closest emergency exit in case of fire or other emergency.
A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.
Exponential growth is exhibited when the rate of change—the change per instant or unit of time—of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value, resulting in its value at any time being an exponential function of time, i.e., a function in which the time value is the exponent.
An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped, that is, into which a doping agent has been introduced, giving it different electrical properties than the intrinsic (pure) semiconductor.
Facets are flat faces on geometric shapes.
Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California.
A flash is a device used in photography producing a flash of artificial light (typically 1/1000 to 1/200 of a second) at a color temperature of about 5500 K to help illuminate a scene.
A flashlight (more often called a torch outside North America) is a portable hand-held electric light.
A flexible organic light emitting diode (FOLED) is a type of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) incorporating a flexible plastic substrate on which the electroluminescent organic semiconductor is deposited.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
In geometrical optics, a focus, also called an image point, is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
A fourteen-segment display (FSD) (sometimes referred to as a starburst display or Union Jack display) is a type of display based on 14 segments that can be turned on or off to produce letters and numerals.
Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
A Fresnel lens is a type of compact lens originally developed by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel for lighthouses.
Gallium antimonide (GaSb) is a semiconducting compound of gallium and antimony of the III-V family.
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.
Gallium arsenide phosphide (1−xx) is a semiconductor material, an alloy of gallium arsenide and gallium phosphide.
Gallium nitride is a binary III/V direct bandgap semiconductor commonly used in light-emitting diodes since the 1990s.
Gallium phosphide, a phosphide of gallium, is a compound semiconductor material with an indirect band gap of 2.26 eV(300K).
In color reproduction, including computer graphics and photography, the gamut, or color gamut, is a certain complete subset of colors.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
Georges Destriau (1 August 1903 - 20 January 1960) was a French Physicist and early observer of electroluminescence.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
A glow stick is a self-contained, short-term light-source.
Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum.
A grow light or plant light is an artificial light source, generally an electric light, designed to stimulate plant growth by emitting a light appropriate for photosynthesis.
Captain Henry Joseph Round (2 June 1881 – 17 August 1966) was an English engineer and one of the early pioneers of radio.
Haitz's law is an observation and forecast about the steady improvement, over many years, of light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
A halogen lamp, also known as a tungsten halogen, quartz-halogen or quartz iodine lamp, is an incandescent lamp consisting of a tungsten filament sealed into a compact transparent envelope that is filled with a mixture of an inert gas and a small amount of a halogen such as iodine or bromine.
A heat sink (also commonly spelled heatsink) is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
In ophthalmology, high-energy visible light (HEV light) is high-frequency, high-energy light in the violet/blue band from 400 to 450 nm in the visible spectrum.
High-intensity discharge lamps (HID lamps) are a type of electrical gas-discharge lamp which produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube.
is a Japanese physicist and inventor specializing in the field of semiconductor technology.
Electrically operated display devices have developed from electromechanical systems for display of text, up to all-electronic devices capable of full-motion 3D color graphic displays.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Incandescence is the emission of electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) from a hot body as a result of its temperature.
An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).
Indium gallium nitride (InGaN, x1−x) is a semiconductor material made of a mix of gallium nitride (GaN) and indium nitride (InN).
Indium phosphide (InP) is a binary semiconductor composed of indium and phosphorus.
Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a ternary composition of indium, tin and oxygen in varying proportions.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The Infrared Data Association (IrDA) is an industry-driven interest group that was founded in 1993 by around 50 companies.
Ingo Maurer (born on May 12, 1932 Reichenau (Island), Lake of Constance, Germany) is a German industrial designer who specialises in the design of lamps and light installations.
The International Commission on Illumination (usually abbreviated CIE for its French name, Commission internationale de l'éclairage) is the international authority on light, illumination, colour, and colour spaces.
is a Japanese physicist, specializing in the field of semiconductor technology and Nobel Prize laureate, best known for inventing the bright gallium nitride (GaN) p-n junction blue LED in 1989 and subsequently the high-brightness GaN blue LED as well.
Junction temperature, short for transistor junction temperature, is the highest operating temperature of the actual semiconductor in an electronic device.
The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.
Kurt Lehovec (June 12, 1918 – February 17, 2012) was one of the pioneers of the integrated circuit.
The L Prize (aka the Bright Tomorrow Lighting Prize) is a competition run by the United States Department of Energy aimed to "spur lighting manufacturers to develop high-quality, high-efficiency solid-state lighting products to replace the common incandescent light bulb".
In optics, Lambert's cosine law says that the radiant intensity or luminous intensity observed from an ideal diffusely reflecting surface or ideal diffuse radiator is directly proportional to the cosine of the angle θ between the direction of the incident light and the surface normal.
Today, English-speakers use the term lantern to describe many types of portable lighting, but lanterns originated as a protective enclosure for a light source—usually a candle or a wick in oil—to make it easier to carry and hang up, and more reliable outdoors or in drafty interiors.
A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which the laser beam is created at the diode's junction.
Laser safety is the safe design, use and implementation of lasers to minimize the risk of laser accidents, especially those involving eye injuries.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
In electronics, a lead is an electrical connection consisting of a length of wire or a metal pad (SMD) that is designed to connect two locations electrically.
LED art is a form of light art constructed from light-emitting diodes.
In electronics, an LED circuit or LED driver is an electrical circuit used to power a light-emitting diode (LED).
An LED display is a flat panel display, which uses an array of light-emitting diodes as pixels for a video display.
An LED filament light bulb is an LED lamp which is designed to resemble a traditional incandescent light bulb with visible filaments, for aesthetic and light distribution purposes.
A LED lamp or LED light bulb is an electric light for use in light fixtures that produces light using light-emitting diode (LED).
An LED street light or road light is an integrated light-emitting diode (LED) light fixture that is used for street lighting.
An LED Strip Light (also known as an LED tape or ribbon light) is a flexible circuit board populated by surface mounted light-emitting diodes (SMD LEDs) and other components that usually comes with an adhesive backing.
A '''light-emitting diode tattoo''' is a type of body modification similar to a tattoo, but specifically involves implantation of technologically based materials versus traditional ink injection into the layers of the skin.
LED wallpaper is an expression encompassing a range of different technologies developed since the beginning of the 21st century, aimed at integrating light-emitting diodes into flat substrates suitable to be applied to walls for interior decoration purposes.
A LED-backlit LCD is a flat panel display which uses LED backlighting instead of the cold cathode fluorescent (CCFL) backlighting.
Li-Fi (short for light fidelity) is a technology for wireless communication between devices using light to transmit data and position.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A light fixture (US English), light fitting (UK English), or luminaire is an electrical device that contains an electric lamp that provides illumination.
Light pollution, also known as photopollution, is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
A light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC or LEEC) is a solid-state device that generates light from an electric current (electroluminescence).
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.
The most common way for LEDs (and diode lasers) to fail is the gradual lowering of light output and loss of efficiency.
Semiconductor materials are nominally small band gap insulators.
The lumen (symbol: lm) is the SI derived unit of luminous flux, a measure of the total quantity of visible light emitted by a source.
Lumileds is a lighting company that develops, manufactures, and distributes LEDs, light bulbs, and related products for automotive lighting, general lighting, and specialty lighting.
A luminosity function or luminous efficiency function describes the average spectral sensitivity of human visual perception of brightness.
Luminous efficacy is a measure of how well a light source produces visible light.
Machine vision (MV) is the technology and methods used to provide imaging-based automatic inspection and analysis for such applications as automatic inspection, process control, and robot guidance, usually in industry.
The Marconi Company was a British telecommunications and engineering company that did business under that name from 1963 to 1987.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
In colorimetry, metamerism is a perceived matching of the colors with different (nonmatching) spectral power distributions.
Meystyle LED wallpaper & Fabric is a London-based company who specialise in designing and manufacturing bespoke wallpaper with the added feature of integrated light-emitting diodes.
Microparticles are particles between 0.1 and 100 \mum in size.
A microsecond is an SI unit of time equal to one millionth (0.000001 or 10−6 or 1/1,000,000) of a second.
The Millennium Technology Prize (Millennium-teknologiapalkinto) is one of the world's largest technology prizes.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
The MIT Lincoln Laboratory, located in Lexington, Massachusetts, is a United States Department of Defense research and development center chartered to apply advanced technology to problems of national security.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.
Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years.
Motion detection is the process of detecting a change in the position of an object relative to its surroundings or a change in the surroundings relative to an object.
A multivibrator is an electronic circuit used to implement a variety of simple two-state devices such as relaxation oscillators, timers and flip-flops.
is the largest city in the Chūbu region of Japan.
A nanocrystal is a material particle having at least one dimension smaller than 100 nanometres, based on quantum dots (a nanoparticle) and composed of atoms in either a single- or poly-crystalline arrangement.
A nanolaser is a laser that has nanoscale dimensions.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
National Central University (NCU,, Kuo-Li Chung-yang Ta-hsüeh, or 中大, Chung-ta) was founded in 1915 with roots from 258 CE in mainland China.
Nature Photonics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.
Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM/SNOM) is a microscopy technique for nanostructure investigation that breaks the far field resolution limit by exploiting the properties of evanescent waves.
A neon lamp (also neon glow lamp) is a miniature gas discharge lamp.
is a Japanese chemical engineering and manufacturing company headquartered in Anan, Japan with global subsidiaries.
Nick Holonyak Jr. (born November 3, 1928) is an American engineer and educator.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Night vision is the ability to see in low-light conditions.
A Nixie tube, or cold cathode display, is an electronic device for displaying numerals or other information using glow discharge.
NOAA Weather Radio (NWR; also known as NOAA Weather Radio All Hazards) is an automated 24-hour network of VHF FM weather radio stations in the United States that broadcast weather information directly from a nearby National Weather Service office.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
Non-radiative recombination is a process in phosphors and semiconductors, whereby charge carriers recombine without releasing photons.
Nonimaging optics (also called anidolic optics)Roland Winston et al., Nonimaging Optics, Academic Press, 2004 R. John Koshel (Editor), Illumination Engineering: Design with Nonimaging Optics, Wiley, 2013 is the branch of optics concerned with the optimal transfer of light radiation between a source and a target.
Nuclear power is a major source of energy in France, with a 40% share of energy consumption in 2015.
Nuclear power in the United States is provided by 99 commercial reactors with a net capacity of 100,350 megawatts (MW), 65 pressurized water reactors and 34 boiling water reactors.
An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current.
Oleg Vladimirovich Losev (Оле́г Влади́мирович Ло́сев, sometimes spelled Lossev or Lossew in English) (10 May 1903 – 22 January 1942) was a Russian scientist and inventor, An English translation is on the Springer archive who made significant discoveries in the field of semiconductor junctions.
Optical communication, also known as optical telecommunication, is communication at a distance using light to carry information.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
An optical mouse is a computer mouse which uses a light source, typically a light-emitting diode (LED), and a light detector, such as an array of photodiodes, to detect movement relative to a surface.
In electronics, an opto-isolator, also called an optocoupler, photocoupler, or optical isolator, is a component that transfers electrical signals between two isolated circuits by using light.
Orange is the colour between yellow and red on the spectrum of visible light.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic semiconductors are solids whose building blocks are pi-bonded molecules or polymers made up by carbon and hydrogen atoms and – at times – heteroatoms such as nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen.
OSRAM Licht AG is a multinational lighting manufacturer headquartered in Munich, Germany.
Oxygen saturation (symbol SO2) is a relative measure of the concentration of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium as a proportion of the maximal concentration that can be dissolved in that medium.
, formerly known as, is a Japanese multinational electronics corporation headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka, Japan.
A parabolic (or paraboloid or paraboloidal) reflector (or dish or mirror) is a reflective surface used to collect or project energy such as light, sound, or radio waves.
This article provides a more detailed explanation of p–n diode behavior than that found in the articles p–n junction or diode.
A p–n junction is a boundary or interface between two types of semiconductor materials, p-type and n-type, inside a single crystal of semiconductor.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
A phase change material (PCM) is a substance with a high heat of fusion which, melting and solidifying at a certain temperature, is capable of storing and releasing large amounts of energy.
Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Philips, stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch multinational technology company headquartered in Amsterdam currently focused in the area of healthcare.
A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.
A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.
In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of an orbital on one atom overlap two lobes of an orbital on another atom.
Pink is a pale red color that is named after a flower of the same name.
The planar process is a manufacturing process used in the semiconductor industry to build individual components of a transistor, and in turn, connect those transistors together.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
A point source is a single identifiable localised source of something.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
In electronics, potting is a process of filling a complete electronic assembly with a solid or gelatinous compound for resistance to shock and vibration, and for exclusion of moisture and corrosive agents.
Power density (or volume power density or volume specific power) is the amount of power (time rate of energy transfer) per unit volume.
A set of primary colors is, most tangibly, a set of real colorants or colored lights that can be combined in varying amounts to produce a gamut of colors.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
A projection screen is an installation consisting of a surface and a support structure used for displaying a projected image for the view of an audience.
Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive method for monitoring a person's oxygen saturation (SO2).
Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a modulation technique used to encode a message into a pulsing signal.
Purple is a color intermediate between blue and red.
Quantum dots (QD) are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles.
A quantum dot display is a display device that uses quantum dots (QD), semiconductor nanocrystals which can produce pure monochromatic red, green, and blue light.
A quantum well is a potential well with only discrete energy values.
In radiometry, radiant flux or radiant power is the radiant energy emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time, and spectral flux or spectral power is the radiant flux per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength.
In the field of antenna design the term radiation pattern (or antenna pattern or far-field pattern) refers to the directional (angular) dependence of the strength of the radio waves from the antenna or other source.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919.
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction.
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
A refrigerator (colloquially fridge, or fridgefreezer in the UK) is a popular household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room.
In electronics, a remote control or clicker is a component of an electronic device used to operate the device from a distance, usually wirelessly.
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.
A retroreflector (sometimes called a retroflector or cataphote) is a device or surface that reflects light back to its source with a minimum of scattering.
The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.
Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.
The Science History Institute is an institution that preserves and promotes understanding of the history of science.
Scotopic vision is the vision of the eye under low-light levels.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
A seven-segment display (SSD), or seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot matrix displays.
The Shockley diode equation or the diode law, named after transistor co-inventor William Shockley of Bell Telephone Laboratories, gives the I–V (current-voltage) characteristic of an idealized diode in either forward or reverse bias (applied voltage): where The equation is called the Shockley ideal diode equation when n, the ideality factor, is set equal to 1.
is a Japanese-born American electronic engineer and inventor specializing in the field of semiconductor technology, professor at the Materials Department of the College of Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and is regarded as the inventor of the blue LED, a major breakthrough in lighting technology.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
SiGe, or silicon-germanium, is an alloy with any molar ratio of silicon and germanium, i.e. with a molecular formula of the form Si1−xGex.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Skyglow (or sky glow) is the diffuse luminance of the night sky, apart from discrete light sources such as the Moon and visible individual stars.
An SMD LED Module (surface-mount device light-emitting diode module) is a type of LED module that uses surface-mount technology (SMT) to mount LED chips on printed circuit boards (PCB).
A sodium-vapor lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses sodium in an excited state to produce light at a characteristic wavelength near 589 nm.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
A solar lamp also known as solar light or solar lantern, is a lighting system composed of an LED lamp, solar panels, battery, charge controller and there may also be an inverter.
Solid-state lighting (SSL) refers to a type of lighting that uses semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), or polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED) as sources of illumination rather than electrical filaments, plasma (used in arc lamps such as fluorescent lamps), or gas.
Specific Area Message Encoding (SAME) is the protocol used to encode the Emergency Alert System (EAS) and NOAA Weather Radio (NWR) in the U.S. and Weatheradio Canada in Canada.
Stage lighting instruments (lanterns, or luminaires in Europe) are used in stage lighting to illuminate theatrical productions, concerts, and other performances taking place in live performance venues.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
Stokes shift is the difference (in wavelength or frequency units) between positions of the band maxima of the absorption and emission spectra (fluorescence and Raman being two examples) of the same electronic transition.
A street light, light pole, lamppost, street lamp, light standard, or lamp standard is a raised source of light on the edge of a road or path.
A strobe light or stroboscopic lamp, commonly called a strobe, is a device used to produce regular flashes of light.
The stroboscopic effect is a visual phenomenon caused by aliasing that occurs when continuous motion is represented by a series of short or instantaneous samples.
A stylus, plural styli or styluses, is a writing utensil or a small tool for some other form of marking or shaping, for example, in pottery.
Surface-mount technology (SMT) is a method for producing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted or placed directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs).
Sustainable architecture is architecture that seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space and the ecosystem at large.
Tetrachromacy is the condition of possessing four independent channels for conveying color information, or possessing four types of cone cells in the eye.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thermal adhesive is a type of thermally conductive glue used for electronic components and heatsinks.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thermal grease (also called CPU grease, heat paste, heat sink compound, heat sink paste, thermal compound, thermal gel, thermal interface material, or thermal paste) is a thermally conductive (but usually electrically insulating) compound, which is commonly used as an interface between heat sinks and heat sources (e.g., high-power semiconductor devices).
High power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can use 350 milliwatts or more in a single LED.
Thermal resistance is a heat property and a measurement of a temperature difference by which an object or material resists a heat flow.
In computing and electronics, thermal pads (also called thermally conductive pad or thermal interface pad) are a pre-formed square or rectangle of solid material (often paraffin wax or silicone based) commonly found on the underside of heatsinks to aid the conduction of heat away from the component being cooled (such as a CPU or another chip) and into the heatsink (usually made from aluminium or copper).
Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).
Through-hole technology (tht), also spelled "thru-hole", refers to the mounting scheme used for electronic components that involves the use of leads on the components that are inserted into holes drilled in printed circuit boards (PCB) and soldered to pads on the opposite side either by manual assembly (hand placement) or by the use of automated insertion mount machines.
Torraca is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy.
TOSLINK (from Toshiba Link TOSLINK Transmitter Module specifications.) is a standardized optical fiber connector system.
Total internal reflection is the phenomenon which occurs when a propagated wave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface.
A touchscreen is an input and output device normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an information processing system.
Traffic lights, also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, traffic semaphore, signal lights, stop lights, robots (in South Africa and most of Africa), and traffic control signals (in technical parlance), are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, and other locations to control flows of traffic.
Trichromacy or trichromatism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye.
A tunnel diode or Esaki diode is a type of semiconductor that is capable of very fast operation, well into the microwave frequency region (up to), made possible by the use of the quantum mechanical effect called tunneling.
Two-dimensional space or bi-dimensional space is a geometric setting in which two values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps.
The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.
The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.
UV curing is a process in which ultraviolet light and visible light is used to initiate a photochemical reaction that generates a crosslinked network of polymers.
In solid-state physics, the valence band and conduction band are the bands closest to the Fermi level and thus determine the electrical conductivity of the solid.
Vanderbilt University (informally Vandy) is a private research university in Nashville, Tennessee.
A variable- (also changeable-, electronic-, or dynamic-) message sign, often abbreviated VMS, CMS, or DMS, and in the UK known as a matrix sign, is an electronic traffic sign often used on roadways to give travelers information about special events.
Vermilion (sometimes spelled vermillion) is both a brilliant red or scarlet pigment originally made from the powdered mineral cinnabar and the name of the resulting color.
A video camera is a camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition (as opposed to a movie camera, which records images on film), initially developed for the television industry but now common in other applications as well.
Video production is the process of producing video content.
Violet is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light between blue and the invisible ultraviolet.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Voltage drop describes how the energy supplied by a voltage source is reduced as electric current moves through the passive elements (elements that do not supply voltage) of an electrical circuit.
A voltage reference is an electronic device that ideally produces a fixed (constant) voltage irrespective of the loading on the device, power supply variations, temperature changes, and the passage of time.
A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells.
Waste heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing work.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Wear and tear is damage that naturally and inevitably occurs as a result of normal wear or aging.
A weather radio is a specialized radio receiver that is designed to receive a public broadcast service, typically from government-owned radio stations, dedicated to airing weather reports on a continual basis, with the routine weather reports being interrupted by emergency weather reports whenever needed.
White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue), because it fully reflects and scatters all the visible wavelengths of light.
The Wii is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19, 2006.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light.
Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group.
A Zener diode is a particular type of diode that, unlike a normal one, allows current to flow not only from its anode to its cathode, but also in the reverse direction, when the Zener voltage is reached.
Zinc selenide (ZnSe) is a light-yellow, solid compound comprising zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se).
Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of ZnS.
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