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Light pollution

Index Light pollution

Light pollution, also known as photopollution, is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment. [1]

161 relations: Adaptation (eye), Airglow, Algae, Algal bloom, Aluminium gallium indium phosphide, American Geophysical Union, American Medical Association, Animal navigation, Annual Reviews (publisher), Arizona, Astronomical filter, Astronomical object, Astronomy, Astronomy (magazine), Beetle, Big Bend National Park, Bioindicator, Biscayne National Park, Bortle scale, Breast cancer, Cairo, Calgary, California Institute of Technology, Capitol Reef National Park, Carbon dioxide, Ceramic discharge metal-halide lamp, CieloBuio, Commission for Dark Skies, Condé Nast, Contour line, Daphnia, Dark-sky movement, Dark-sky preserve, Deep-sky object, Dew shield, Earth Hour, Ecological light pollution, Ecology, Ecosystem, Efficient energy use, Electric light, Emission nebula, Energy conservation, Energy Information Administration, Entomology, Environmental hazard, European Union, Eyepiece, Fatigue, Federal Aviation Administration, ..., Federal Communications Commission, Field of view, Firefly, Flagship species, Flagstaff, Arizona, Flocking (texture), Fluorescent lamp, Galaxy, General Electric, Glare (vision), Habituation, Hawaii, History of street lighting in the United States, Human sexuality, Ian Cheney, Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, Incandescent light bulb, International Commission on Illumination, International Dark-Sky Association, International Year of Astronomy, Ionization, Japan, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, LED street light, Lepidopterology, Lick Observatory, Light pollution, Light pollution in Hong Kong, Light scattering by particles, Light-emitting diode, Lighting, Lombardy, Los Angeles Times, Lumen (unit), Luminous efficacy, Massachusetts Medical Society, Mathematical model, Mercury-vapor lamp, Mesosphere, Metal-halide lamp, Middle East, Milky Way, Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Motion detection, Nadir, National Dark-Sky Week, National Geographic, National Geographic Society, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Park Service, Nebula, Night sky, Night vision, Nitrate, Nocturnality, North Africa, North America, Observatory, Optical filter, Over illumination, Palomar Observatory, Photographic filter, Polarized light pollution, Pollination, Pollinator, Pollution, Public health, Purkinje effect, Radical (chemistry), Radio spectrum, Rebound effect (conservation), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, San Francisco, San Jose, California, Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area, Scotobiology, Sea turtle, Security lighting, Singapore, Sky brightness, Skyglow, SKYGLOW, Sleep deprivation, Sodium-vapor lamp, Solar cycle, Solar power, Soundscape, Species, Spectral line, Spider web, SPIE Newsroom, Stray light, Street light, Stress (biology), Strobe light, Tehran, Telescope, The End of Night (book), The New Republic, The New Yorker, Toronto, Tribute in Light, U.S. Green Building Council, United Kingdom, United States, United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, Urban area, Visible spectrum, Watt, Zodiacal light. Expand index (111 more) »

Adaptation (eye)

In ocular physiology, adaptation is the ability of the eye to adjust to various levels of light.

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Airglow (also called nightglow) is a faint emission of light by a planetary atmosphere.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Algal bloom

An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.

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Aluminium gallium indium phosphide

Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (also AlInGaP, InGaAlP, GaInP, etc.) is a semiconductor material that provides a platform for the development of novel multi-junction photovoltaics and optoelectronic devices, as it spans a direct bandgap from deep ultraviolet to infrared.

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American Geophysical Union

The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries.

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American Medical Association

The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.

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Animal navigation

Animal navigation is the ability of many animals to find their way accurately without maps or instruments.

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Annual Reviews (publisher)

Annual Reviews, located in Palo Alto California, Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society.

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Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.

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Astronomical filter

An astronomical filter is a telescope accessory consisting of an optical filter used by amateur astronomers to simply enhance the details of celestial objects (much as with amateur photography).

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Astronomical object

An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Astronomy (magazine)

Astronomy is a monthly American magazine about astronomy.

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Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.

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Big Bend National Park

For the Texas state park see: Big Bend Ranch State Park Big Bend National Park is an American national park located in West Texas, bordering Mexico.

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A bioindicator is any species (an indicator species) or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal the qualitative status of the environment.

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Biscayne National Park

Biscayne National Park is an American national park located in southern Florida, south of Miami.

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Bortle scale

The Bortle scale is a nine-level numeric scale that measures the night sky's brightness of a particular location.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta.

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California Institute of Technology

The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.

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Capitol Reef National Park

Capitol Reef National Park is an American national park located in south-central Utah.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Ceramic discharge metal-halide lamp

The ceramic discharge metal-halide (CDM) lamp, often referred to as Ceramic Metal Halide lamp (CMH) is a source of light that is a type of metal-halide lamp which is 10-20% more efficient than the traditional quartz metal halide and produces a superior color rendition (80-96 CRI).

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CieloBuio-coordinamento per la protezione del cielo notturno (Coordination for the protection of the night sky) is a non-profit organization that operates in Italy for the protection of the night sky by promoting a culture of eco-friendly lighting and raising public awareness about the phenomenon of light pollution.

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Commission for Dark Skies

The Commission for Dark Skies (CfDS) (formerly the Campaign for Dark Skies; the name was changed on March 29, 2015) is the United Kingdom's largest anti-light-pollution campaign group forming part of the international dark-sky movement.

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Condé Nast

Condé Nast Inc. is an American mass media company founded in 1909 by Condé Montrose Nast, based at One World Trade Center and owned by Advance Publications.

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Contour line

A contour line (also isocline, isopleth, isarithm, or equipotential curve) of a function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value, so that the curve joins points of equal value.

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Daphnia, a genus of small planktonic crustaceans, are in length.

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Dark-sky movement

The dark-sky movement is a campaign to reduce light pollution.

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Dark-sky preserve

A dark-sky preserve (DSP) is an area, usually surrounding a park or observatory, that restricts artificial light pollution.

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Deep-sky object

Deep-sky object (abbreviated as DSO) is a term designating any astronomical object that is not an individual star or Solar System object (such as Sun, Moon, planet, comet, etc.). The classification is used for the most part by amateur astronomers to denote visually observed faint naked eye and telescopic objects such as star clusters, nebulae and galaxies.

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Dew shield

A dew shield is a device used to prevent moisture or condensation buildup on the lens of a camera or telescope collector during night observations.

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Earth Hour

Earth Hour is a worldwide movement organized by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF).

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Ecological light pollution

Ecological light pollution is the effect of artificial light on individual organisms and on the structure of ecosystems as a whole.

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Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Efficient energy use

Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.

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Electric light

An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.

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Emission nebula

An emission nebula is a nebula formed of ionized gases that emit light of various wavelengths.

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Energy conservation

Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service.

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Energy Information Administration

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.

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Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.

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Environmental hazard

An environmental hazard is a substance, a state or an event which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment / or adversely affect people's health, including pollution and natural disasters such as storms and earthquakes Any single or combination of toxic chemical, biological, or physical agents in the environment, resulting from human activities or natural processes, that may impact the health of exposed subjects, including pollutants such as heavy metals, pesticides, biological contaminants, toxic waste, industrial and home chemicals.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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An eyepiece, or ocular lens, is a type of lens that is attached to a variety of optical devices such as telescopes and microscopes.

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Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.

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Federal Aviation Administration

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.

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Federal Communications Commission

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.

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Field of view

The field of view is the extent of the observable world that is seen at any given moment.

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The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera.

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Flagship species

In conservation biology, a flagship species is a species chosen to raise support for biodiversity conservation in a given place or social context.

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Flagstaff, Arizona

Flagstaff is a city in and the county seat of Coconino County in northern Arizona, in the southwestern United States.

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Flocking (texture)

Flocking is the process of depositing many small fiber particles (called flock) onto a surface.

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Fluorescent lamp

A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.

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A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.

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General Electric

General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.

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Glare (vision)

Glare is difficulty seeing in the presence of bright light such as direct or reflected sunlight or artificial light such as car headlamps at night.

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Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases its responses to a stimulus after repeated or prolonged presentations.

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Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.

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History of street lighting in the United States

It was introduced to the US by inventor Benjamin Franklin, who was the postmaster of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Human sexuality

Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.

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Ian Cheney

Ian Cheney is an American documentary filmmaker, cinematographer, and producer.

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Illuminating Engineering Society of North America

The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) is a non-profit learned society that was founded in New York City on January 10, 1906.

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Incandescent light bulb

An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).

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International Commission on Illumination

The International Commission on Illumination (usually abbreviated CIE for its French name, Commission internationale de l'éclairage) is the international authority on light, illumination, colour, and colour spaces.

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International Dark-Sky Association

The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) is a United States-based non-profit organization incorporated in 1988 by founders David Crawford, a professional astronomer, and Tim Hunter, a physician/amateur astronomer.

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International Year of Astronomy

The International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) was a year-long celebration of astronomy that took place in 2009 to coincide with the 400th anniversary of the first recorded astronomical observations with a telescope by Galileo Galilei and the publication of Johannes Kepler's Astronomia nova in the 17th century.

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Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is one of the most popular green building certification programs used worldwide.

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LED street light

An LED street light or road light is an integrated light-emitting diode (LED) light fixture that is used for street lighting.

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Lepidopterology (from Ancient Greek λεπίδος (scale) and πτερόν (wing); and -λογία -logia.), is a branch of entomology concerning the scientific study of moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies.

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Lick Observatory

The Lick Observatory is an astronomical observatory, owned and operated by the University of California.

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Light pollution

Light pollution, also known as photopollution, is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment.

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Light pollution in Hong Kong

Hong Kong has been named the world's worst city for light pollution.

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Light scattering by particles

Light scattering by particles is the process by which small particles (e.g. ice crystals, dust, atmospheric particulates, cosmic dust, and blood cells) cause optical phenomena, such as rainbows, the blue color of the sky, and halos.

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Light-emitting diode

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.

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Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.

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Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.

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Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.

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Lumen (unit)

The lumen (symbol: lm) is the SI derived unit of luminous flux, a measure of the total quantity of visible light emitted by a source.

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Luminous efficacy

Luminous efficacy is a measure of how well a light source produces visible light.

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Massachusetts Medical Society

The Massachusetts Medical Society (MMS) is the oldest, most distinguished and prestigious continuously operating state medical association in the United States and the world.

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Mathematical model

A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.

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Mercury-vapor lamp

A mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp that uses an electric arc through vaporized mercury to produce light.

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The mesosphere (from Greek mesos "middle" and sphaira "sphere") is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere.

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Metal-halide lamp

A metal-halide lamp is an electrical lamp that produces light by an electric arc through a gaseous mixture of vaporized mercury and metal halides (compounds of metals with bromine or iodine).

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Milky Way

The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.

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Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government

The Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government (MHCLG) is the UK Government department for Housing, communities and local government in England.

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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.

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Motion detection

Motion detection is the process of detecting a change in the position of an object relative to its surroundings or a change in the surroundings relative to an object.

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The nadir (from نظير / ALA-LC: naẓīr, meaning "counterpart") is the direction pointing directly below a particular location; that is, it is one of two vertical directions at a specified location, orthogonal to a horizontal flat surface there.

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National Dark-Sky Week

National Dark-Sky Week (NDSW), held during the week of the new moon in April, is a week during which people worldwide turn out their lights in order to observe the beauty of the night sky without light pollution.

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National Geographic

National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.

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National Geographic Society

The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.

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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.

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National Park Service

The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.

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A nebula (Latin for "cloud" or "fog"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.

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Night sky

The term night sky, usually associated with astronomy from Earth, refers to the nighttime appearance of celestial objects like stars, planets, and the Moon, which are visible in a clear sky between sunset and sunrise, when the Sun is below the horizon.

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Night vision

Night vision is the ability to see in low-light conditions.

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Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.

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Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events.

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Optical filter

An optical filter is a device that selectively transmits light of different wavelengths, usually implemented as a glass plane or plastic device in the optical path, which are either dyed in the bulk or have interference coatings.

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Over illumination

Over illumination is the presence of lighting intensity higher than that which is appropriate for a specific activity.

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Palomar Observatory

Palomar Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in San Diego County, California, United States, southeast of Los Angeles, California, in the Palomar Mountain Range.

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Photographic filter

In photography and videography, a filter is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted into the optical path.

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Polarized light pollution

Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations.

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Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.

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A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower.

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Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Purkinje effect

The Purkinje effect (sometimes called the Purkinje shift) is the tendency for the peak luminance sensitivity of the human eye to shift toward the blue end of the color spectrum at low illumination levels as part of dark adaptation.

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.

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Radio spectrum

The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum with frequencies from 3 Hz to 3 000 GHz (3 THz).

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Rebound effect (conservation)

In conservation and energy economics, the rebound effect (or take-back effect, RE) is the reduction in expected gains from new technologies that increase the efficiency of resource use, because of behavioral or other systemic responses.

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Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a private research university and space-grant institution located in Troy, New York, with two additional campuses in Hartford and Groton, Connecticut.

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San Francisco

San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.

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San Jose, California

San Jose (Spanish for 'Saint Joseph'), officially the City of San José, is an economic, cultural, and political center of Silicon Valley and the largest city in Northern California.

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Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area

The Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area containing many individual parks and open space preserves, located primarily in the Santa Monica Mountains of Southern California.

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The term scotobiology describes the study of biology as directly and specifically affected by darkness, as opposed to photobiology, which describes the biological effects of light.

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Sea turtle

Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.

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Security lighting

In the field of physical security, security lighting is lighting that intended to deter or detect intrusions or other criminal activity on a piece of real property.

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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Sky brightness

Sky brightness refers to the visual perception of the sky and how it scatters and diffuses light.

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Skyglow (or sky glow) is the diffuse luminance of the night sky, apart from discrete light sources such as the Moon and visible individual stars.

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SKYGLOW is an ongoing crowdfunded project exploring light pollution and its impact on cities, as well as North America's endangered dark-sky locations.

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Sleep deprivation

Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute.

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Sodium-vapor lamp

A sodium-vapor lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses sodium in an excited state to produce light at a characteristic wavelength near 589 nm.

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Solar cycle

The solar cycle or solar magnetic activity cycle is the nearly periodic 11-year change in the Sun's activity (including changes in the levels of solar radiation and ejection of solar material) and appearance (changes in the number and size of sunspots, flares, and other manifestations).

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Solar power

Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.

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The soundscape is the component of the acoustic environment that can be perceived by humans.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Spectral line

A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.

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Spider web

A spider web, spiderweb, spider's web, or cobweb (from the archaic word coppe, meaning "spider") is a device created by a spider out of proteinaceous spider silk extruded from its spinnerets, generally meant to catch its prey.

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SPIE Newsroom

SPIE Newsroom is a technical news website launched in March 2006 and operated by SPIE.

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Stray light

Stray light is light in an optical system, which was not intended in the design.

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Street light

A street light, light pole, lamppost, street lamp, light standard, or lamp standard is a raised source of light on the edge of a road or path.

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Stress (biology)

Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.

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Strobe light

A strobe light or stroboscopic lamp, commonly called a strobe, is a device used to produce regular flashes of light.

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Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

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A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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The End of Night (book)

The End of Night: Searching for Natural Darkness in an Age of Artificial Light is a 2013 non-fiction book by Paul Bogard on the gradual disappearance, due to light pollution, of true darkness from the night skies of most people on the planet.

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The New Republic

The New Republic is a liberal American magazine of commentary on politics and the arts, published since 1914, with influence on American political and cultural thinking.

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The New Yorker

The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.

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Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.

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Tribute in Light

The Tribute in Light is an art installation of 88 searchlights placed six blocks south of the World Trade Center on top of the Battery Parking Garage in New York City to create two vertical columns of light to represent the Twin Towers in remembrance of the September 11, 2001 attacks.

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U.S. Green Building Council

The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), co-founded by Mike Italiano, David Gottfried and Rick Fedrizzi in 1993, is a private 501(c)3, membership-based non-profit organization that promotes sustainability in building design, construction, and operation.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station

The United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS), is an astronomical observatory near Flagstaff, Arizona, USA.

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Urban area

An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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Zodiacal light

Zodiacal light (also called false dawn when seen before sunrise) is a faint, diffuse, and roughly triangular white glow that is visible in the night sky and appears to extend from the Sun's direction and along the zodiac, straddling the ecliptic.

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Redirects here:

Bad lighting, Excessive lighting, Light Pollution, Light clutter, Light pollution reduction, Light trespass, Lights out for darker skies, Luminous pollution, Misdirected lighting, Non-eco-friendly lighting, Obtrusive lighting, Over lighting, Over-lighting, Photopollution, Sky pollution, Un-enviromentally-friendly lighting, Unenviromentally-friendly lighting.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light_pollution

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