221 relations: Air mass, Ampere, Andrew Gordon (Benedictine), Antimatter, Apollo 12, Art Deco, Astraphobia, Atmosphere, Atmospheric convection, Atmospheric electricity, Australia, Aztecs, Ball lightning, Baltic languages, Bantu peoples, Benjamin Franklin, Black-body radiation, Blitzkrieg, British Union of Fascists, Canada, Cassini–Huygens, Catatumbo lightning, Christianity, Cloud, Cognate, Common name, Compton scattering, Controversy, Corona discharge, Cosmic ray, Coulomb, Cross section (geometry), Cumulonimbus cloud, Cumulonimbus incus, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dielectric strength, Dirty thunderstorm, Distribution of lightning, Dry thunderstorm, Dust storm, Earth–ionosphere waveguide, Echo, Electric charge, Electric current, Electric field, Electric motor, Electric potential, Electric spark, Electrical polarity, Electromagnetic pulse, ..., Electromagnetism, Electron, Electronics, Electrostatic discharge, Electrostatic induction, Elevation, Energy, Extremely low frequency, Finnish mythology, Flammagenitus (cloud), Florida, Florida Institute of Technology, Franklin bells, Freezing level, French language, Fulgurite, Gamma ray, Geophysical Journal International, Geophysical Research Letters, German language, Graupel, Ground (electricity), Group velocity, Gulf Stream, Harvesting lightning energy, Heat lightning, Heraldry, Hindu, HowStuffWorks, Indra, Ionization, Islam, Italian language, Jesus, Jews, Joule, Journal of Geophysical Research, Jupiter, K'awiil, Kifuka, Kinetic theory of gases, Lake Maracaibo, Latitude, Leader (spark), Lichtenberg figure, Lightning, Lightning injuries, Lightning rocket, Lightning rod, Lightning strike, Lightning-prediction system, List of Greek mythological figures, Lodestone, Luminosity, Luminous intensity, Maya religion, Mesocyclone, Meteorology, Microsecond, Middle latitudes, Military communications, Millisecond, Mount Vesuvius, National Geographic Society, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National States' Rights Party, NATO Joint Military Symbology, Nazi Party, Neutron, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, New Scientist, New Zealand, Nitrate, Nitrogen cycle, Norse mythology, North Pole, Outside (magazine), Ozone, Paleolightning, Paramilitary, People's Action Party, Percolation theory, Perkūnas, Perun, Phar Lap, Pioneer program, Planet, Plasma (physics), Plasma channel, Pliny the Younger, Positron, Precipitation, Prevailing winds, Probability, Proton, Radio, Radio atmospheric, Radio wave, Raijin, Relative humidity, Remanence, Rocky Mountains, Runaway breakdown, Saturn, Schumann resonances, Schutzstaffel, Science (journal), Season, Second Coming, Shinto, Shock wave, Singapore, Skin effect, Slavic paganism, Small appliance, Sound (geography), South Pole, Southeastern United States, Sowilō, Space charge, Speed of light, Speed of sound, Sphere, Sprite (lightning), St. Elmo's fire, Standard Zhuang, Streamer discharge, Strobe light, Superheating, Surface area, Surge protector, Telegraphy, Terrestrial gamma-ray flash, Thai language, Thermonuclear weapon, Thor, Thoroughbred, Thunderbolt, Thundersnow, Thunderstorm, Tlaloc, Tornado, Tropical cyclone, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, Tropics, Ukko, United States, United States Geological Survey, University of Florida, University of New Mexico, Upper-atmospheric lightning, Van de Graaff generator, Vela (satellite), Venera, Venezuela, Venus Express, Vertical draft, Very low frequency, Volcano, Voltage spike, Watt, Weather front, Whistler (radio), Wildfire, Winter, Winter storm, World War II, X-ray, Zeus, Zigzag, 1,000,000,000. Expand index (171 more) » « Shrink index
In meteorology, an air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content.
The ampere (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.
Andrew Gordon (15 June 1712 - 22 August 1751) was a Scottish Benedictine monk, physicist and inventor.
In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.
Apollo 12 was the sixth manned flight in the United States Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon.
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.
Astraphobia, also known as astrapophobia, brontophobia, keraunophobia, or tonitrophobia is an abnormal fear of thunder and lightning, a type of specific phobia.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Atmospheric convection is the result of a parcel-environment instability, or temperature difference, layer in the atmosphere.
Atmospheric electricity is the study of electrical charges in the Earth's atmosphere (or that of another planet).
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Ball lightning is an unexplained and potentially dangerous atmospheric electrical phenomenon.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Bantu peoples are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes to Southern Africa.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).
Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.
The British Union of Fascists, or BUF, was a fascist political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1932 by Oswald Mosley.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
Catatumbo lightning (Relámpago del Catatumbo) is an atmospheric phenomenon in Venezuela.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
In biology, a common name of a taxon or organism (also known as a vernacular name, English name, colloquial name, trivial name, trivial epithet, country name, popular name, or farmer's name) is a name that is based on the normal language of everyday life; this kind of name is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism, which is Latinized.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
Controversy is a state of prolonged public dispute or debate, usually concerning a matter of conflicting opinion or point of view.
A corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid such as air surrounding a conductor that is electrically charged.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
The coulomb (symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.
In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.
Cumulonimbus, from the Latin cumulus ("heaped") and nimbus ("rainstorm"), is a dense, towering vertical cloud, forming from water vapor carried by powerful upward air currents.
A cumulonimbus incus (Latin incus, "anvil") also known as an anvil cloud is a cumulonimbus cloud which has reached the level of stratospheric stability and has formed the characteristic flat, anvil-top shape.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
In physics, the term dielectric strength has the following meanings.
A dirty thunderstorm (also volcanic lightning, thunder volcano) is a weather phenomenon that is related to the production of lightning in a volcanic plume.
The incidence of individual lightning strikes in any particular place is highly variable, but lightning does have an underlying spatial distribution.
A dry thunderstorm or heat storm, is a thunderstorm that produces thunder and lightning, but most or all of its precipitation evaporates before reaching the ground, and dry lightning is the term which is used to refer to lightning strikes occurring in this situation.
A dust storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions.
The Earth–ionosphere waveguide refers to the phenomenon in which certain radio waves can propagate in the space between the ground and the boundary of the ionosphere.
In audio signal processing and acoustics, Echo is a reflection of sound that arrives at the listener with a delay after the direct sound.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.
An electric spark is an abrupt electrical discharge that occurs when a sufficiently high electric field creates an ionized, electrically conductive channel through a normally-insulating medium, often air or other gases or gas mixtures.
Electrical polarity is a term used throughout industries and fields that involve electricity.
An electromagnetic pulse (EMP), also sometimes called a transient electromagnetic disturbance, is a short burst of electromagnetic energy.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or dielectric breakdown.
Electrostatic induction, also known as "electrostatic influence" or simply "influence" in Europe and Latin America, is a redistribution of electrical charge in an object, caused by the influence of nearby charges.
The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic datum § Vertical datum).
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Extremely low frequency (ELF) is the ITU designation for electromagnetic radiation (radio waves) with frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz, and corresponding wavelengths of 100,000 to 10,000 kilometers, respectively.
Finnish mythology is a commonly applied description of the folklore of Finnish paganism, of which a modern revival is practiced by a small percentage of the Finnish people.
A flammagenitus, also known as a pyrocumulus cloud or fire cloud, is a dense cumuliform cloud associated with fire or volcanic eruptions that may produce dry lightning (lightning without rain).
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
The Florida Institute of Technology (Florida Tech or FIT) is a private nonprofit doctoral/research university in Melbourne, Florida.
Franklin bells (also known as Gordon’s Bells or lightning bells) are an early demonstration of electric charge designed to work with a Leyden jar.
The freezing level, or 0 °C (zero-degree) isotherm, represents the altitude in which the temperature is at 0 °C (the freezing point of water) in a free atmosphere (i.e. allowing reflection of the sun by snow, etc.). Any given measure is valid for only a short period of time, often less than a day.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fulgurites (from the Latin fulgur, meaning "lightning") are natural tubes, clumps, or masses of sintered, vitrified, and/or fused soil, sand, rock, organic debris and other sediments that can form when lightning discharges into ground.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Geophysical Journal International is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society and the Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (German Geophysical Society).
Geophysical Research Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of geoscience published by the American Geophysical Union that was established in 1974.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Graupel (Enɡlish), also called soft hail or snow pellets, is precipitation that forms when supercooled water droplets are collected and freeze on falling snowflakes, forming balls of rime.
In electrical engineering, ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the earth.
The group velocity of a wave is the velocity with which the overall shape of the wave's amplitudes—known as the modulation or envelope of the wave—propagates through space.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
Since the late 1980s, there have been several attempts to investigate the possibility of harvesting lightning energy.
Heat lightning, sometimes known as silent lightning or dry lightning (mainly used in the American south; not to be confused with dry thunderstorms, which are also often called dry lightning), is a misnomer used for the faint flashes of lightning on the horizon or other clouds from distant thunderstorms that do not appear to have accompanying sounds of thunder.
Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
HowStuffWorks is an American commercial educational website founded by Marshall Brain to provide its target audience an insight into the way many things work.
(Sanskrit: इन्द्र), also known as Devendra, is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
The Journal of Geophysical Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
K'awiil, in the Post-Classic codices corresponding to God K, is a Maya deity identified with lightning, serpents, fertility and maize.
Kifuka is a village in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.
Lake Maracaibo (Lago de Maracaibo) is a large brackish tidal bay (or tidal estuary) in Venezuela and an "inlet of the Caribbean Sea." It is sometimes considered a lake rather than a bay or lagoon.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
A leader is a hot, highly conductive channel of plasma that plays a critical part during dielectric breakdown within a long electric spark.
Lichtenberg figures (German Lichtenberg-Figuren), or "Lichtenberg dust figures", are branching electric discharges that sometimes appear on the surface or in the interior of insulating materials.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
Lightning injuries are injuries caused by lightning strikes.
A lightning rocket is a rocket device, generally about the size of a man, that trails behind a conductor, such as a fine copper wire or other media that is conductive, to conduct lightning charges to the ground.
A lightning rod (US, AUS) or lightning conductor (UK) is a metal rod mounted on a structure and intended to protect the structure from a lightning strike.
A lightning strike or lightning bolt is an electric discharge between the atmosphere and an Earth-bound object.
A lightning prediction system is a type of lightning detection equipment that determines when atmospheric conditions likely to produce lightning strikes and sounds an alarm, warning those nearby that lightning is imminent and giving them the chance to find safety before the storm arrives in the area.
The following is a list of gods, goddesses and many other divine and semi-divine figures from Ancient Greek mythology and Ancient Greek religion.
A lodestone is a naturally magnetized piece of the mineral magnetite.
In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted per unit of time by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object.
In photometry, luminous intensity is a measure of the wavelength-weighted power emitted by a light source in a particular direction per unit solid angle, based on the luminosity function, a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye.
The traditional Maya religion of Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras, and the Tabasco, Chiapas, and Yucatán regions of Mexico is a southeastern variant of Mesoamerican religion.
A mesocyclone is a vortex of air within a convective storm.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
A microsecond is an SI unit of time equal to one millionth (0.000001 or 10−6 or 1/1,000,000) of a second.
The middle latitudes (also called the mid-latitudes, sometimes midlatitudes, or moderate latitudes) of Earth lie between 23°26'22" and 66°33'39" north, and between 23°26'22" and 66°33'39" south.
Military communications or military signals involve all aspects of communications, or conveyance of information, by armed forces.
A millisecond (from milli- and second; symbol: ms) is a thousandth (0.001 or 10−3 or 1/1000) of a second.
Mount Vesuvius (Monte Vesuvio; Vesuvio; Mons Vesuvius; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The National States' Rights Party was a far right, white supremacist party that briefly played a minor role in the politics of the United States.
NATO Joint Military Symbology is the NATO standard for military map marking symbols.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
The New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (a.k.a. New Mexico Tech, and formerly known as the New Mexico School of Mines) is a university located in Socorro, New Mexico.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
Outside is an American magazine focused on the outdoors.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Paleolightning is the study of lightning activity throughout Earth's history.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
The People's Action Party (abbreviation: PAP) is a major right-wingPartido de Ação Popular political party in Singapore.
In statistical physics and mathematics, percolation theory describes the behaviour of connected clusters in a random graph.
Perkūnas (Perkūnas, Pērkons, Old Prussian: Perkūns, Yotvingian: Parkuns) was the common Baltic god of thunder, one of the most important deities in the Baltic pantheon.
In Slavic mythology, Perun (Cyrillic: Перун) is the highest god of the pantheon and the god of thunder and lightning.
Phar Lap (4 October 1926 – 5 April 1932) was a champion Thoroughbred racehorse whose achievements captured the Australian public's imagination during the early years of the Great Depression.
The Pioneer program is a series of United States unmanned space missions that were designed for planetary exploration.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
A plasma channel is a conductive channel of plasma.
Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Prevailing winds are winds that blow predominantly from a single general direction over a particular point on the Earth's surface.
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
A radio atmospheric signal or sferic (sometimes also spelled "spheric") is a broadband electromagnetic impulse that occurs as a result of natural atmospheric lightning discharges.
Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.
is a god of lightning, thunder and storms in the Shinto religion and in Japanese mythology.
Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature.
Remanence or remanent magnetization or residual magnetism is the magnetization left behind in a ferromagnetic material (such as iron) after an external magnetic field is removed.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
Runaway breakdown is a theory of lightning initiation proposed by Alex Gurevich in 1992.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
The Schumann resonances (SR) are a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.
The Second Coming (sometimes called the Second Advent or the Parousia) is a Christian and Islamic belief regarding the future (or past) return of Jesus Christ after his incarnation and ascension to heaven about two thousand years ago.
or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.
In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to become distributed within a conductor such that the current density is largest near the surface of the conductor, and decreases with greater depths in the conductor.
Slavic paganism or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs, godlores and ritual practices of the Slavs before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites.
A small appliance or small domestic appliance are portable or semi-portable machines, generally used on table-tops, counter-tops, or other platforms, to accomplish a household task.
In geography, a sound is a large sea or ocean inlet larger than a bay, deeper than a bight, and wider than a fjord; or a narrow sea or ocean channel between two bodies of land (see also strait).
The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface.
The Southeastern United States (Sureste de Estados Unidos, Sud-Est des États-Unis) is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States.
*Sowilō or *sæwelō is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic language name of the s-rune, meaning "sun".
Space charge is a concept in which excess electric charge is treated as a continuum of charge distributed over a region of space (either a volume or an area) rather than distinct point-like charges.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.
A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").
Sprites are large-scale electrical discharges that occur high above thunderstorm clouds, or cumulonimbus, giving rise to a quite varied range of visual shapes flickering in the night sky.
Standard Zhuang (autonym) is the official standardized form of the Zhuang languages, which are a branch of the Northern Tai languages.
A streamer discharge, also known as filamentary discharge, is a type of transient electrical discharge.
A strobe light or stroboscopic lamp, commonly called a strobe, is a device used to produce regular flashes of light.
In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, or boiling delay) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling.
The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies.
A surge protector (or surge suppressor or surge diverter) is an appliance or device designed to protect electrical devices from voltage spikes.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
A terrestrial gamma-ray flash (TGF) is a burst of gamma rays produced in Earth's atmosphere.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
In Norse mythology, Thor (from Þórr) is the hammer-wielding god of thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, in addition to hallowing, and fertility.
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing.
A thunderbolt or lightning bolt is a symbolic representation of lightning when accompanied by a loud thunderclap.
Thundersnow, also known as a winter thunderstorm or a thundersnowstorm, is an unusual kind of thunderstorm with snow falling as the primary precipitation instead of rain.
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder.
Tlaloc (ˈtɬaːlok) was a member of the pantheon of gods in Aztec religion.
A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) was a joint space mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
Ukko, or Äijä or Äijö (Finnish: male grandparent, grandfather, old man), parallel to Uku in Estonian mythology, is the god of the sky, weather, harvest and thunder in Finnish mythology.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The University of Florida (commonly referred to as Florida or UF) is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university on a campus in Gainesville, Florida.
The University of New Mexico (also referred to as UNM) is a public research university in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Upper-atmospheric lightning or ionospheric lightning are terms sometimes used by researchers to refer to a family of short-lived electrical-breakdown phenomena that occur well above the altitudes of normal lightning and storm clouds.
A Van de Graaff generator is an electrostatic generator which uses a moving belt to accumulate electric charge on a hollow metal globe on the top of an insulated column, creating very high electric potentials.
Vela was the name of a group of satellites developed as the Vela Hotel element of Project Vela by the United States to detect nuclear detonations to monitor compliance with the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty by the Soviet Union.
The Venera series space probes were developed by the Soviet Union between 1961 and 1984 to gather data from Venus, Venera being the Russian name for Venus.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Venus Express (VEX) was the first Venus exploration mission of the European Space Agency (ESA).
An updraft is a small‐scale current of rising air, often within a cloud.
Very low frequency or VLF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 to 30 kilohertz (kHz), corresponding to wavelengths from 100 to 10 kilometers, respectively.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
In electrical engineering, spikes are fast, short duration electrical transients in voltage (voltage spikes), current (current spikes), or transferred energy (energy spikes) in an electrical circuit.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
A weather front is a boundary separating two masses of air of different densities, and is the principal cause of meteorological phenomena outside the tropics.
A whistler is a very low frequency or VLF electromagnetic (radio) wave generated by lightning.
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.
Winter is the coldest season of the year in polar and temperate zones (winter does not occur in the tropical zone).
A winter storm is an event in which varieties of precipitation are formed that only occur at low temperatures, such as snow or sleet, or a rainstorm where ground temperatures are low enough to allow ice to form (i.e. freezing rain).
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
A zigzag is a pattern made up of small corners at variable angles, though constant within the zigzag, tracing a path between two parallel lines; it can be described as both jagged and fairly regular.
1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.
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