155 relations: Acid, Acid rain, Agricultural lime, Alvar, Ancient Maya art, Aragonite, Asphalt concrete, Öland, Baryte, Beer Quarry Caves, Bioerosion, Blast furnace, Brassfield Formation, Building material, Calcite, Calcium carbonate, Calcium hydroxide, Calcium oxide, Carbonate, Cave, Cement, Cenote, Chalcedony, Chalk, Chert, Cincinnati, Clastic rock, Clay, Concrete, Concretion, Construction aggregate, Coquina, Coral, Coral sand, Crinoid, Cyanobacteria, Dalian, Depositional environment, Detritus, Diatom, Dolomite, Downland, Earth, El Torcal de Antequera, Evaporite, Exoskeleton, Fairborn, Ohio, Fårö, Flint, Florida, ..., Florida Keys, Flue-gas desulfurization, Foraminifera, Fossil, Fungus, Geological formation, Geological resistance, Giza, Giza pyramid complex, Glass production, Gongshi, Gotland, Great Orme, Great Pyramid of Giza, Green algae, Groundwater, Guilin, Hạ Long Bay, Igneous rock, In Praise of Limestone, Indiana Limestone, Intraclasts, Ion, Iron oxide, Isle of Wight, Jasper, Joint (geology), Journal of the Geological Society, Jurassic, Karst, Kingston, Ontario, Kope Formation, Kurkar, Lake, Lake Tai, Li River, Lime (material), Limestone pavement, Lysocline, Malham Cove, Malta, Marble, Marine biology, Maya civilization, Málaga, Metamorphism, Meteoric water, Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company, Mineral, Mollisol, Mollusca, Mortar (masonry), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Niagara Escarpment, Nodule (geology), North Yorkshire, Notch Peak, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Ontario, Ooid, Oolite, Ordovician, Orogeny, Paint, Parent material, Peloid (geology), Permissible exposure limit, Petroleum reservoir, Polymorphism (materials science), Portland cement, Portland stone, Pothole, Precipitation (chemistry), Quartz, Radiolaria, Raw material, Reagent, Recommended exposure limit, Rogers City, Michigan, Sand, Sandstone, Sedimentary rock, Shale, Silicon dioxide, Silt, Silurian, Soil conditioner, Solubility, Solution, Solvation, Speleothem, Stalactite, Stalagmite, Stora Alvaret, Sulfur dioxide, Supersaturation, Tennessee, The Burren, Toothpaste, Topography, Travertine, Tufa, Utah, Verdon Gorge, Weathering. Expand index (105 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
Agricultural lime, also called aglime, agricultural limestone, garden lime or liming, is a soil additive made from pulverized limestone or chalk.
An alvar is a biological environment based on a limestone plain with thin or no soil and, as a result, sparse grassland vegetation.
Ancient Maya art refers to the material arts of the Maya civilization, an eastern and south-eastern Mesoamerican culture that took shape in the course of the later Preclassic Period (500 BCE to 200 CE).
Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).
Asphalt concrete (commonly called asphalt, blacktop, or pavement in North America, and tarmac, bitumen macadam or rolled asphalt in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland) is a composite material commonly used to surface roads, parking lots, airports, as well as the core of embankment dams.
Öland (known in Latin as Oelandia, and sometimes written Øland in other Scandinavian languages, and Oland internationally) is the second largest Swedish island and the smallest of the traditional provinces of Sweden.
Baryte or barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate.
Beer Quarry Caves is a man-made limestone underground complex located about a mile west of the village of Beer, Devon, and the main source in England for beer stone.
Bioerosion describes the breakdown of hard ocean substrates – and less often terrestrial substrates – by living organisms.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
The Brassfield Formation, named by A.F. Foerste in 1906, is a limestone and dolomite formation exposed in Arkansas, Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, Tennessee and West Virginia in the United States.
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural space large enough for a human to enter.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
A cenote is a natural pit, or sinkhole, resulting from the collapse of limestone bedrock that exposes groundwater underneath.
Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica, composed of very fine intergrowths of quartz and moganite.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
Chert is a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed of microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline silica, the mineral form of silicon dioxide (SiO2).
Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
A concretion is a hard, compact mass of matter formed by the precipitation of mineral cement within the spaces between particles, and is found in sedimentary rock or soil.
Construction aggregate, or simply "aggregate", is a broad category of coarse to medium grained particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates.
Coquina is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported, abraded, and mechanically-sorted fragments of the shells of molluscs, trilobites, brachiopods, or other invertebrates.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
Coral sand is a collection of sand of particles originating in tropical and sub-tropical marine environments from bioerosion of limestone skeletal material of marine organisms.
Crinoids are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata).
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning Province, China.
In geology, depositional environment or sedimentary environment describes the combination of physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deposition of a particular type of sediment and, therefore, the rock types that will be formed after lithification, if the sediment is preserved in the rock record.
In biology, detritus is dead particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material).
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
A downland is an area of open chalk hills.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
El Torcal de Antequera is a nature reserve in the Sierra del Torcal mountain range located south of the city of Antequera, in the province of Málaga off the A45 road in Andalusia, Spain.
Evaporite is the term for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
Fairborn is a city in Greene County, Ohio, United States, near Dayton and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.
Fårö is a Baltic Sea island just off north of the island of Gotland, itself off mainland Sweden's southeastern coast.
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
The Florida Keys are a coral cay archipelago located off the southern coast of Florida, forming the southernmost portion of the continental United States.
Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is a set of technologies used to remove sulfur dioxide from exhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants, and from the emissions of other sulfur oxide emitting processes (e.g trash incineration).
Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
A formation or geological formation is the fundamental unit of lithostratigraphy.
Geological resistance is a measure of how well minerals resist erosive factors, and is primarily based on hardness, chemical reactivity and cohesion.
Giza (sometimes spelled Gizah or Jizah; الجيزة; ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ, ⲅⲓⲍⲁ) is the third-largest city in Egypt and the capital of the Giza Governorate.
The Giza pyramid complex (أهرامات الجيزة,, "pyramids of Giza") is an archaeological site on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt.
Glass production involves two main methods – the float glass process that produces sheet glass, and glassblowing that produces bottles and other containers.
Gongshi, also known as scholar's rocks, are naturally occurring or shaped rocks which are traditionally appreciated by Chinese scholars.
Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.
The Great Orme or Great Orme's Head (Y Gogarth or Pen y Gogarth) is a prominent limestone headland on the north coast of Wales, next to the town of Llandudno.
The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt.
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Guilin, formerly romanized as Kweilin, is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.
Ha Long Bay (Vịnh Hạ Long) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and popular travel destination in Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
"In Praise of Limestone" is a poem written by W. H. Auden in Italy in May 1948.
Indiana limestone — also known as Bedford limestone — is a common regional term for Salem limestone, a geological formation primarily quarried in south central Indiana, USA, between the cities of Bloomington and Bedford.
Intraclasts are irregularly shaped grains that form by syndepositional erosion of partially lithified sediment.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.
The Isle of Wight (also referred to informally as The Island or abbreviated to IOW) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England.
Jasper, an aggregate of microgranular quartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases,Kostov, R. I. 2010.
A rock in Abisko fractured along existing joints possibly by mechanical frost weathering A joint is a break (fracture) of natural origin in the continuity of either a layer or body of rock that lacks any visible or measurable movement parallel to the surface (plane) of the fracture.
The Journal of the Geological Society is a peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers research in all aspects of the Earth sciences.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.
Kingston is a city in eastern Ontario, Canada.
The Kope Formation is one of the three component bedrock formations of the Maquoketa Group that primarily consists of shale (75%) with some limestone (25%) interbedded.
Kurkar (كركار /כורכר) is the term used in Palestinian Arabic and modern Hebrew for the rock type of which lithified sea sand dunes consist.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Lake Tai or Lake Taihu is a large freshwater lake in the Yangtze Delta plain.
The Li River or Li Jiang is a river in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.
A limestone pavement is a natural karst landform consisting of a flat, incised surface of exposed limestone that resembles an artificial pavement.
The lysocline is the depth in the ocean below which the rate of dissolution of calcite increases dramatically.
Malham Cove is a limestone formation north of the village of Malham, North Yorkshire, England.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
Málaga is a municipality, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain.
Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).
Meteoric water is the water derived from precipitation (snow and rain).
Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company (a.k.a. "Michigan Limestone") operates the world's largest limestone quarry located near Rogers City, Michigan.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mollisols are a soil order in USDA soil taxonomy.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The Niagara Escarpment is a long escarpment, or cuesta, in the United States and Canada that runs predominantly east/west from New York, through Ontario, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Illinois.
In sedimentology and geology, a nodule is small, irregularly rounded knot, mass, or lump of a mineral or mineral aggregate that typically has a contrasting composition, such as a pyrite nodule in coal, a chert nodule in limestone, or a phosphorite nodule in marine shale, from the enclosing sediment or sedimentary rock.
North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county (or shire county) and larger ceremonial county in England.
Notch Peak is a distinctive summit located on Sawtooth Mountain in the House Range, west of Delta, Utah, United States.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Ooids are small (commonly ≤2 mm in diameter), spheroidal, "coated" (layered) sedimentary grains, usually composed of calcium carbonate, but sometimes made up of iron- or phosphate-based minerals.
Oolite or oölite (egg stone) is a sedimentary rock formed from ooids, spherical grains composed of concentric layers.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
Parent material is the underlying geological material (generally bedrock or a superficial or drift deposit) in which soil horizons form.
Peloids are allochems that are composed of micrite, irrespective of size, shape, or origin.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
A petroleum reservoir or oil and gas reservoir is a subsurface pool of hydrocarbons contained in porous or fractured rock formations.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout.
Portland stone is a limestone from the Tithonian stage of the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset.
A pothole is a structural failure in a road surface, usually asphalt pavement, due to water in the underlying soil structure and traffic passing over the affected area.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
The Radiolaria, also called Radiozoa, are protozoa of diameter 0.1–0.2 mm that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm.The elaborate mineral skeleton is usually made of silica.
A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
Rogers City is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
A soil conditioner is a product which is added to soil to improve the soil’s physical qualities, usually its fertility (ability to provide nutrition for plants) and sometimes its mechanics.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.
Speleothems (Ancient Greek: "cave deposit"), commonly known as cave formations, are secondary mineral deposits formed in a cave.
A stalactite (from the Greek stalasso, (σταλάσσω), "to drip", and meaning "that which drips") is a type of formation that hangs from the ceiling of caves, hot springs, or manmade structures such as bridges and mines.
A stalagmite (or; from the Greek σταλαγμίτης -, from σταλαγμίας -, "dropping, trickling") is a type of rock formation that rises from the floor of a cave due to the accumulation of material deposited on the floor from ceiling drippings.
Stora Alvaret (The Great Alvar) is an alvar, a barren limestone terrace, in the southern half of the island of Öland, Sweden.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Supersaturation is a state of a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Burren is a region of environmental interest primarily located in northwestern County Clare, Ireland, dominated by glaciated karst (or sometimes glaciokarst Burren National Park - Geology - "The Burren is one of the finest examples of a Glacio-Karst landscape in the world. At least two glacial advances are known in the Burren area.") landscape.
Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
Travertine is a form of limestone deposited by mineral springs, especially hot springs.
Tufa is a variety of limestone formed when carbonate minerals precipitate out of ambient temperature water.
Utah is a state in the western United States.
The Verdon Gorge (in French: Gorges du Verdon or Grand canyon du Verdon), in south-eastern France (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence), is a river canyon that is often considered to be one of Europe's most beautiful.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.