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Lindane

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Lindane, also known as gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCCH), gammaxene, Gammallin and sometimes incorrectly called benzene hexachloride (BHC), is an organochlorine chemical variant of hexachlorocyclohexane that has been used both as an agricultural insecticide and as a pharmaceutical treatment for lice and scabies. [1]

62 relations: Alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane, Benzene hexachloride, Beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane, Bioaccumulation, Boxed warning, Brazil, California, California Proposition 65 (1986), Carcinogen, China, Cracking (chemistry), Dermatitis, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, Endocrine disruptor, Epileptic seizure, Europe, FDA warning letter, Food and Drug Administration, Food chain, GABAA receptor, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Global distillation, Hexachlorocyclohexane, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Immune system, Imperial Chemical Industries, India, Insecticide, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Isomer, Kidney, List of extremely hazardous substances, Liver, Medication, Michael Faraday, Michigan House of Representatives, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nervous system, Neurotoxin, Neurotransmitter, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Organochloride, Pediculosis, Permissible exposure limit, Persistent organic pollutant, Picrotoxin, Psoriasis, Recommended exposure limit, Rotterdam Convention, Russia, ..., Scabies, Seed treatment, Shampoo, Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Tonne, United States, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Geological Survey, United States Government Publishing Office, Wockhardt, World Health Organization. Expand index (12 more) »

Alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane

α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) is an organochloride which is one of the isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH).

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Benzene hexachloride

Benzene hexachloride is a trivial name (common or vernacular name) that may refer to.

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Beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane

β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) is an organochloride which is one of the isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH).

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Bioaccumulation

Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.

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Boxed warning

In the United States, a boxed warning (sometimes "black box warning", colloquially) is a type of warning that appears on the package insert for certain prescription drugs, so called because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration specifies that it is formatted with a 'box' or border around the text.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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California

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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California Proposition 65 (1986)

Proposition 65 (formally titled The Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986) is a California law passed by direct voter initiative in 1986 by a 63%–37% vote.

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Carcinogen

A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Cracking (chemistry)

In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.

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Dermatitis

Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.

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Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 is a United States federal law passed by the 99th United States Congress located at Title 42, Chapter 116 of the U.S. Code, concerned with emergency response preparedness.

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Endocrine disruptor

Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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FDA warning letter

An FDA warning letter is an official message from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to a manufacturer or other organization that has violated some rule in a federally regulated activity.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Food chain

A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).

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GABAA receptor

The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.

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Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

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Global distillation

Global distillation or the grasshopper effect is the geochemical process by which certain chemicals, most notably persistent organic pollutants (POPs), are transported from warmer to colder regions of the Earth, particularly the poles and mountain tops.

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Hexachlorocyclohexane

Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) is any of several polyhalogenated organic compounds consisting of a six-carbon ring with one chlorine and one hydrogen attached to each carbon.

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Immediately dangerous to life or health

The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Imperial Chemical Industries

Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) was a British chemical company and was, for much of its history, the largest manufacturer in Britain.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Insecticide

Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.

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International Agency for Research on Cancer

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.

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Isomer

An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.

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Kidney

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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List of extremely hazardous substances

This is the list of extremely hazardous substances defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. 11002).

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Liver

The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Medication

A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

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Michigan House of Representatives

The Michigan House of Representatives is the lower house of the Michigan Legislature.

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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Neurotoxin

Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).

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Neurotransmitter

Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Occupational Safety and Health Administration

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.

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Organochloride

An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule.

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Pediculosis

Pediculosis is an infestation of lice (blood-feeding ectoparasitic insects of the order Phthiraptera).

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Permissible exposure limit

The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.

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Persistent organic pollutant

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.

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Picrotoxin

Picrotoxin, also known as cocculin, is a poisonous crystalline plant compound.

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Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.

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Recommended exposure limit

A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.

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Rotterdam Convention

The Rotterdam Convention (formally, the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade) is a multilateral treaty to promote shared responsibilities in relation to importation of hazardous chemicals.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Scabies

Scabies, also known as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei.

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Seed treatment

In agriculture and horticulture, seed treatment or seed dressing is a chemical, typically antimicrobial or fungicidal, with which seeds are treated (or "dressed") prior to planting.

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Shampoo

Shampoo is a hair care product, typically in the form of a viscous liquid, that is used for cleaning hair.

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Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is an international environmental treaty, signed in 2001 and effective from May 2004, that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

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Tonne

The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Department of Health and Human Services

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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United States Government Publishing Office

The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.

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Wockhardt

Wockhardt Ltd. is a Global pharmaceutical and biotechnology company headquartered in Mumbai, India.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane, ATC code P03AB02, ATCvet code QP53AB02, ATCvet code QS02QA01, Aalindan, Aficide, Agrocide, Agrocide III, Agrocide WP, Ameisenmittel merck, Ameisentod, Aparasin, Aphtiria, Aplidal, Arbitex, Atlas steward, Ben-Hex, Bentox 10, Benzine hexachloride, Beta-Lindane, Bexol, Celanex, Chloresene, Codechine, Detmol-Extrakt, Dol Granule, Drilltox-Spezial Aglukon, Entomoxan, Esoderm, Fumite lindane, Gamacid, Gamene, Gamma HCH, Gamma benzene hexachloride, Gamma-BHC, Gamma-BHC dust, Gamma-Col, Gamma-HCH, Gamma-HCH dust, Gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane, Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane degradation, Gammalin, Gammalin 20, Gammallin, Gammasan, Gammaterr, Gammaxene, Gammexane, Gexane, Heclotox, Hexachloran, Hexachlorane, Hexachlorocyclohexane, gamma, Hexatox, Hexaverm, Hexicide, Hexit, Hexyclan, Isotox, Jacutin, Kokotine, Kwell, Lendine, Lentox, Lidenal, Lindafor, Lindatox, Lindosep, Lintox, Linvur, Lorexane, Milbol 49, Mszycol, Neo-Scabicidol, New kotol, Nexen FB, Nexit-Stark, Nexol-E, Nicochloran, Omnitox, Ovadziak, Owadziak, PMS Lindane, Pedraczak, Pflanzol, Quellada, Sang-«gamma», Scabene, Scabene lotion, Spritz-Rapidin, Spruehpflanzol, Streunex, TAP 85, Tri-6, Γ-BCH.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lindane

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