110 relations: Abstract algebra, Additive map, Affine transformation, Analytic geometry, Antiderivative, Antilinear map, Associative algebra, Atiyah–Singer index theorem, Automorphism, Balanced set, Basis (linear algebra), Bent function, Bijection, Bounded operator, Cambridge University Press, Category (mathematics), Category of modules, Category theory, Class (set theory), Cokernel, Compiler, Complex conjugate, Complex number, Composition of relations, Computer graphics, Continuous function, Continuous linear operator, Convex set, Covariance and contravariance of vectors, Derivative, Diagonal matrix, Dimension, Dimension (vector space), Discontinuous linear map, Endomorphism, Epimorphism, Equivalence class, Equivalence relation, Euclidean space, Euler characteristic, Exact sequence, Expected value, Field (mathematics), Fredholm, Function composition, General linear group, Group (mathematics), Group isomorphism, Homogeneous function, Homothetic transformation, ..., Idempotence, Identity function, Image (mathematics), Injective function, Integral, Interval (mathematics), Inverse element, Inverse function, Isomorphism, Kernel (linear algebra), Line (geometry), Linear equation, Linear form, Linear function, Linear map, Linear subspace, Map (mathematics), Mathematics, Matrix (mathematics), Matrix addition, Matrix multiplication, McGraw-Hill Education, Module (mathematics), Module homomorphism, Monomorphism, Morphism, Nilpotent, Normed vector space, Operator theory, Optimizing compiler, Origin (mathematics), Plane (geometry), Point (geometry), Pointwise, Projection (linear algebra), Quotient space (linear algebra), Range (mathematics), Rank (linear algebra), Rank–nullity theorem, Reflection (mathematics), Ring (mathematics), Rotation (mathematics), Row and column vectors, Scalar (mathematics), Scaling (geometry), Semilinear map, Set (mathematics), Shear mapping, Smoothness, Springer Science+Business Media, Squeeze mapping, Surjective function, Tensor, Topological vector space, Transformation (function), Transformation matrix, Unit (ring theory), Variance, Vector space, 2 × 2 real matrices. Expand index (60 more) » « Shrink index
In algebra, which is a broad division of mathematics, abstract algebra (occasionally called modern algebra) is the study of algebraic structures.
In algebra an additive map, Z-linear map or additive function is a function that preserves the addition operation: for every pair of elements and in the domain.
In geometry, an affine transformation, affine mapBerger, Marcel (1987), p. 38.
In classical mathematics, analytic geometry, also known as coordinate geometry or Cartesian geometry, is the study of geometry using a coordinate system.
In calculus, an antiderivative, primitive function, primitive integral or indefinite integral of a function is a differentiable function whose derivative is equal to the original function.
In mathematics, a mapping f:V\to W from a complex vector space to another is said to be antilinear (or conjugate-linear) if for all a, \, b \, \in \mathbb and all x, \, y \, \in V, where \bar and \bar are the complex conjugates of a and b respectively.
In mathematics, an associative algebra is an algebraic structure with compatible operations of addition, multiplication (assumed to be associative), and a scalar multiplication by elements in some field.
In differential geometry, the Atiyah–Singer index theorem, proved by, states that for an elliptic differential operator on a compact manifold, the analytical index (related to the dimension of the space of solutions) is equal to the topological index (defined in terms of some topological data).
In mathematics, an automorphism is an isomorphism from a mathematical object to itself.
In linear algebra and related areas of mathematics a balanced set, circled set or disk in a vector space (over a field K with an absolute value function |\cdot |) is a set S such that for all scalars \alpha with |\alpha| \leqslant 1 where The balanced hull or balanced envelope for a set S is the smallest balanced set containing S. It can be constructed as the intersection of all balanced sets containing S.
In mathematics, a set of elements (vectors) in a vector space V is called a basis, or a set of, if the vectors are linearly independent and every vector in the vector space is a linear combination of this set.
In the mathematical field of combinatorics, a bent function is a special type of Boolean function.
In mathematics, a bijection, bijective function, or one-to-one correspondence is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set.
In functional analysis, a bounded linear operator is a linear transformation L between normed vector spaces X and Y for which the ratio of the norm of L(v) to that of v is bounded above by the same number, over all non-zero vectors v in X. In other words, there exists some M\ge 0 such that for all v in X The smallest such M is called the operator norm \|L\|_ \, of L. A bounded linear operator is generally not a bounded function; the latter would require that the norm of L(v) be bounded for all v, which is not possible unless L(v).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
In mathematics, a category (sometimes called an abstract category to distinguish it from a concrete category) is an algebraic structure similar to a group but without requiring inverse or closure properties.
In algebra, given a ring R, the category of left modules over R is the category whose objects are all left modules over R and whose morphisms are all module homomorphisms between left R-modules.
Category theory formalizes mathematical structure and its concepts in terms of a labeled directed graph called a category, whose nodes are called objects, and whose labelled directed edges are called arrows (or morphisms).
In set theory and its applications throughout mathematics, a class is a collection of sets (or sometimes other mathematical objects) that can be unambiguously defined by a property that all its members share.
In mathematics, the cokernel of a linear mapping of vector spaces f: X → Y is the quotient space Y/im(f) of the codomain of f by the image of f. The dimension of the cokernel is called the corank of f. Cokernels are dual to the kernels of category theory, hence the name: the kernel is a subobject of the domain (it maps to the domain), while the cokernel is a quotient object of the codomain (it maps from the codomain).
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
In mathematics, the complex conjugate of a complex number is the number with an equal real part and an imaginary part equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.
A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.
In the mathematics of binary relations, the composition relations is a concept of forming a new relation from two given relations R and S. The composition of relations is called relative multiplication in the calculus of relations.
Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which sufficiently small changes in the input result in arbitrarily small changes in the output.
In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, a continuous linear operator or continuous linear mapping is a continuous linear transformation between topological vector spaces.
In convex geometry, a convex set is a subset of an affine space that is closed under convex combinations.
In multilinear algebra and tensor analysis, covariance and contravariance describe how the quantitative description of certain geometric or physical entities changes with a change of basis.
The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).
In linear algebra, a diagonal matrix is a matrix in which the entries outside the main diagonal are all zero.
In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.
In mathematics, the dimension of a vector space V is the cardinality (i.e. the number of vectors) of a basis of V over its base field.
In mathematics, linear maps form an important class of "simple" functions which preserve the algebraic structure of linear spaces and are often used as approximations to more general functions (see linear approximation).
In mathematics, an endomorphism is a morphism (or homomorphism) from a mathematical object to itself.
In category theory, an epimorphism (also called an epic morphism or, colloquially, an epi) is a morphism f: X → Y that is right-cancellative in the sense that, for all morphisms, Epimorphisms are categorical analogues of surjective functions (and in the category of sets the concept corresponds to the surjective functions), but it may not exactly coincide in all contexts; for example, the inclusion \mathbb\to\mathbb is a ring-epimorphism.
In mathematics, when the elements of some set S have a notion of equivalence (formalized as an equivalence relation) defined on them, then one may naturally split the set S into equivalence classes.
In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.
In mathematics, and more specifically in algebraic topology and polyhedral combinatorics, the Euler characteristic (or Euler number, or Euler–Poincaré characteristic) is a topological invariant, a number that describes a topological space's shape or structure regardless of the way it is bent.
An exact sequence is a concept in mathematics, especially in group theory, ring and module theory, homological algebra, as well as in differential geometry.
In probability theory, the expected value of a random variable, intuitively, is the long-run average value of repetitions of the experiment it represents.
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.
Fredholm is a Swedish surname.
In mathematics, function composition is the pointwise application of one function to the result of another to produce a third function.
In mathematics, the general linear group of degree n is the set of invertible matrices, together with the operation of ordinary matrix multiplication.
In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.
In abstract algebra, a group isomorphism is a function between two groups that sets up a one-to-one correspondence between the elements of the groups in a way that respects the given group operations.
In mathematics, a homogeneous function is one with multiplicative scaling behaviour: if all its arguments are multiplied by a factor, then its value is multiplied by some power of this factor.
In mathematics, a homothety (or homothecy, or homogeneous dilation) is a transformation of an affine space determined by a point S called its center and a nonzero number λ called its ratio, which sends in other words it fixes S, and sends any M to another point N such that the segment SN is on the same line as SM, but scaled by a factor λ. In Euclidean geometry homotheties are the similarities that fix a point and either preserve (if) or reverse (if) the direction of all vectors.
Idempotence is the property of certain operations in mathematics and computer science that they can be applied multiple times without changing the result beyond the initial application.
Graph of the identity function on the real numbers In mathematics, an identity function, also called an identity relation or identity map or identity transformation, is a function that always returns the same value that was used as its argument.
In mathematics, an image is the subset of a function's codomain which is the output of the function from a subset of its domain.
In mathematics, an injective function or injection or one-to-one function is a function that preserves distinctness: it never maps distinct elements of its domain to the same element of its codomain.
In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.
In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers with the property that any number that lies between two numbers in the set is also included in the set.
In abstract algebra, the idea of an inverse element generalises concepts of a negation (sign reversal) in relation to addition, and a reciprocal in relation to multiplication.
In mathematics, an inverse function (or anti-function) is a function that "reverses" another function: if the function applied to an input gives a result of, then applying its inverse function to gives the result, and vice versa.
In mathematics, an isomorphism (from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος isos "equal", and μορφή morphe "form" or "shape") is a homomorphism or morphism (i.e. a mathematical mapping) that can be reversed by an inverse morphism.
In mathematics, and more specifically in linear algebra and functional analysis, the kernel (also known as null space or nullspace) of a linear map between two vector spaces V and W, is the set of all elements v of V for which, where 0 denotes the zero vector in W. That is, in set-builder notation,.
The notion of line or straight line was introduced by ancient mathematicians to represent straight objects (i.e., having no curvature) with negligible width and depth.
In mathematics, a linear equation is an equation that may be put in the form where x_1, \ldots, x_n are the variables or unknowns, and c, a_1, \ldots, a_n are coefficients, which are often real numbers, but may be parameters, or even any expression that does not contain the unknowns.
In linear algebra, a linear functional or linear form (also called a one-form or covector) is a linear map from a vector space to its field of scalars.
In mathematics, the term linear function refers to two distinct but related notions.
In mathematics, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation or, in some contexts, linear function) is a mapping between two modules (including vector spaces) that preserves (in the sense defined below) the operations of addition and scalar multiplication.
In linear algebra and related fields of mathematics, a linear subspace, also known as a vector subspace, or, in the older literature, a linear manifold, is a vector space that is a subset of some other (higher-dimension) vector space.
In mathematics, the term mapping, sometimes shortened to map, refers to either a function, often with some sort of special structure, or a morphism in category theory, which generalizes the idea of a function.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.
In mathematics, matrix addition is the operation of adding two matrices by adding the corresponding entries together.
In mathematics, matrix multiplication or matrix product is a binary operation that produces a matrix from two matrices with entries in a field, or, more generally, in a ring or even a semiring.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
In mathematics, a module is one of the fundamental algebraic structures used in abstract algebra.
In algebra, a module homomorphism is a function between modules that preserves module structures.
In the context of abstract algebra or universal algebra, a monomorphism is an injective homomorphism.
In mathematics, a morphism is a structure-preserving map from one mathematical structure to another one of the same type.
In mathematics, an element, x, of a ring, R, is called nilpotent if there exists some positive integer, n, such that xn.
In mathematics, a normed vector space is a vector space over the real or complex numbers, on which a norm is defined.
In mathematics, operator theory is the study of linear operators on function spaces, beginning with differential operators and integral operators.
In computing, an optimizing compiler is a compiler that tries to minimize or maximize some attributes of an executable computer program.
In mathematics, the origin of a Euclidean space is a special point, usually denoted by the letter O, used as a fixed point of reference for the geometry of the surrounding space.
In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.
In modern mathematics, a point refers usually to an element of some set called a space.
In mathematics, the qualifier pointwise is used to indicate that a certain property is defined by considering each value f(x) of some function f. An important class of pointwise concepts are the pointwise operations — operations defined on functions by applying the operations to function values separately for each point in the domain of definition.
In linear algebra and functional analysis, a projection is a linear transformation P from a vector space to itself such that.
In linear algebra, the quotient of a vector space V by a subspace N is a vector space obtained by "collapsing" N to zero.
In mathematics, and more specifically in naive set theory, the range of a function refers to either the codomain or the image of the function, depending upon usage.
In linear algebra, the rank of a matrix A is the dimension of the vector space generated (or spanned) by its columns.
In mathematics, the rank–nullity theorem of linear algebra, in its simplest form, states that the rank and the nullity of a matrix add up to the number of columns of the matrix.
In mathematics, a reflection (also spelled reflexion) is a mapping from a Euclidean space to itself that is an isometry with a hyperplane as a set of fixed points; this set is called the axis (in dimension 2) or plane (in dimension 3) of reflection.
In mathematics, a ring is one of the fundamental algebraic structures used in abstract algebra.
Rotation in mathematics is a concept originating in geometry.
In linear algebra, a column vector or column matrix is an m × 1 matrix, that is, a matrix consisting of a single column of m elements, Similarly, a row vector or row matrix is a 1 × m matrix, that is, a matrix consisting of a single row of m elements Throughout, boldface is used for the row and column vectors.
A scalar is an element of a field which is used to define a vector space.
In Euclidean geometry, uniform scaling (or isotropic scaling) is a linear transformation that enlarges (increases) or shrinks (diminishes) objects by a scale factor that is the same in all directions.
In linear algebra, particularly projective geometry, a semilinear map between vector spaces V and W over a field K is a function that is a linear map "up to a twist", hence semi-linear, where "twist" means "field automorphism of K".
In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.
In plane geometry, a shear mapping is a linear map that displaces each point in fixed direction, by an amount proportional to its signed distance from a line that is parallel to that direction.
In mathematical analysis, the smoothness of a function is a property measured by the number of derivatives it has that are continuous.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
In linear algebra, a squeeze mapping is a type of linear map that preserves Euclidean area of regions in the Cartesian plane, but is not a rotation or shear mapping.
In mathematics, a function f from a set X to a set Y is surjective (or onto), or a surjection, if for every element y in the codomain Y of f there is at least one element x in the domain X of f such that f(x).
In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.
In mathematics, a topological vector space (also called a linear topological space) is one of the basic structures investigated in functional analysis.
In mathematics, particularly in semigroup theory, a transformation is a function f that maps a set X to itself, i.e..
In linear algebra, linear transformations can be represented by matrices.
In mathematics, an invertible element or a unit in a (unital) ring is any element that has an inverse element in the multiplicative monoid of, i.e. an element such that The set of units of any ring is closed under multiplication (the product of two units is again a unit), and forms a group for this operation.
In probability theory and statistics, variance is the expectation of the squared deviation of a random variable from its mean.
A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.
In mathematics, the associative algebra of real matrices is denoted by M(2, R).
Bijective linear map, Homogeneous linear transformation, Linear Operator, Linear Transformation, Linear Transformations, Linear isomorphic, Linear isomorphism, Linear mapping, Linear maps, Linear operator, Linear operators, Linear relation, Linear transform, Linear transformation, Linear transformations, Nonlinear operator.