320 relations: Abdominal pain, Abram Hoffer, Accounts of Chemical Research, ACS Award in Pure Chemistry, Albert Einstein, Alfred Sturtevant, Alkene, Alpha Chi Sigma, Alpha helix, Alpha particle, Alpha sheet, American Chemical Society, American College of Physicians, American Humanist Association, American Urological Association, Americans, Amino acid, Ancestry.com, Angina, Anti-war movement, Antibody, Arnold Orville Beckman, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Arnold Sommerfeld, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Art Robinson, Arthur M. Sackler, Atheism, Atherosclerosis, Atomic orbital, August Kekulé, Ava Helen Pauling, Baby Tooth Survey, Barclay Kamb, Barry Commoner, Benzene, Bertrand Russell, Beta sheet, Big Sur, Biochemist, Biochemistry, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, Biology, Biomolecular structure, Blood plasma, Blood transfusion, Bond order, Bright's disease, California Hall of Fame, California Institute of Technology, ..., Calvin Bridges, Canadian Medical Association Journal, Carbon, Cavendish Laboratory, Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, Charles D. Coryell, Chemical bond, Chemical engineering, Chemical property, Chemist, Coiled coil, Common cold, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Complementarity (molecular biology), Condon State Airport, Condon, Oregon, Cornell University, Cornell University Press, Covalent bond, CPK coloring, Crystal, Crystal structure, Crystal structure prediction, Crystallography, Dag Hammarskjöld, Daisaku Ikeda, Davy Medal, Deciduous teeth, Delta Upsilon, Density functional theory, Deuterium, Dietary supplement, Diffraction, Dipole, DNA, DNA replication, Double bond, Dover Publications, Edgar Bright Wilson, Edward Teller, Edwin Hubble, Eleanor F. Helin, Electron configuration, Electron diffraction, Electronegativity, Electronic structure, Electrophoresis, Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists, Enzyme, Erwin Schrödinger, Ethylene, Ewan Cameron, Francis Crick, Frederick Sanger, Fritz London, Gale (publisher), Gandhi Peace Award, Gerald Ford, Gerty Cori, Gilbert N. Lewis, Graduate school, Guggenheim Fellowship, Harry S. Truman, Harvey Itano, Helion (chemistry), Helix, Hemoglobin, Herman Branson, Herman Francis Mark, Hermann Staudinger, High school diploma, Home economics, Hugo Grotius, Hydrogen, Ice-type model, Institut de France, Integer, International Committee of the Red Cross, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, International League of Humanists, Intravenous therapy, Introduction to quantum mechanics, Ionic bonding, Ionic compound, Irving Langmuir, Irving Langmuir Award, Irwin Stone, J. Robert Oppenheimer, James Watson, Jerry Donohue, John Bardeen, John F. Kennedy, John K. Lattimer, John Kitzhaber, Journal of the American Chemical Society, King's College London, Lake Oswego, Oregon, Latin honors, Lavoisier Medal, Lawrence Bragg, Lenin Peace Prize, Life (magazine), Linear combination, Linear combination of atomic orbitals, Linus Pauling Award, Linus Pauling Institute, Linus Torvalds, Linux, List of Nobel laureates in Chemistry, List of Nobel Peace Prize laureates, List of peace activists, Lloyd A. Jeffress, Lomonosov Gold Medal, Louise Reiss, Lutheranism, Lysine, Mainau Declaration, Manhattan Project, Maria Shriver, Marie Curie, Martin Karplus, Mathematical physics, Mathematics, Matthew Meselson, Maurice Wilkins, Max Delbrück, Mayo Clinic, McCarthyism, Medal for Merit, Megavitamin therapy, Mendelian inheritance, Messenger Lectures, Methane, Mineralogical Society of America, Molecular biology, Molecular clock, Molecular genetics, Molecular geometry, Molecular medicine, Molecular model, Molecular orbital theory, Molecule, Moment (physics), Monterey, California, NAS Award in Chemical Sciences, National Academy of Sciences, National Defense Research Committee, National Medal of Science, National Review, National Science Board, New Scientist, Niacin, Niels Bohr, Nikita Khrushchev, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Peace Prize, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nuclear disarmament, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear shell model, Nuclear weapons testing, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Orbital hybridisation, Orbital overlap, Oregon Historical Society, Oregon Public Broadcasting, Oregon State University, Organometallic chemistry, Orthomolecular medicine, Oxygen, Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Pasadena, California, Paul Sabatier (chemist), Pauling's rules, Peace movement, Peptic ulcer disease, Peptide, Peter Agre, Physical chemistry, Physical property, Placebo, Platonic solid, Portland, Oregon, Priestley Medal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Promoting Enduring Peace, Prostate cancer, Protein, Protein secondary structure, Psychiatry, Quackery, Quantitative analysis (chemistry), Quantum chemistry, Quantum graph, Red blood cell, Resonance (chemistry), Richard C. Tolman, Robert Corey, Robert S. Mulliken, Roebling Medal, Rosalind Franklin, Roscoe G. Dickinson, Royal Society, Russell–Einstein Manifesto, Salem, Oregon, Science (journal), Science History Institute, Scientific American, Seymour Jonathan Singer, Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease, Sickle cell disease, Sickle cell trait, Soka Gakkai International, Soka University of America, Space-filling model, Stanford University, Stockholm, Strontium, Telluride House, Terminal illness, Tetravalence, The Atlantic, The California Museum, The Institutes for the Achievement of Human Potential, The Linus Pauling Quartet, The Valley Library, Theodosius Dobzhansky, Theoretical chemistry, Theoretical physics, Thomas Addis, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Transition state, Triple helix, Tritium, Unitarian Universalism, United States Department of State, United States Postal Service, United States Senate, United States Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security, University of California, Berkeley, University of California, San Diego, University of Chicago Press, University of Oxford, Valence bond theory, Vannevar Bush Award, Victor Stabin, Vincent du Vigneaud, Vitamin C, Vitamin C and the Common Cold (book), Vitamin C megadosage, W. H. Freeman and Company, Walter Heitler, Warren Weaver, Washington High School (Portland, Oregon), Washington Roebling, Washington University in St. Louis, Wave function, Wayne Morse, Willard Gibbs Award, William A. Rusher, William Astbury, William F. Buckley Jr., William Lipscomb, World Union for Protection of Life, World War II, X-ray, X-ray crystallography, Xenic acid, Zürich, 4674 Pauling. Expand index (270 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
Abram Hoffer (November 11, 1917 – May 27, 2009) was a Canadian biochemist, physician, and psychiatrist known for his "adrenochrome hypothesis" of schizoaffective disorders.
Accounts of Chemical Research is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society containing overviews of basic research and applications in chemistry and biochemistry.
The American Chemical Society Award in Pure Chemistry is awarded annually by the American Chemical Society (ACS) "to recognize and encourage fundamental research in pure chemistry carried out in North America by young men and women." "Young" means born within 35 years of the awarding of the Award, which takes place at the Spring meeting of the ACS.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alfred Henry Sturtevant (November 21, 1891 – April 5, 1970) was an American geneticist.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
Alpha Chi Sigma (ΑΧΣ) is a professional fraternity specializing in the field of chemistry.
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Alpha sheet (also known as alpha pleated sheet or polar pleated sheet) is an atypical secondary structure in proteins, first proposed by Linus Pauling and Robert Corey in 1951.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.
The American College of Physicians (ACP) is a national organization of internal medicineAmerican Board of Medical Specialties -. Retrieved 20 October 2014 physicians (internists)Mercy Cedar Rapids -. Retrieved 20 October 2014—specialists who apply scientific knowledge and clinical expertise to the diagnosis, treatment, and compassionate care of adults across the spectrum from health to complex illness.
The American Humanist Association (AHA) is an educational organization in the United States that advances secular humanism, a philosophy of life that, without theism or other supernatural beliefs, affirms the ability and responsibility of human beings to lead personal lives of ethical fulfillment that aspire to the greater good of humanity.
The American Urological Association (AUA) is a professional association in the United States for urology professionals.
Americans are citizens of the United States of America.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ancestry.com LLC is a privately held online company based in Lehi, Utah.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
An anti-war movement (also antiwar) is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Arnold Orville Beckman (April 10, 1900 – May 18, 2004) was an American chemist, inventor, investor, and philanthropist.
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American actor, filmmaker, businessman, investor, author, philanthropist, activist, politician, and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter.
Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, (5 December 1868 – 26 April 1951) was a German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics, and also educated and mentored a large number of students for the new era of theoretical physics.
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
Arthur Brouhard Robinson (born March 24, 1942) is an American biochemist, conservative activist, and politician.
Arthur Mitchell Sackler (August 22, 1913 – May 26, 1987) was an American psychiatrist, art collector, and philanthropist whose fortune originated in medical advertising and trade publications.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
Friedrich August Kekulé, later Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz (7 September 1829 – 13 July 1896), was a German organic chemist.
Ava Helen Pauling (December 24, 1903 – December 7, 1981) was an American human rights activist and wife of Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling.
The Baby Tooth Survey was initiated by the Greater St.
Walter Barclay Kamb was a longtime professor and researcher at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).
Barry Commoner (May 28, 1917 – September 30, 2012) was an American cellular biologist, college professor, and politician.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.
Big Sur is a rugged section of California's Central Coast between Carmel Highlands and San Simeon, where the Santa Lucia Mountains rise abruptly from the Pacific Ocean, that is frequently praised for its dramatic views.
Biochemists are scientists that are trained in biochemistry.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
The Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society is an academic journal on the history of science published annually by the Royal Society.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
Bond order is the number of chemical bonds between a pair of atoms.
Bright's disease is a historical classification of kidney diseases that would be described in modern medicine as acute or chronic nephritis.
The California Hall of Fame honors individuals and families who embody California’s innovative spirit and have made their mark on history.
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
Calvin Blackman Bridges (January 11, 1889 – December 27, 1938) was an American scientist, known for his contributions to the field of genetics.
The Canadian Medical Association Journal (French Journal de l'Association Médicale Canadienne) is a peer-reviewed general medical journal published by the Canadian Medical Association (CMA).
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The Cavendish Laboratory is the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge, and is part of the School of Physical Sciences.
The Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions in Santa Barbara, California was an influential think tank from 1959 to 1977.
Charles DuBois Coryell (February 21, 1912 – January 7, 1971) was an American chemist who was one of the discoverers of the element promethium.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials and energy.
A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
A coiled coil is a structural motif in proteins in which 2–7 alpha-helices are coiled together like the strands of a rope (dimers and trimers are the most common types).
The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.
Condon State Airport, is a public airport northeast of the city of Condon in Gilliam County, in the U.S. state of Oregon.
Condon is a city in, and the county seat of, Gilliam County, in the U.S. state of Oregon.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In chemistry, the CPK coloring is a popular color convention for distinguishing atoms of different chemical elements in molecular models.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
Crystal structure prediction (CSP) is the calculation of the crystal structures of solids from first principles.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld (29 July 1905 – 18 September 1961) was a Swedish economist and diplomat who served as the second Secretary-General of the United Nations.
is a Buddhist philosopher, educator, author, and nuclear disarmament advocate.
The Davy Medal is awarded by the Royal Society of London "for an outstandingly important recent discovery in any branch of chemistry".
Deciduous teeth, commonly known as baby teeth and temporary teeth,Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, and Anatomy, Bath-Balogh and Fehrenbach, Elsevier, 2011, page 255 are the first set of teeth in the growth development of humans and other diphyodont mammals.
Delta Upsilon (ΔΥ), commonly known as DU, is a collegiate men's fraternity founded on November 4, 1834 at Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts.
Density functional theory (DFT) is a computational quantum mechanical modelling method used in physics, chemistry and materials science to investigate the electronic structure (principally the ground state) of many-body systems, in particular atoms, molecules, and the condensed phases.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
For the Speaker of the Tennessee House of Representatives, see Edgar Bright Wilson (1874-1953). Edgar Bright Wilson Jr. (December 18, 1908 – June 12, 1992), was an American chemist.
Edward Teller (Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he claimed he did not care for the title.
Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer.
Eleanor Francis "Glo" Helin (née Francis, 19 November 1932 – 25 January 2009) was an American astronomer.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
Electron diffraction refers to the wave nature of electrons.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
In quantum chemistry, electronic structure is the state of motion of electrons in an electrostatic field created by stationary nuclei.
Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.
The Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists (ECAS) was founded by Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd in 1946.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Ewan Cameron (31 July 1922, Dumbarton – 21 March 1991) was a Scottish physician who worked with Linus Pauling on Vitamin C research.
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
Frederick Sanger (13 August 1918 – 19 November 2013) was a British biochemist who twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, one of only two people to have done so in the same category (the other is John Bardeen in physics), the fourth person overall with two Nobel Prizes, and the third person overall with two Nobel Prizes in the sciences.
Fritz Wolfgang London (March 7, 1900 – March 30, 1954) was a Jewish-German physicist and professor at Duke University.
Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit.
The Gandhi Peace Award is an award and cash prize presented annually since 1960 by Promoting Enduring Peace to individuals for "contributions made in the promotion of international peace and good will." It is named in honor of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi but has no connection to Mohandas Gandhi or any other member of the Gandhi family.
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.
Gerty Theresa Cori (née Radnitz; August 15, 1896 – October 26, 1957) was a Jewish Czech-American biochemist who became the third woman—and first American woman—to win a Nobel Prize in science, and the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 25 (or 23), 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.
A graduate school (sometimes shortened as grad school) is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's and doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree with a high grade point average.
Guggenheim Fellowships are grants that have been awarded annually since 1925 by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation to those "who have demonstrated exceptional capacity for productive scholarship or exceptional creative ability in the arts".
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Harvey Akio Itano (November 3, 1920 – May 8, 2010) was an American biochemist best known for his work on the molecular basis of sickle cell anemia and other diseases.
A helion is a short name for the naked nucleus of helium, a doubly positively charged helium ion.
A helix, plural helixes or helices, is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Herman Russell Branson (August 14, 1914 – June 7, 1995) was an African-American physicist, chemist, best known for his research on the alpha helix protein structure, and was also the president of two colleges.
Herman Francis Mark (May 3, 1895, Vienna – April 6, 1992, Austin, Texas) was an Austrian-American chemist regarded for his contributions to the development of polymer science.
Hermann Staudinger (23 March 1881 – 8 September 1965) was a German organic chemist who demonstrated the existence of macromolecules, which he characterized as polymers.
A high school diploma is a North American academic school leaving qualification awarded upon high school graduation.
Home economics, domestic science or home science is a field of study that deals with home and economics.
Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
In statistical mechanics, the ice-type models or six-vertex models are a family of vertex models for crystal lattices with hydrogen bonds.
The Institut de France (Institute of France) is a French learned society, grouping five académies, the most famous of which is the Académie française.
An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is a worldwide humanitarian aid organization that reaches 160 million people each year through its 190-member National Societies.
International League of Humanists (ILH) is a non-profit international association of eminent humanists.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small.
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.
Irving Langmuir (January 31, 1881 – August 16, 1957) was an American chemist and physicist.
The Irving Langmuir Prize in Chemical Physics is awarded annually, in even years by the American Chemical Society and in odd years by the American Physical Society.
Irwin Stone (1907–1984) was an American biochemist, chemical engineer, and author.
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.
Jerry Donohue (June 12, 1920 – February 13, 1985) was an American theoretical and physical chemist.
John Bardeen (May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American physicist and electrical engineer.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Kingsley Lattimer, MD (October 14, 1914 in Mount Clemens, Michigan – May 10, 2007 in Teaneck, New Jersey) was a urologist who did extensive research on the Lincoln and Kennedy assassinations, becoming the first medical specialist not affiliated with the United States government to examine the medical evidence related to the John F. Kennedy assassination.
John Albert Kitzhaber (born March 5, 1947) is an American physician and former politician.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London.
Lake Oswego is a city in the State of Oregon, primarily in Clackamas County with small portions extending into neighboring Multnomah and Washington counties.
Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of distinction with which an academic degree has been earned.
A Lavoisier Medal is an award named and given in honor of Antoine Lavoisier, considered by some to be a father of modern chemistry.
Sir William Lawrence Bragg, (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallographer, discoverer (1912) of Bragg's law of X-ray diffraction, which is basic for the determination of crystal structure.
The International Lenin Peace Prize (международная Ленинская премия мира, mezhdunarodnaya Leninskaya premiya mira) was a Soviet Union award named in honor of Vladimir Lenin.
Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.
In mathematics, a linear combination is an expression constructed from a set of terms by multiplying each term by a constant and adding the results (e.g. a linear combination of x and y would be any expression of the form ax + by, where a and b are constants).
A linear combination of atomic orbitals or LCAO is a quantum superposition of atomic orbitals and a technique for calculating molecular orbitals in quantum chemistry.
The Linus Pauling Award is an award recognizing outstanding achievement in chemistry.
The Linus Pauling Institute is a research institute located at the Oregon State University with a focus on health maintenance.
Linus Benedict Torvalds (born December 28, 1969) is a Finnish-American software engineer who is the creator, and historically, the principal developer of the Linux kernel, which became the kernel for operating systems such as the Linux operating systems, Android, and Chrome OS.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
The Norwegian Nobel Committee each year awards the Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian and Nobels fredspris) "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses." It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
This list of peace activists includes people who have proactively advocated diplomatic, philosophical, and non-military resolution of major territorial or ideological disputes through nonviolent means and methods.
Lloyd Alexander Jeffress (November 15, 1900 – April 2, 1986) was an acoustical scientist, a professor of Experimental Psychology at the University of Texas at Austin, a developer of mine-hunting models for the US Navy during World War II and after, and the man Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling credited with getting him interested in chemistry.
The Lomonosov Gold Medal, named after Russian scientist and polymath Mikhail Lomonosov, is awarded each year since 1959 for outstanding achievements in the natural sciences and the humanities by the USSR Academy of Sciences and later the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS).
Louise Marie Zibold Reiss (February 23, 1920 – January 1, 2011) was an American physician who coordinated what became known as the Baby Tooth Survey, in which deciduous teeth from children living in the St. Louis, Missouri area who were born in the 1950s and 1960s were collected and analyzed over a period of 12 years.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The Mainau Declaration is either of two socio-political appeals by Nobel laureates who participated in the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, the annual gathering with young scientists at the German town of Lindau.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
Maria Owings Shriver (born November 6, 1955) is an American journalist, author, and former First Lady of California.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
Martin Karplus (born March 15, 1930) is an Austrian-born American theoretical chemist.
Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Matthew Stanley Meselson (born May 24, 1930) is a geneticist and molecular biologist currently at Harvard University, known for his demonstration, with Franklin Stahl, of the semi-conservative DNA replication.
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British physicist and molecular biologist, and Nobel laureate whose research contributed to the scientific understanding of phosphorescence, isotope separation, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and to the development of radar.
Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück (September 4, 1906 – March 9, 1981), a German–American biophysicist, helped launch the molecular biology research program in the late 1930s.
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.
McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence.
The Medal for Merit was, during the period it was awarded, the highest civilian decoration of the United States, awarded by the President of the United States to civilians for "exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services...
Megavitamin therapy is the use of large doses of vitamins, often many times greater than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in the attempt to prevent or treat diseases.
Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.
The Messenger Lectures are a prestigious series of talks given by leading scholars and public figures at Cornell University.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
The Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) is a scientific membership organization.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.
Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule.
Molecular medicine is a broad field, where physical, chemical, biological, bioinformatics and medical techniques are used to describe molecular structures and mechanisms, identify fundamental molecular and genetic errors of disease, and to develop molecular interventions to correct them.
A molecular model, in this article, is a physical model that represents molecules and their processes.
In chemistry, molecular orbital (MO) theory is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
In physics, a moment is an expression involving the product of a distance and a physical quantity, and in this way it accounts for how the physical quantity is located or arranged.
Monterey is a city located in Monterey County in the U.S. state of California, on the southern edge of Monterey Bay on California's Central Coast.
The National Academy of Sciences Award in Chemical Sciences is awarded for innovative research in the chemical sciences that in the broadest sense contributes to a better understanding of the natural sciences and to the benefit of humanity.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) was an organization created "to coordinate, supervise, and conduct scientific research on the problems underlying the development, production, and use of mechanisms and devices of warfare" in the United States from June 27, 1940, until June 28, 1941.
The National Medal of Science is an honor bestowed by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social sciences, biology, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and physics.
National Review (NR) is an American semi-monthly conservative editorial magazine focusing on news and commentary pieces on political, social, and cultural affairs.
The National Science Board (Board, NSB) of the United States establishes the policies of the National Science Foundation (NSF) within the framework of applicable national policies set forth by the President and the Congress.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
Nuclear disarmament is the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons.
Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, the nuclear shell model is a model of the atomic nucleus which uses the Pauli exclusion principle to describe the structure of the nucleus in terms of energy levels.
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
The Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was an agency of the United States federal government created to coordinate scientific research for military purposes during World War II.
In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
In chemical bonds, an orbital overlap is the concentration of orbitals on adjacent atoms in the same regions of space.
The Oregon Historical Society (OHS) is an organization that encourages and promotes the study and understanding of the history of the Oregon Country, within the broader context of U.S. history.
Oregon Public Broadcasting (OPB) is the primary television and radio public broadcasting network for most of the U.S. state of Oregon as well as southern Washington.
Oregon State University (OSU) is an international, public research university in the northwest United States, located in Corvallis, Oregon.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
Orthomolecular medicine, a form of alternative medicine, aims to maintain human health through nutritional supplementation.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground.
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States, located 10 miles (16 kilometers) northeast of Downtown Los Angeles.
Prof Paul Sabatier FRS(For) HFRSE (5 November 1854 – 14 August 1941) was a French chemist, born in Carcassonne.
Pauling's rules are five rules published by Linus Pauling in 1929 for predicting and rationalizing the crystal structures of ionic compounds.
A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, and is often linked to the goal of achieving world peace.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Peter Agre (born January 30, 1949) is an American physician and molecular biologist, Bloomberg Distinguished Professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and director of the.
Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
In three-dimensional space, a Platonic solid is a regular, convex polyhedron.
Portland is the largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County.
The Priestley Medal is the highest honor conferred by the American Chemical Society (ACS) and is awarded for distinguished service in the field of chemistry.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Promoting Enduring Peace (PEP or PEPeace) is a peace advocacy organization based near the New Haven-Hamden line in Connecticut.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein secondary structure is the three dimensional form of local segments of proteins.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Quackery or health fraud is the promotion of fraudulent or ignorant medical practices.
In analytical chemistry, quantitative analysis is the determination of the absolute or relative abundance (often expressed as a concentration) of one, several or all particular substance(s) present in a sample.
Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.
In mathematics and physics, a quantum graph is a linear, network-shaped structure of vertices connected by bonds (or edges) with a differential or pseudo-differential operator acting on functions defined on the bonds.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
In chemistry, resonance or mesomerism is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure.
Richard Chace Tolman (March 4, 1881 – September 5, 1948) was an American mathematical physicist and physical chemist who was an authority on statistical mechanics.
Robert Brainard Corey (August 19, 1897 – April 23, 1971) was an American biochemist, mostly known for his role in discovery of the α-helix and the β-sheet with Linus Pauling.
Robert Sanderson Mulliken (June 7, 1896 – October 31, 1986) was an American physicist and chemist, primarily responsible for the early development of molecular orbital theory, i.e. the elaboration of the molecular orbital method of computing the structure of molecules.
The Roebling Medal is the highest award of the Mineralogical Society of America for scientific eminence as represented primarily by scientific publication of outstanding original research in mineralogy.
Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 192016 April 1958) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.
Roscoe Gilkey Dickinson (May 3, 1894 – July 13, 1945) was a U.S. chemist, known primarily for his work on X-ray crystallography.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
The Russell–Einstein Manifesto was issued in London on 9 July 1955 by Bertrand Russell in the midst of the Cold War.
Salem is the capital of the U.S. state of Oregon, and the county seat of Marion County.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
The Science History Institute is an institution that preserves and promotes understanding of the history of science.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Seymour Jonathan Singer (May 23, 1924 – February 2, 2017) was an American cell biologist and professor of biology, emeritus, at the University of California, San Diego.
"Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease" is a 1949 scientific paper by Linus Pauling, Harvey A. Itano, Seymour J. Singer and Ibert C. Wells that established sickle-cell anemia as a genetic disease in which affected individuals have a different form of the metalloprotein hemoglobin in their blood.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.
Sickle cell trait describes a condition in which a person has one abnormal allele of the hemoglobin beta gene (is heterozygous), but does not display the severe symptoms of sickle-cell disease that occur in a person who has two copies of that allele (is homozygous).
The Soka Gakkai International (SGI—"Value Creation Association International") is an international Nichiren Buddhist organization founded in 1975 by Daisaku Ikeda.
Soka University of America (SUA) is a four-year liberal arts university located in Aliso Viejo, California, the United States.
In chemistry, a space-filling model, also known as a calotte model, is a type of three-dimensional (3D) molecular model where the atoms are represented by spheres whose radii are proportional to the radii of the atoms and whose center-to-center distances are proportional to the distances between the atomic nuclei, all in the same scale.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
The Telluride House, formally the Cornell Branch of the Telluride Association (CBTA), and commonly referred to as just "Telluride", is a highly selective residential community of Cornell University students and faculty.
Terminal illness is an incurable disease that cannot be adequately treated and is reasonably expected to result in the death of the patient.
In chemistry, tetravalence is the state of an atom with four valence electrons available for covalent chemical bonding in its outermost electron shell, giving the atom a chemical valence of four.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The California Museum, formerly The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts – home of the California Hall of Fame – is housed in the State Archives Building in Sacramento, one block from the State Capitol.
The Institutes for The Achievement of Human Potential (IAHP), founded in 1955 by Glenn Doman and Carl Delacato, provide literature on and teaches patterning therapy (motor learning), which the Institutes promote as improving the "neurologic organization" of "brain injured" and healthy children through a variety of programs, including diet and exercise.
The Linus Pauling Quartet is a psychedelic rock group which specializes in a specific subgenre known as "", but frequently dabbles also in garage rock, stoner rock, punk rock, and heavy metal at various points throughout their discography.
The Valley Library is the primary library of Oregon State University and is located at the school's main campus in Corvallis in the U.S. state of Oregon.
Theodosius Grygorovych Dobzhansky (Теодо́сій Григо́рович Добжа́нський; Феодо́сий Григо́рьевич Добржа́нский; January 25, 1900 – December 18, 1975) was a prominent Ukrainian-American geneticist and evolutionary biologist, and a central figure in the field of evolutionary biology for his work in shaping the modern synthesis.
Theoretical chemistry is a branch of chemistry, which develops theoretical generalizations that are part of the theoretical arsenal of modern chemistry, for example, the concept of chemical bonding, chemical reaction, valence, the surface of potential energy, molecular orbitals, orbital interactions, molecule activation etc.
Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.
Thomas Addis Jr. (July 27, 1881 – June 4, 1949) was a British physician-scientist from Edinburgh, Scotland who made important contributions to the understanding of how blood clots.
Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 – December 4, 1945) was an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist, embryologist, and science author who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries elucidating the role that the chromosome plays in heredity.
The transition state of a chemical reaction is a particular configuration along the reaction coordinate.
In geometry, a triple helix (plural triple helices) is a set of three congruent geometrical helices with the same axis, differing by a translation along the axis.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
Unitarian Universalism (UU) is a liberal religion characterized by a "free and responsible search for truth and meaning".
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The Special Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, 1951–77, more commonly known as the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS) and sometimes the McCarran Committee, was authorized under S. 366, approved December 21, 1950, to study and investigate (1) the administration, operation, and enforcement of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (also known as the McCarran Act) and other laws relating to espionage, sabotage, and the protection of the internal security of the United States and (2) the extent, nature, and effects of subversive activities in the United States "including, but not limited to, espionage, sabotage, and infiltration of persons who are or may be under the domination of the foreign government or organization controlling the world Communist movement or any movement seeking to overthrow the Government of the United States by force and violence".
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of California, San Diego is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, in the United States.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
In chemistry, valence bond (VB) theory is one of two basic theories, along with molecular orbital (MO) theory, that were developed to use the methods of quantum mechanics to explain chemical bonding.
The National Science Board established the Vannevar Bush Award in 1980 to honor Vannevar Bush's unique contributions to public service.
Victor Stabin (born March 5, 1954) is an American artist, "eco-surrealist" painter, author and illustrator.
Vincent du Vigneaud (May 18, 1901 – December 11, 1978) was an American biochemist.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin C and the Common Cold is a popular book by Linus Pauling, first published in 1970, on vitamin C, its interactions with common cold and the role of vitamin C megadosage in human health.
Vitamin C megadosage is a term describing the consumption or injection of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in doses comparable to the amounts produced by the livers of most other mammals.
Walter Heinrich Heitler (2 January 1904 – 15 November 1981) was a German physicist who made contributions to quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory.
Warren Weaver (July 17, 1894 – November 24, 1978) was an American scientist, mathematician, and science administrator.
Washington High School was a high school in Portland, Oregon, United States, from 1906 to 1981.
Washington Augustus Roebling (May 26, 1837 – July 21, 1926) was an American civil engineer best known for supervising the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge, which was initially designed by his father John A. Roebling.
Washington University in St.
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.
Wayne Lyman Morse (October 20, 1900 – July 22, 1974) was an American attorney and United States Senator from Oregon, known for his proclivity for opposing his party's leadership, and specifically for his opposition to the Vietnam War on constitutional grounds.
The Willard Gibbs Award, presented by the of the American Chemical Society, was established in 1910 by William A. Converse (1862–1940), a former Chairman and Secretary of the Chicago Section of the society and named for Professor Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839–1903) of Yale University.
William Allen Rusher (July 19, 1923 – April 16, 2011) was an American lawyer, author, activist, speaker, debater, and conservative syndicated columnist.
William Thomas Astbury FRS (also Bill Astbury; 25 February 1898, Longton – 4 June 1961, Leeds) was an English physicist and molecular biologist who made pioneering X-ray diffraction studies of biological molecules.
William Frank Buckley Jr. (born William Francis Buckley; November 24, 1925 – February 27, 2008) was an American conservative author and commentator.
William Nunn Lipscomb Jr. (December 9, 1919April 14, 2011) was a Nobel Prize-winning American inorganic and organic chemist working in nuclear magnetic resonance, theoretical chemistry, boron chemistry, and biochemistry.
The World Union for Protection of Life (German: Weltbund zum Schutz des Lebens, French: Union Mondiale pour la Protection de la Vie, Russian: Всемирный союз для защиты жизни) is an international non-profit organization and non-governmental organization which was founded 1958 in Salzburg (Austria) by the writer Günther Schwab.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Xenic acid is a noble gas compound formed by the dissolution of xenon trioxide in water.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
4674 Pauling, provisional designation, is a spheroidal binary Hungaria asteroid from the innermost regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 4.5 kilometers in diameter.