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Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel. [1]

549 relations: AAA (video game industry), Acer Aspire One, Ada (programming language), Adobe Photoshop, American National Standards Institute, Anbox, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Android (operating system), Anjuta, Apache HTTP Server, APC (magazine), Apple DOS, Apple Inc., Application binary interface, APT (Debian), ARC (processor), Arch Linux, ARM architecture, Assembly language, Astra Linux, Asus Eee PC, AT&T, Autodesk Maya, AWK, BackBox, Bash (Unix shell), BASIC, Bell Labs, Berkeley Software Distribution, Bioinformatics, Bionic (software), BLAG Linux and GNU, BlankOn, Blender (software), Blogger (service), Booting, Brazil, Budgie (desktop environment), Business model, BusyBox, C (programming language), C Sharp (programming language), C standard library, C++, Canonical (company), CentOS, China, Chromebook, Cinnamon (software), Cisco Systems, ..., Clutter (software), CNET, COCOMO, Code::Blocks, CodeLite, CodeWeavers, Collaboration, Command-line interface, Commercial off-the-shelf, Comparison of Linux distributions, Comparison of open-source and closed-source software, Comparison of operating systems, Comparison of X Window System desktop environments, Compiler, Compositing window manager, Computer architecture, Computer cluster, Computer data storage, Computer programming, Computer science, Computing platform, Con Kolivas, Convention (meeting), Copyleft, Covermount, CP/M, Criticism of Linux, CrossOver (software), Customer-premises equipment, D-Bus, Daemon (computing), Debian, DEC Alpha, Dell, Dennis Ritchie, Desktop computer, Desktop environment, Desktop publishing, Desura, Device driver, Digital forensics, Digital piano, Digital rights management, Digital signage, Digital Video Broadcasting, Digital video recorder, Disability, Display server, DNALinux, Dota 2, Douglas McIlroy, Dpkg, DreamWorks Animation, Dwm, Dynamic linker, Dynamic programming language, Dynamic window manager, Eclipse (software), Edubuntu, Elementary OS, Emacs, Emacs Lisp, Embeddable Linux Kernel Subset, Embedded GLIBC, Embedded system, Engadget, Enlightenment (software), Enlightenment Foundation Libraries, Executable and Linkable Format, Exploit (computer security), Fault tolerance, Fedora (operating system), File system, File Transfer Protocol, Firefox, Firewall (computing), Firmware, Fluxbox, Fork (software development), Fortran, France, Free and open-source software, Free software, Free Software Foundation, Free software license, FreeBASIC, FreeBSD, Freedesktop.org, FreedomHEC, Functional programming, FUNET, FVWM, Gambas, Geany, GendBuntu, Gentoo Linux, Geocentric orbit, Germany, GIMP, GNewSense, GNOME, GNU, GNU Build System, GNU C Library, GNU Compiler Collection, GNU Core Utilities, GNU Emacs, GNU General Public License, GNU GRUB, GNU Guile, GNU Hurd, GNU Lesser General Public License, GNU nano, GNU Project, GNU toolchain, GNU variants, GNU/Linux naming controversy, GnuLinEx, Go (programming language), Goobuntu, Google Chrome, GParted, Graphical user interface, Grep, GTK+, Guadalinex, Gummiboot (software), H8 Family, Hardware abstraction, Haskell (programming language), Helsinki University of Technology, Hewlett-Packard, High-level programming language, History of Linux, Home cinema, Home theater PC, HotSpot, HPCC, Human interface guidelines, I3 (window manager), IBM, IBM System z9, IBM System/390, In-car entertainment, Include directive, Indie game, Industrial Light & Magic, InfoWorld, Init, Installed base, Instant WebKiosk, Integrated development environment, Intel, Intel 80286, Intel 8086, Intel C++ Compiler, Inter-process communication, Interactive kiosk, International Data Corporation, International Organization for Standardization, International Space Station, Internet forum, Internet Relay Chat, Interoperability, Intuit, IOS, IPad, IPAQ, IPhone, Itanium, ΜClinux, Java (programming language), Java virtual machine, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Jikes RVM, Joe Ossanna, Jolla, Just enough operating system, Kaffe, Kali Linux, K–12, KDE, KDevelop, Ken Thompson, Kerala, Kernel (operating system), Knoppix, Kodi (software), Komodo Edit, Korg Kronos, Korg OASYS, KWin, LAMP (software bundle), Language binding, Language localisation, Lanka Linux User Group, Laptop, Lazarus (IDE), Left 4 Dead 2, Library (computing), LibreOffice, Lightweight Portable Security, LILO (boot loader), Linguistics, Linksys, Linus Torvalds, Linux distribution, Linux Documentation Project, Linux Format, Linux Foundation, Linux kernel, Linux kernel mailing list, Linux Mark Institute, Linux Mint, Linux on embedded systems, Linux on z Systems, Linux Software Map, Linux Standard Base, Linux Terminal Server Project, Linux user group, LinuxQuestions.org, Lisp (programming language), List of Linux distributions, List of Linux games, List of operating systems, List of proprietary software for Linux, List of Unix commands, Live CD, LLVM, Loadable kernel module, Locate (Unix), Loongson, LWN.net, LXDE, LXQt, Macintosh, Macintosh operating systems, MacOS, Maemo, Mageia, Mailing list, Mainframe computer, Make (software), Makefile, MariaDB, MATE (software), MeeGo, Memory management unit, Mer (software distribution), Mesa (computer graphics), Message transfer agent, MicroBlaze, Microprocessor Report, Microsoft, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Windows, Minimalism (computing), MINIX, MIPS architecture, Mir (software), MIT License, Mobile device, Moblin, Mono (software), MonoDevelop, Monolithic kernel, Motorola 68000 series, Motorola Rokr, Mozilla, MP3 player, Music workstation, Mutter (software), MySQL, Mythbuntu, MythTV, NASA, National Gendarmerie, NetBeans, Netbook, NetBSD, Netcraft, Network transparency, Nios II, Nokia, Nokia N810, Nvidia, Open Source Summit, Open-source license, Open-source model, Open-source software, OpenBSD, OpenELEC, OpenGL, Openmoko, OpenOffice.org, OpenRC, OpenRISC, OpenSUSE, OpenWrt, Operating system, Oracle Corporation, Oracle Developer Studio, PA-RISC, Package manager, PackageKit, Palm Pre, Palm, Inc., Parabola GNU/Linux-libre, Parted Magic, Penetration test, Penguin, Performance per watt, Peripheral, Perl, Personal computer, Personal digital assistant, Phoronix, PHP, Pidgin (software), Pixar, Portage (software), Portal (video game), Portal 2, Porting, Portmanteau, POSIX, PowerBASIC, PowerPC, Process (computing), Professional audio, Programming language, Proprietary software, PulseAudio, Python (programming language), QB64, Qt (software), Qt Creator, Qt Project, Qualcomm Hexagon, QuickBASIC, QuickBooks, Quicken, Radiation hardening, Raspberry Pi, Ratpoison, Real-time computing, Red Hat, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Red Hat Linux, Red Star OS, Redundancy (engineering), Regular expression, Richard Stallman, RISC-V, Rocks Cluster Distribution, Router (computing), Rpm (software), Ruby (programming language), Runtime system, Rust (programming language), Sabily, Sailfish OS, Samsung, Samsung Gear 2, Scheme (programming language), Scripting language, Sed, Sendmail, Server (computing), Shake (software), Shell (computing), Shell script, Shield Portable, Simple DirectMedia Layer, Single UNIX Specification, Sinhalese language, Skolelinux, Skype, Slackware, Smart device, Smart TV, Smartphone, Smartwatch, Software, Software license, Software testing, Solution stack, Source (game engine), Source code, Source lines of code, SpaceX, SPARC, Stacking window manager, Stage lighting, Steam (software), Steam Machine (hardware platform), SteamOS, Steve Ballmer, Sugar (software), Sun Microsystems, Supercomputer, SuperH, SUSE, SUSE Linux, SUSE Linux Enterprise, Symbiosis, Synaptic (software), Synthesizer, SYSLINUX, System resource, System software, Systemd, SystemRescueCD, Tablet computer, Tails (operating system), Tar (computing), Taskbar, Team Fortress 2, Tensilica, Terminal emulator, Texas Instruments TMS320, Text editor, The GNOME Project, The Linux Schools Project, Theme (computing), Thin client, Thinstation, Tiling window manager, Tin Hat Linux, Tinfoil Hat Linux, Titanic (1997 film), TiVo, Tizen, TOP500, Tor (anonymity network), Tor-ramdisk, Toybox, Trinity Desktop Environment, Trisquel, Turing completeness, Tux (mascot), Type system, Ubuntu (operating system), Ubuntu Kylin, Ubuntu Studio, Ubuntu Touch, UClibc, Unicore, United States antitrust law, United States Department of Defense, Unity (user interface), University of Helsinki, Unix, Unix philosophy, Unix shell, Unix-like, Upstart, Usage share of operating systems, Usenet newsgroup, User interface, User space, Vala (programming language), Valve Corporation, Vendor lock-in, Video game console, Video4Linux, Vim (text editor), Virtual console, Visual Basic, VOGL, Wayland (display server protocol), Wearable technology, Web analytics, Web browser, Web server, Web standards, Webconverger, WebOS, Weta Digital, Widget toolkit, Window Maker, Window manager, Windowing system, Windows Registry, Windows Server, Windows XP, Wine (software), World of Warcraft, X window manager, X Window System, X.Org Server, X86, XBasic, Xfce, Xlib, Yum (software), ZYpp, 16-bit, 386BSD. Expand index (499 more) »

AAA (video game industry)

AAA (pronounced "triple-A") is an informal classification used for video games produced and distributed by a mid-sized or major publisher, typically having higher development and marketing budgets.

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Acer Aspire One

Acer Aspire One is a diverse line of netbooks released in July 2008 by Acer Inc. Many characteristics of a particular model of Acer Aspire One are dictated by the CPU platform chosen.

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Ada (programming language)

Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.

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Adobe Photoshop

Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Systems for macOS and Windows.

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American National Standards Institute

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.

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Anbox

Anbox is a free and open-source compatibility layer that aims to allow mobile applications and mobile games developed for Android to run on GNU/Linux distributions.

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Andrew S. Tanenbaum

Andrew Stuart Tanenbaum (born March 16, 1944), sometimes referred to by the handle ast, is an American-Dutch computer scientist and professor emeritus of computer science at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in the Netherlands.

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Android (operating system)

Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.

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Anjuta

Anjuta is an integrated development environment written for the GNOME project.

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Apache HTTP Server

The Apache HTTP Server, colloquially called Apache, is a free and open-source cross-platform web server, released under the terms of Apache License 2.0.

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APC (magazine)

APC (formerly known as Australian Personal Computer) is a computer magazine in Australia.

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Apple DOS

Apple DOS is the family of disk operating systems for the Apple II series of microcomputers from late 1978 through early 1983.

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Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.

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Application binary interface

In computer software, an application binary interface (ABI) is an interface between two binary program modules; often, one of these modules is a library or operating system facility, and the other is a program that is being run by a user.

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APT (Debian)

Advanced Package Tool, or APT, is a free software user interface that works with core libraries to handle the installation and removal of software on Debian, Ubuntu and other Linux distributions.

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ARC (processor)

ARC (Argonaut RISC Core) embedded processors are a family of 32-bit CPUs originally designed by ARC International.

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Arch Linux

Arch Linux (or Arch) is a Linux distribution for computers based on x86-64 architectures.

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ARM architecture

ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.

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Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.

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Astra Linux

Astra Linux is a Russian Linux-based computer operating system developed to meet the needs of Russian army, other armed forces and intelligence agencies.

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Asus Eee PC

The Asus Eee PC is a netbook computer line from Asus, and a part of the Asus Eee product family.

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AT&T

AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas.

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Autodesk Maya

Autodesk Maya, commonly shortened to Maya, is a 3D computer graphics application that runs on Windows, macOS and Linux, originally developed by Alias Systems Corporation (formerly Alias|Wavefront) and currently owned and developed by Autodesk, Inc. It is used to create interactive 3D applications, including video games, animated film, TV series, or visual effects.

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AWK

AWK is a programming language designed for text processing and typically used as a data extraction and reporting tool.

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BackBox

BackBox is a penetration test and security assessment oriented Ubuntu-based Linux distribution providing a network and informatic systems analysis toolkit.

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Bash (Unix shell)

Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell.

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BASIC

BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.

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Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.

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Berkeley Software Distribution

Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.

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Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.

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Bionic (software)

Bionic is the standard C library (including libc, libdl, libm, and libpthread) developed by Google for its Android operating system.

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BLAG Linux and GNU

BLAG Linux and GNU is a Linux distribution made by the Brixton Linux Action Group.

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BlankOn

BlankOn Linux is a Linux distribution based on Debian developed by Yayasan Penggerak Linux Indonesia (YPLI).

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Blender (software)

Blender is a professional, free and open-source 3D computer graphics software toolset used for creating animated films, visual effects, art, 3D printed models, interactive 3D applications and video games.

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Blogger (service)

Blogger is a blog-publishing service that allows multi-user blogs with time-stamped entries.

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Booting

In computing, booting is starting up a computer or computer appliance until it can be used.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Budgie (desktop environment)

Budgie is a desktop environment that uses GNOME technologies such as GTK+ (> 3.x) and is developed by the Solus project as well as by contributors from numerous communities like openSUSE Tumbleweed, Arch Linux and Ubuntu Budgie.

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Business model

A business model describes the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers, and captures value,Business Model Generation, Alexander Osterwalder, Yves Pigneur, Alan Smith, and 470 practitioners from 45 countries, self-published, 2010 in economic, social, cultural or other contexts.

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BusyBox

BusyBox is software that provides several stripped-down Unix tools in a single executable file.

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C (programming language)

C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

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C Sharp (programming language)

C# (/si: ʃɑːrp/) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.

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C standard library

The C standard library or libc is the standard library for the C programming language, as specified in the ANSI C standard.

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C++

C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.

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Canonical (company)

Canonical Ltd. is a UK-based privately held computer software company founded and funded by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth to market commercial support and related services for Ubuntu Linux and related projects.

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CentOS

CentOS (from Community Enterprise Operating System) is a Linux distribution that provides a free, enterprise-class, community-supported computing platform functionally compatible with its upstream source, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL).

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chromebook

A Chromebook is a laptop or tablet running the Linux-based Chrome OS as its operating system.

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Cinnamon (software)

Cinnamon is a free and open-source desktop environment for the X Window System that derives from GNOME 3 but follows traditional desktop metaphor conventions.

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Cisco Systems

Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational technology conglomerate headquartered in San Jose, California, in the center of Silicon Valley, that develops, manufactures and sells networking hardware, telecommunications equipment and other high-technology services and products.

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Clutter (software)

Clutter is a GObject-based graphics library for creating hardware-accelerated user interfaces.

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CNET

CNET (stylized as c|net) is an American media website that publishes reviews, news, articles, blogs, podcasts and videos on technology and consumer electronics globally.

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COCOMO

The Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) is a procedural software cost estimation model developed by Barry W. Boehm.

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Code::Blocks

Code::Blocks is a free, open-source cross-platform IDE that supports multiple compilers including GCC, Clang and Visual C++.

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CodeLite

CodeLite is a free and open-source IDE for the C, C++, PHP, and JavaScript (Node.js) programming languages.

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CodeWeavers

CodeWeavers is a company that sells a proprietary version of Wine called CrossOver for running Windows applications on macOS and Linux.

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Collaboration

Collaboration occurs when two or more people or organizations work together--> to realize or achieve a goal.

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Command-line interface

A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).

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Commercial off-the-shelf

Commercial off-the-shelf or commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) satisfy the needs of the purchasing organization, without the need to commission custom-made, or bespoke, solutions.

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Comparison of Linux distributions

Technical variations of Linux distributions include support for different hardware devices and systems or software package configurations.

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Comparison of open-source and closed-source software

Free/open-source software – the source availability model used by free and open-source software (FOSS) – and closed source are two approaches to the distribution of software.

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Comparison of operating systems

These tables provide a comparison of operating systems, of computer devices, as listing general and technical information for a number of widely used and currently available PC or handheld (including smartphone and tablet computer) operating systems.

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Comparison of X Window System desktop environments

A desktop environment is a collection of software designed to give functionality and a certain look and feel to an operating system.

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Compiler

A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).

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Compositing window manager

A compositing window manager, or compositor, is a window manager that provides applications with an off-screen buffer for each window.

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Computer architecture

In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.

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Computer cluster

A computer cluster is a set of loosely or tightly connected computers that work together so that, in many respects, they can be viewed as a single system.

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Computer data storage

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.

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Computer programming

Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Computing platform

A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed.

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Con Kolivas

Con Kolivas is an Australian anaesthetist.

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Convention (meeting)

A convention, in the sense of a meeting, is a gathering of individuals who meet at an arranged place and time in order to discuss or engage in some common interest.

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Copyleft

Copyleft (a play on the word copyright) is the practice of offering people the right to freely distribute copies and modified versions of a work with the stipulation that the same rights be preserved in derivative works down the line.

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Covermount

Covermount (sometimes written cover mount) is the name given to storage media (containing software and or audiovisual media) or other products (ranging from toys to flip-flops) packaged as part of a magazine or newspaper.

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CP/M

CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers, is a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc.

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Criticism of Linux

The criticism of Linux focuses on issues concerning use of operating systems which use the Linux kernel.

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CrossOver (software)

CrossOver is a Microsoft Windows compatibility layer available for macOS and Linux.

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Customer-premises equipment

Customer-premises equipment or customer-provided equipment (CPE) is any terminal and associated equipment located at a subscriber's premises and connected with a carrier's telecommunication circuit at the demarcation point ("demarc").

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D-Bus

In computing, D-Bus (for "Desktop Bus"), a software bus, is an inter-process communication (IPC) and remote procedure call (RPC) mechanism that allows communication between multiple computer programs (that is, processes) concurrently running on the same machine.

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Daemon (computing)

In multitasking computer operating systems, a daemon is a computer program that runs as a background process, rather than being under the direct control of an interactive user.

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Debian

Debian is a Unix-like computer operating system that is composed entirely of free software, and packaged by a group of individuals participating in the Debian Project.

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DEC Alpha

Alpha, originally known as Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), designed to replace their 32-bit VAX complex instruction set computer (CISC) ISA.

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Dell

Dell (stylized as DELL) is an American multinational computer technology company based in Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services.

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Dennis Ritchie

Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (September 9, 1941 – October 12, 2011) was an American computer scientist.

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Desktop computer

A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.

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Desktop environment

In computing, a desktop environment (DE) is an implementation of the desktop metaphor made of a bundle of programs running on top of a computer operating system, which share a common graphical user interface (GUI), sometimes described as a graphical shell.

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Desktop publishing

Desktop publishing (abbreviated DTP) is the creation of documents using page layout skills on a personal computer primarily for print.

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Desura

Desura was a digital distribution platform for the Microsoft Windows, Linux and OS X platforms.

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Device driver

In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.

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Digital forensics

Digital forensics (sometimes known as digital forensic science) is a branch of forensic science encompassing the recovery and investigation of material found in digital devices, often in relation to computer crime.

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Digital piano

A digital piano is a type of electronic keyboard designed to serve primarily as an alternative to the traditional piano, both in the way it feels to play and in the sound produced.

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Digital rights management

Digital rights management (DRM) is a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works.

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Digital signage

Digital signage is a sub-segment of electronic signage.

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Digital Video Broadcasting

Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) is a set of internationally open standards for digital television.

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Digital video recorder

A digital video recorder (DVR) is an electronic device that records video in a digital format to a disk drive, USB flash drive, SD memory card, SSD or other local or networked mass storage device.

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Disability

A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.

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Display server

A display server or window server is a program whose primary task is to coordinate the input and output of its clients to and from the rest of the operating system, the hardware, and each other.

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DNALinux

DNALinux is a Linux distribution with bioinformatics software included.

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Dota 2

Dota 2 is a free-to-play multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA) video game developed and published by Valve Corporation.

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Douglas McIlroy

Malcolm Douglas McIlroy (born 1932) is a mathematician, engineer, and programmer.

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Dpkg

dpkg is the software at the base of the package management system in the free operating system Debian and its numerous derivatives.

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DreamWorks Animation

DreamWorks Animation, LLC (more commonly known as DreamWorks Animation and DreamWorks Animation SKG, or simply DreamWorks) is an American animation studio that is a subsidiary of Universal Pictures.

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Dwm

dwm is a dynamic, minimalist tiling window manager for the X Window System that has influenced the development of several other X window managers, including xmonad and awesome.

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Dynamic linker

In computing, a dynamic linker is the part of an operating system that loads and links the shared libraries needed by an executable when it is executed (at "run time"), by copying the content of libraries from persistent storage to RAM, and filling jump tables and relocating pointers.

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Dynamic programming language

Dynamic programming language, in computer science, is a class of high-level programming languages which, at runtime, execute many common programming behaviors that static programming languages perform during compilation.

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Dynamic window manager

In computing, a dynamic window manager is a tiling window manager where windows are tiled based on preset layouts between which the user can switch.

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Eclipse (software)

Eclipse is an integrated development environment (IDE) used in computer programming, and is the most widely used Java IDE.

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Edubuntu

Edubuntu, previously known as Ubuntu Education Edition, is an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system designed for use in classrooms inside schools, homes and communities.

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Elementary OS

elementary OS is a Linux distribution based on Ubuntu.

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Emacs

Emacs is a family of text editors that are characterized by their extensibility.

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Emacs Lisp

Emacs Lisp is a dialect of the Lisp programming language used as a scripting language by Emacs (a text editor family most commonly associated with GNU Emacs and XEmacs).

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Embeddable Linux Kernel Subset

The Embeddable Linux Kernel Subset (ELKS), formerly known as Linux-8086, is a Unix-like operating system kernel.

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Embedded GLIBC

Embedded GLIBC (EGLIBC) is a discontinued variant of the GNU C Library (glibc), optimised for use in embedded devices, while still attempting to remain source- and binary-compatible with the standard glibc.

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Embedded system

An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.

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Engadget

Engadget is a multilingual technology blog network with daily coverage of gadgets and consumer electronics.

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Enlightenment (software)

Enlightenment, also known simply as E, is a compositing window manager for the X Window System.

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Enlightenment Foundation Libraries

The Enlightenment Foundation Libraries (EFL) are a set of graphics libraries that grew out of the development of Enlightenment, a window manager and Wayland compositor.

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Executable and Linkable Format

In computing, the Executable and Linkable Format (ELF, formerly named Extensible Linking Format), is a common standard file format for executable files, object code, shared libraries, and core dumps.

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Exploit (computer security)

An exploit (from the English verb to exploit, meaning "to use something to one’s own advantage") is a piece of software, a chunk of data, or a sequence of commands that takes advantage of a bug or vulnerability to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur on computer software, hardware, or something electronic (usually computerized).

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Fault tolerance

Fault tolerance is the property that enables a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure (or one or more faults within) some of its components.

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Fedora (operating system)

Fedora is a Linux distribution developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat.

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File system

In computing, a file system or filesystem controls how data is stored and retrieved.

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File Transfer Protocol

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.

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Firefox

Mozilla Firefox (or simply Firefox) is a free and open-source web browser developed by Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation.

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Firewall (computing)

In computing, a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.

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Firmware

In electronic systems and computing, firmware is a specific class of computer software that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware.

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Fluxbox

Fluxbox is a stacking window manager for the X Window System, which started as a fork of Blackbox 0.61.1 in 2001, with the same aim to be lightweight.

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Fork (software development)

In software engineering, a project fork happens when developers take a copy of source code from one software package and start independent development on it, creating a distinct and separate piece of software.

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Fortran

Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Free and open-source software

Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software.

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Free software

Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.

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Free Software Foundation

The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License.

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Free software license

A free software license is a notice that grants the recipient of a piece of software extensive rights to modify and redistribute that software.

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FreeBASIC

FreeBASIC is a multiplatform, free/open source (GPL) BASIC compiler for Microsoft Windows, protected-mode MS-DOS (DOS extender), Linux, FreeBSD and Xbox.

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FreeBSD

FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).

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Freedesktop.org

freedesktop.org (fd.o) is a project to work on interoperability and shared base technology for free software desktop environments for the X Window System (X11) on Linux and other Unix-like operating systems.

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FreedomHEC

FreedomHEC (a play on WinHEC) was an "unconference" for computer hardware engineers and device driver developers that ran from 2006 to 2012.

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Functional programming

In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data.

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FUNET

FUNET is the Finnish University and Research Network, a backbone network providing Internet connections for Finnish universities and polytechnics as well as other research facilities.

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FVWM

The F Virtual Window Manager is a virtual window manager for the X Window System.

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Gambas

Gambas is the name of an object-oriented dialect of the BASIC programming language, as well as the integrated development environment that accompanies it.

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Geany

Geany (IPA:ʒeːniː) is a lightweight GUI text editor using Scintilla and GTK+, including basic IDE features.

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GendBuntu

GendBuntu is a version of Ubuntu adapted for use by France's National Gendarmerie.

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Gentoo Linux

Gentoo Linux (pronounced) is a Linux distribution built using the Portage package management system.

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Geocentric orbit

A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting Planet Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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GIMP

GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) is a free and open-source raster graphics editor used for image retouching and editing, free-form drawing, converting between different image formats, and more specialized tasks.

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GNewSense

No description.

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GNOME

GNOME is a desktop environment composed of free and open-source software that runs on Linux and most BSD derivatives.

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GNU

GNU is an operating system and an extensive collection of computer software.

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GNU Build System

The GNU Build System, also known as the Autotools, is a suite of programming tools designed to assist in making source code packages portable to many Unix-like systems.

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GNU C Library

The GNU C Library, commonly known as glibc, is the GNU Project's implementation of the C standard library.

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GNU Compiler Collection

The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages.

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GNU Core Utilities

The GNU Core Utilities or coreutils is a package of GNU software containing reimplementations for many of the basic tools, such as cat, ls, and rm, which are used on Unix-like operating systems.

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GNU Emacs

GNU Emacs is the most popular and most ported Emacs text editor.

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GNU General Public License

The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.

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GNU GRUB

GNU GRUB (short for GNU GRand Unified Bootloader) is a boot loader package from the GNU Project.

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GNU Guile

GNU Guile is the preferred extension system for the GNU Project, which features an implementation of the Scheme programming language.

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GNU Hurd

GNU Hurd is the multiserver microkernel written as part of GNU.

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GNU Lesser General Public License

The GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation (FSF).

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GNU nano

GNU nano is a text editor for Unix-like computing systems or operating environments using a command line interface.

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GNU Project

The GNU Project is a free-software, mass-collaboration project, first announced on September 27, 1983 by Richard Stallman at MIT.

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GNU toolchain

The GNU toolchain is a broad collection of programming tools produced by the GNU Project.

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GNU variants

GNU variants (also called GNU distributions or distros for short) are operating systems based upon the GNU operating system (the Hurd kernel, the GNU C library, system libraries and application software like GNU coreutils, bash, GNOME, the Guix package manager etc.). According to the GNU project and others, these also include most operating systems using the Linux kernel and a few others using BSD-based kernels.

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GNU/Linux naming controversy

The GNU/Linux naming controversy is a dispute between members of the free software community and open-source software community over whether to refer to computer operating systems that use a combination of GNU software and the Linux kernel as "GNU/Linux" or "Linux".

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GnuLinEx

gnuLinEx, or LinEx, is a Debian-based operating system that uses GNOME for its desktop.

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Go (programming language)

Go (often referred to as Golang) is a programming language created at Google in 2009 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.

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Goobuntu

Goobuntu was a Linux distribution based on Ubuntu LTS (long-term support).

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Google Chrome

Google Chrome is a freeware web browser developed by Google LLC.

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GParted

GParted (acronym of GNOME Partition Editor) is a GTK+ front-end to GNU Parted and an official GNOME partition-editing application (alongside Disks).

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Graphical user interface

The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.

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Grep

grep is a command-line utility for searching plain-text data sets for lines that match a regular expression.

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GTK+

GTK+ (formerly GIMP Toolkit) is a cross-platform widget toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces.

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Guadalinex

Guadalinex is an Ubuntu-based operating system promoted by the government of Andalusia (Spain).

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Gummiboot (software)

gummiboot is an open-source boot manager, now the systemd-boot component of systemd.

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H8 Family

H8 is the name of a large family of 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit microcontrollers made by Renesas Technology, originating in the early 1990s within Hitachi Semiconductor and still evolving as of 2006.

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Hardware abstraction

Hardware abstractions are sets of routines in software that emulate some platform-specific details, giving programs direct access to the hardware resources.

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Haskell (programming language)

Haskell is a standardized, general-purpose compiled purely functional programming language, with non-strict semantics and strong static typing.

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Helsinki University of Technology

The Helsinki University of Technology (TKK; Teknillinen korkeakoulu; Tekniska högskolan) was a technical university in Finland.

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Hewlett-Packard

The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.

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High-level programming language

In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.

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History of Linux

The history of Linux began in 1991 with the commencement of a personal project by Finnish student Linus Torvalds to create a new free operating system kernel.

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Home cinema

Home cinema, also called home theater or home theatre, refers to home entertainment audio-visual systems that seek to reproduce a movie theater experience and mood using consumer electronics-grade video and audio equipment that is set up in a room or backyard of a private home.

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Home theater PC

A home theater PC (HTPC) or media center computer is a convergence device that combines some or all the capabilities of a personal computer with a software application that supports video, photo, audio playback, and sometimes video recording functionality.

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HotSpot

HotSpot, released as Java HotSpot Performance Engine, is a Java virtual machine for desktop and server computers, maintained and distributed by Oracle Corporation.

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HPCC

HPCC (High-Performance Computing Cluster), also known as DAS (Data Analytics Supercomputer), is an open source, data-intensive computing system platform developed by LexisNexis Risk Solutions.

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Human interface guidelines

Human interface guidelines (HIG) are software development documents which offer application developers a set of recommendations.

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I3 (window manager)

i3 is a tiling window manager designed for X11, inspired by wmii, and written in C. It supports tiling, stacking, and tabbing layouts, which it handles dynamically.

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IBM

The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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IBM System z9

IBM System z9 is a line of IBM mainframe computers.

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IBM System/390

The IBM System/390 was the third major generation of the System/360 line of computers.

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In-car entertainment

In-car entertainment (ICE), or in-vehicle infotainment (IVI), is a collection of hardware and software in automobiles that provides audio or video entertainment.

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Include directive

Many programming languages and other computer files have a directive, often called include (as well as copy and import), that causes the contents of a second file to be inserted into the original file.

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Indie game

An independent video game, or an indie game, is a video game that is often created without the financial support of a publisher, although some games funded by a publisher are still considered "indie".

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Industrial Light & Magic

Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) is an American motion picture visual effects company that was founded in May 1975 by George Lucas.

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InfoWorld

InfoWorld (formerly The Intelligent Machines Journal) is an information technology media business.

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Init

In Unix-based computer operating systems, init (short for initialization) is the first process started during booting of the computer system.

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Installed base

Installed base (also install base, install user base or just user base) is a measure of the number of units of a product or service that are actually in use, especially software or an Internet or computing platform, as opposed to market share, which only reflects sales over a particular period.

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Instant WebKiosk

Instant WebKiosk was an operating system based on Debian GNU/Linux.

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Integrated development environment

An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development.

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Intel

Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

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Intel 80286

The Intel 80286 (also marketed as the iAPX 286 and often called Intel 286) is a 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced on 1 February 1982.

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Intel 8086

The 8086 (also called iAPX 86) is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early 1976 and mid-1978, when it was released.

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Intel C++ Compiler

Intel C++ Compiler, also known as icc or icl, is a group of C and C++ compilers from Intel available for Windows, Mac, Linux, FreeBSD and Intel-based Android devices.

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Inter-process communication

In computer science, inter-process communication or interprocess communication (IPC) refers specifically to the mechanisms an operating system provides to allow the processes to manage shared data.

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Interactive kiosk

An interactive kiosk is a computer terminal featuring specialized hardware and software that provides access to information and applications for communication, commerce, entertainment, or education.

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International Data Corporation

International Data Corporation (IDC) is a provider of market intelligence, advisory services, and events for the information technology, telecommunications, and consumer technology markets.

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International Organization for Standardization

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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Internet forum

An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.

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Internet Relay Chat

Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text.

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Interoperability

Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, at present or in the future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions.

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Intuit

Intuit Inc. is a business and financial software company that develops and sells financial, accounting, and tax preparation software and related services for small businesses, accountants, and individuals.

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IOS

iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware.

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IPad

iPad is a line of tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc., which run the iOS mobile operating system.

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IPAQ

The iPAQ was a Pocket PC and personal digital assistant first unveiled by Compaq in April 2000; the name was borrowed from Compaq's earlier iPAQ Desktop Personal Computers.

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IPhone

iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPhone line of products use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software.

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Itanium

Itanium is a family of 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64).

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ΜClinux

μClinux is a variation of the Linux kernel, previously maintained as a fork, that targets microcontrollers without a memory management unit (MMU).

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Java (programming language)

Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.

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Java virtual machine

A Java virtual machine (JVM) is a virtual machine that enables a computer to run Java programs as well as programs written in other languages and compiled to Java bytecode.

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.

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Jikes RVM

Jikes RVM (Jikes Research Virtual Machine) is a mature open source virtual machine that runs Java programs.

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Joe Ossanna

Joseph F. Ossanna (December 10, 1928, Detroit, Michigan – November 28, 1977, Morristown, New Jersey) worked as a member of the technical staff at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey.

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Jolla

Jolla Oy (sometimes referred to as Jolla Ltd.) is a Finnish technology company; a vendor of mobile devices and the developer of Sailfish OS. Headquartered in Helsinki, Finland, Jolla has its own research and development offices in Helsinki, Tampere and Cyberport, Hong Kong. Jolla was founded in 2011 by former Nokia staff of the MeeGo project team to use the MeeGo opportunities and its "endless possibilities". Pronounced 'yolla', the company name is Finnish for dinghy (a small agile boat or life rescue boat). It was intended as an ironic joke about the "burning platform memo" which contained the metaphor to "jump into the cold sea water" or "burn with burning platform" used in context of the Nokia business activities, in the memo leaked by then-Nokia CEO Stephen Elop in February 2011, with Osborne effect-like consequences.

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Just enough operating system

Just Enough Operating System (JeOS, pronounced "juice") is a paradigm for customizing operating systems to fit the needs of a particular application such as for a software appliance.

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Kaffe

Kaffe is a clean room design of a Java Virtual Machine.

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Kali Linux

Kali Linux is a Debian-derived Linux distribution designed for digital forensics and penetration testing.

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K–12

K–12 (spoken as "k twelve", "k through twelve", or "k to twelve"), for kindergarten to 12th grade, indicates the sum of primary and secondary education in several nations, including India, the United States, Canada, Ecuador, South Korea, Turkey, Philippines, Egypt, Australia, Afghanistan, and Iran for publicly supported school grades prior to college.

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KDE

KDE is an international free software community that develops Free and Open Source based software.

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KDevelop

KDevelop is a free and open-source integrated development environment (IDE) for Unix-like computer operating systems and Microsoft Windows.

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Ken Thompson

Kenneth Lane "Ken" Thompson (born February 4, 1943), commonly referred to as ken in hacker circles, is an American pioneer of computer science.

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Kerala

Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.

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Kernel (operating system)

The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.

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Knoppix

KNOPPIX is an operating system based on Debian designed to be run directly from a CD / DVD (Live CD) or a USB flash drive (Live USB), one of the first of its kind for any operating system.

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Kodi (software)

Kodi (formerly XBMC) is a free and open-source media player software application developed by the XBMC Foundation, a non-profit technology consortium.

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Komodo Edit

Komodo Edit is a free text editor for dynamic programming languages.

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Korg Kronos

The Kronos is a music workstation manufactured by Korg that combines nine different synthesizer sound engines with a sequencer, digital recorder, effects, a color touchscreen display and a keyboard.

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Korg OASYS

The Korg OASYS is a workstation synthesizer released in early 2005, 1 year after the successful Korg Triton Extreme.

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KWin

KWin is a window manager for the X Window System and is currently in the process of becoming a Wayland compositor.

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LAMP (software bundle)

LAMP is an archetypal model of web service stacks, named as an acronym of the names of its original four open-source components: the Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL relational database management system (RDBMS), and the PHP programming language.

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Language binding

In computing, a binding from a programming language to a library or operating system service is an application programming interface (API) providing glue code to use that library or service in a given programming language.

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Language localisation

Language localisation (or localization, see spelling-differences) is the process of adapting a product that has been previously translated into multiple languages to a specific country or region (from Latin locus (place) and the English term locale, "a place where something happens or is set").

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Lanka Linux User Group

Lanka Linux User Group, also known as LK-LUG, is an organization in Sri Lanka for promoting free software.

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Laptop

A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.

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Lazarus (IDE)

Lazarus is a free cross-platform visual integrated development environment (IDE) for rapid application development (RAD) using the Free Pascal compiler.

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Left 4 Dead 2

Left 4 Dead 2 is a cooperative first-person shooter video game developed and published by Valve Corporation.

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Library (computing)

In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development.

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LibreOffice

LibreOffice is a free and open source office suite, a project of The Document Foundation.

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Lightweight Portable Security

Lightweight Portable Security (LPS) is a Linux LiveCD, (or LiveUSB), developed and publicly distributed by the United States Department of Defense’s Software Protection Initiative that is designed to serve as a secure end node.

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LILO (boot loader)

LILO (Linux Loader) is a boot loader for Linux and was the default boot loader for most Linux distributions in the years after the popularity of loadlin.

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Linguistics

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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Linksys

Linksys is an American company selling data networking hardware products mainly to home users and small businesses.

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Linus Torvalds

Linus Benedict Torvalds (born December 28, 1969) is a Finnish-American software engineer who is the creator, and historically, the principal developer of the Linux kernel, which became the kernel for operating systems such as the Linux operating systems, Android, and Chrome OS.

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Linux distribution

A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.

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Linux Documentation Project

The Linux Documentation Project (LDP) is an all-volunteer project that maintains a large collection of GNU and Linux-related documentation and publishes the collection online.

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Linux Format

Linux Format is the UK's first Linux-specific magazine, and as of 2013 was the best-selling Linux title in the UK.

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Linux Foundation

The Linux Foundation (LF) is dedicated to building sustainable ecosystems around open source projects to accelerate technology development and commercial adoption.

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Linux kernel

The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.

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Linux kernel mailing list

The Linux kernel mailing list (LKML) is the main electronic mailing list for Linux kernel development,Kernel Traffic where the majority of the announcements, discussions, debates, and flame wars over the kernel take place.

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Linux Mark Institute

The Linux Mark Institute (LMI, fully "LMI Oregon, LLC") is an organization which administers the "Linux" trademark on behalf of Linus Torvalds for computer software which includes the Linux kernel, computer hardware utilizing Linux-based software, and for services associated with the implementation and documentation of Linux-based products.

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Linux Mint

Linux Mint is a community-driven Linux distribution based on Debian and Ubuntu that strives to be a "modern, elegant and comfortable operating system which is both powerful and easy to use." Linux Mint provides full out-of-the-box multimedia support by including some proprietary software and comes bundled with a variety of free and open-source applications.

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Linux on embedded systems

Operating systems based on the Linux kernel are used in embedded systems such as consumer electronics (i.e. set-top boxes, smart TVs, personal video recorders (PVRs), in-vehicle infotainment (IVI), networking equipment (such as routers, switches, wireless access points (WAPs) or wireless routers), machine control, industrial automation, navigation equipment, spacecraft flight software, and medical instruments in general).

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Linux on z Systems

Linux on IBM Z (or Linux on z for short, and previously Linux on z Systems) is the collective term for the Linux operating system compiled to run on IBM mainframes, especially IBM Z and IBM LinuxONE servers.

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Linux Software Map

Linux Software Map (LSM) is a standard text file format for describing Linux software.

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Linux Standard Base

The Linux Standard Base (LSB) is a joint project by several Linux distributions under the organizational structure of the Linux Foundation to standardize the software system structure, including the filesystem hierarchy used in the Linux operating system.

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Linux Terminal Server Project

Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP) is a free and open source terminal server for Linux that allows many people to simultaneously use the same computer.

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Linux user group

A Linux User Group or Linux Users' Group (LUG) or GNU/Linux User Group (GLUG) is a private, generally non-profit or not-for-profit organization that provides support and/or education for Linux users, particularly for inexperienced users.

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LinuxQuestions.org

LinuxQuestions.org (commonly abbreviated LQ) is a community-driven, self-help web site for Linux users.

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Lisp (programming language)

Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.

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List of Linux distributions

This page provides general information about notable Linux distributions in the form of a categorized list.

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List of Linux games

The following is a list of games released on the Linux operating system.

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List of operating systems

This is a list of operating systems.

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List of proprietary software for Linux

Linux is an open-source kernel and usually comes bundled with free and open source software; however, proprietary software for Linux does exist and is available to end-users.

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List of Unix commands

This is a list of Unix commands as specified by IEEE Std 1003.1-2008, which is part of the Single UNIX Specification (SUS).

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Live CD

A live CD (also live DVD, live disc, or live operating system) is a complete bootable computer installation including operating system which runs directly from a CD-ROM or similar storage device into a computer's memory, rather than loading from a hard disk drive.

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LLVM

The LLVM compiler infrastructure project is a "collection of modular and reusable compiler and toolchain technologies" used to develop compiler front ends and back ends.

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Loadable kernel module

In computing, a loadable kernel module (LKM) is an object file that contains code to extend the running kernel, or so-called base kernel, of an operating system.

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Locate (Unix)

locate is a Unix utility which serves to find files on filesystems.

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Loongson

Loongson is a family of general-purpose MIPS64 CPUs developed at the Institute of Computing Technology (ICT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in China.

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LWN.net

LWN.net is a computing webzine with an emphasis on free software and software for Linux and other Unix-like operating systems.

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LXDE

LXDE (abbreviation for Lightweight X11 Desktop Environment) is a free desktop environment with comparatively low resource requirements.

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LXQt

LXQt is a bundle of software packages under development, with the aim of providing a complete desktop environment.

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Macintosh

The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.

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Macintosh operating systems

The family of Macintosh operating systems developed by Apple Inc. includes the graphical user interface-based operating systems it has designed for use with its Macintosh series of personal computers since 1984, as well as the related system software it once created for compatible third-party systems.

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MacOS

macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.

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Maemo

Maemo is a software platform developed by Nokia for smartphones and Internet tablets.

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Mageia

Mageia is a Linux-based operating system, distributed as free and open source software.

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Mailing list

A mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients.

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Mainframe computer

Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.

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Make (software)

In software development, Make is a build automation tool that automatically builds executable programs and libraries from source code by reading files called Makefiles which specify how to derive the target program.

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Makefile

A makefile is a file (by default named "Makefile") containing a set of directives used by a make build automation tool to generate a target/goal.

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MariaDB

MariaDB is a community-developed fork of the MySQL relational database management system intended to remain free under the GNU GPL.

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MATE (software)

MATE is a desktop environment composed of free and open-source software that runs on Linux and most BSD derivatives.

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MeeGo

MeeGo is a discontinued Linux distribution hosted by the Linux Foundation, using source code from the operating systems Moblin (produced by Intel) and Maemo (produced by Nokia).

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Memory management unit

A memory management unit (MMU), sometimes called paged memory management unit (PMMU), is a computer hardware unit having all memory references passed through itself, primarily performing the translation of virtual memory addresses to physical addresses.

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Mer (software distribution)

Mer is a free and open-source software distribution, targeted at hardware vendors to serve as a middleware for Linux kernel-based mobile-oriented operating systems.

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Mesa (computer graphics)

Mesa, also called Mesa3D and The Mesa 3D Graphics Library, is an open source software implementation of OpenGL, Vulkan, and other graphics specifications.

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Message transfer agent

Within Internet message handling services (MHS), a message transfer agent or mail transfer agent (MTA) or mail relay is software that transfers electronic mail messages from one computer to another using a client–server application architecture.

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MicroBlaze

The MicroBlaze is a soft microprocessor core designed for Xilinx Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA).

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Microprocessor Report

Microprocessor Report, is a publication for engineers and other industry professionals on microprocessors.

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Microsoft

Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

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Microsoft Office

Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft.

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Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

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Minimalism (computing)

In computing, minimalism refers to the application of minimalist philosophies and principles in the design and use of hardware and software.

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MINIX

MINIX (from "mini-Unix") is a POSIX-compliant (since version 2.0), Unix-like operating system based on a microkernel architecture.

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MIPS architecture

MIPS (an acronym for Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA)Price, Charles (September 1995).

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Mir (software)

Mir is a computer display server and, recently, a Wayland compositor for the Linux operating system that is under development by Canonical Ltd. It was planned to replace the currently used X Window System for Ubuntu, however the plan changed and Mutter was adopted as part of GNOME Shell.

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MIT License

The MIT License is a permissive free software license originating at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

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Mobile device

A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand.

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Moblin

Moblin, short for 'mobile Linux', is a discontinued open source operating system and application stack for Mobile Internet Devices (MIDs), netbooks, nettops and embedded devices.

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Mono (software)

Mono is a free and open-source project led by Xamarin, a subsidiary of Microsoft (formerly by Novell and originally by Ximian), and the.NET Foundation, to create an Ecma standard-compliant,.NET Framework-compatible set of tools including, among others, a C# compiler and a Common Language Runtime.

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MonoDevelop

MonoDevelop (also known as Xamarin Studio) is an open source integrated development environment for Linux, macOS, and Windows.

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Monolithic kernel

A monolithic kernel is an operating system architecture where the entire operating system is working in kernel space and is alone in supervisor mode.

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Motorola 68000 series

The Motorola 68000 series (also termed 680x0, m68000, m68k, or 68k) is a family of 32-bit CISC microprocessors.

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Motorola Rokr

The Motorola Rokr (styled ROKR) is a series of mobile phones from Motorola, part of a 4LTR line developed before the spin out of Motorola Mobility.

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Mozilla

Mozilla (stylized as moz://a) is a free software community founded in 1998 by members of Netscape.

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MP3 player

An MP3 player or Digital Audio Player is an electronic device that can play digital audio files.

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Music workstation

A music workstation is an electronic musical instrument providing the facilities of.

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Mutter (software)

Mutter is a window manager initially designed and implemented for the X Window System, and recently has evolved to be a Wayland compositor.

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MySQL

MySQL ("My S-Q-L") is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS).

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Mythbuntu

Mythbuntu is a discontinued media center operating system based on Ubuntu, which integrated the MythTV media center software as its main function, and did not install with all of the programs included with Ubuntu.

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MythTV

MythTV is a free and open-source home entertainment application with a simplified "10-foot user interface" design for the living-room TV.

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Gendarmerie

The National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie nationale) is one of two national police forces of France, along with the National Police.

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NetBeans

NetBeans is an integrated development environment (IDE) for Java.

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Netbook

Netbook is a generic name given to a category of small, lightweight, legacy-free, and inexpensive laptop computers that were introduced in 2007.

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NetBSD

NetBSD is a free and open source Unix-like operating system that descends from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Netcraft

Netcraft is an Internet services company based in Bath, England.

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Network transparency

Network transparency, in its most general sense, refers to the ability of a protocol to transmit data over the network in a manner which is transparent (invisible) to those using the applications that are using the protocol.

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Nios II

Nios II is a 32-bit embedded-processor architecture designed specifically for the Altera family of FPGAs.

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Nokia

Nokia is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865.

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Nokia N810

The Nokia N810 Internet tablet is an Internet appliance from Nokia, announced on 17 October 2007 at the Web 2.0 Summit in San Francisco.

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Nvidia

Nvidia Corporation (most commonly referred to as Nvidia, stylized as NVIDIA, or (due to their logo) nVIDIA) is an American technology company incorporated in Delaware and based in Santa Clara, California.

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Open Source Summit

Open Source Summit (formerly LinuxCon) is a name for a series of annual conventions organized each year since 2009 by the Linux Foundation.

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Open-source license

An open-source license is a type of license for computer software and other products that allows the source code, blueprint or design to be used, modified and/or shared under defined terms and conditions.

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Open-source model

The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.

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Open-source software

Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software whose source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.

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OpenBSD

OpenBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.

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OpenELEC

OpenELEC (short for Open Embedded Linux Entertainment Center) is a Linux distribution designed for home theater PCs and based on the Kodi (formerly XBMC) media player.

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OpenGL

Open Graphics Library (OpenGL) is a cross-language, cross-platform application programming interface (API) for rendering 2D and 3D vector graphics.

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Openmoko

Openmoko was a project to create a family of open source mobile phones, including the hardware specification, the operating system (Openmoko Linux), and actual smartphone development implementation like the Neo 1973 and Neo FreeRunner.

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OpenOffice.org

OpenOffice.org (OOo), commonly known as OpenOffice, is a discontinued open-source office suite.

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OpenRC

On Unix-like systems, OpenRC is a dependency-based init.

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OpenRISC

OpenRISC is a project to develop a series of open source instruction set architectures based on established reduced instruction set computing (RISC) principles.

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OpenSUSE

openSUSE, formerly SUSE Linux and SuSE Linux Professional, is a Linux-based project and distribution sponsored by SUSE Linux GmbH and other companies.

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OpenWrt

OpenWrt is an open source project for embedded operating system based on Linux, primarily used on embedded devices to route network traffic.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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Oracle Corporation

Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.

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Oracle Developer Studio

Oracle Developer Studio, formerly named Oracle Solaris Studio, Sun Studio, Sun WorkShop, Forte Developer, and SunPro Compilers, is Oracle Corporation's flagship software development product for the Solaris and Linux operating systems.

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PA-RISC

PA-RISC is an instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Hewlett-Packard.

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Package manager

A package manager or package management system is a collection of software tools that automate the process of installing, upgrading, configuring, and removing computer programs for a computer's operating system in a consistent manner.

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PackageKit

PackageKit is a free and open-source suite of software applications designed to provide a consistent and high-level front end for a number of different package management systems.

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Palm Pre

The Palm Pre, styled as palm prē, is a multitask smartphone that was designed and marketed by Palm with a multi-touch screen and a sliding keyboard.

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Palm, Inc.

Palm, Inc. was an American company that specialized in manufacturing personal digital assistants (PDAs) and other electronics.

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Parabola GNU/Linux-libre

Parabola GNU/Linux-libre is an operating system for the i686, x86-64 and ARMv7 architectures.

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Parted Magic

Parted Magic is a commercial Linux distribution with disk partitioning and data recovery tools, sold as a Linux-based bootable disk.

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Penetration test

A penetration test, colloquially known as a pen test, is an authorized simulated attack on a computer system, performed to evaluate the security of the system.

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Penguin

Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds.

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Performance per watt

In computing, performance per watt is a measure of the energy efficiency of a particular computer architecture or computer hardware.

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Peripheral

A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer." Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer.

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Perl

Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.

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Personal computer

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

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Personal digital assistant

A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager.

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Phoronix

Phoronix is a technology website that offers insights regarding the development of the Linux kernel, product reviews, interviews, and news regarding free and open-source software by monitoring the Linux kernel mailing list or interviews.

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PHP

PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language.

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Pidgin (software)

Pidgin (formerly named Gaim) is a free and open-source multi-platform instant messaging client, based on a library named libpurple that has support for many instant messaging protocols, allowing the user to simultaneously log into various services from one application.

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Pixar

Pixar Animation Studios, commonly referred to as Pixar, is an American computer animation movie studio based in Emeryville, California that is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, owned by The Walt Disney Company.

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Portage (software)

Portage is a package management system originally created for and used by Gentoo Linux and also by Chrome OS, Sabayon, and Funtoo Linux among others.

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Portal (video game)

Portal is a puzzle-platform video game developed and published by Valve Corporation.

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Portal 2

Portal 2 is a first-person puzzle-platform video game developed and published by Valve Corporation.

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Porting

In software engineering, porting is the process of adapting software for the purpose of achieving some form of execution in a computing environment that is different from the one that a given program (meant for such execution) was originally designed for (e.g. different CPU, operating system, or third party library).

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Portmanteau

A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.

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POSIX

The Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) is a family of standards specified by the IEEE Computer Society for maintaining compatibility between operating systems.

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PowerBASIC

PowerBASIC, formerly Turbo Basic, is the brand of several commercial compilers by PowerBASIC Inc.

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PowerPC

PowerPC (with the backronym Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM.

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Process (computing)

In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed.

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Professional audio

Professional audio, abbreviated as pro audio, refers to both an activity and a category of high quality, studio-grade audio equipment.

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Programming language

A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.

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Proprietary software

Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.

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PulseAudio

PulseAudio is a network-capable sound server program distributed via the freedesktop.org project.

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Python (programming language)

Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.

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QB64

QB64 (originally QB32) is a self-hosting BASIC compiler for Microsoft Windows, Linux and Mac OS X, designed to be compatible with Microsoft QBasic and QuickBASIC.

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Qt (software)

Qt ("cute") is a cross-platform application framework and widget toolkit for creating classic and embedded graphical user interfaces, and applications that run on various software and hardware platforms with little or no change in the underlying codebase, while still being a native application with native capabilities and speed.

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Qt Creator

Qt Creator is a cross-platform C++, JavaScript and QML integrated development environment which is part of the SDK for the Qt GUI application development framework.

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Qt Project

The Qt Project is a project to co-ordinate the development of the Qt software framework.

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Qualcomm Hexagon

Hexagon (QDSP6) is the brand for a family of 32-bit multi-threaded microarchitectures implementing the same instruction set for a digital signal processor (DSP) developed by Qualcomm.

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QuickBASIC

Microsoft QuickBASIC (also QB) is an Integrated Development Environment (or IDE) and compiler for the BASIC programming language that was developed by Microsoft.

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QuickBooks

QuickBooks is an accounting software package developed and marketed by Intuit.

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Quicken

Quicken is a personal finance management tool developed by Quicken Inc.

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Radiation hardening

Radiation hardening is the act of making electronic components and systems resistant to damage or malfunctions caused by ionizing radiation (particle radiation and high-energy electromagnetic radiation), such as those encountered in outer space and high-altitude flight, around nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, or during nuclear accidents or nuclear warfare.

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Raspberry Pi

The Raspberry Pi is a series of small single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote the teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries.

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Ratpoison

Ratpoison is a tiling window manager for the X Window System primarily developed by Shawn Betts.

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Real-time computing

In computer science, real-time computing (RTC), or reactive computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a "real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.

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Red Hat

Red Hat, Inc. is an American multinational software company providing open-source software products to the enterprise community.

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Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) is a Linux distribution developed by Red Hat and targeted toward the commercial market.

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Red Hat Linux

Red Hat Linux, assembled by the company Red Hat, was a widely used Linux distribution until its discontinuation in 2004.

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Red Star OS

Red Star OS is a North Korean Linux distribution.

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Redundancy (engineering)

In engineering, redundancy is the duplication of critical components or functions of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system, usually in the form of a backup or fail-safe, or to improve actual system performance, such as in the case of GNSS receivers, or multi-threaded computer processing.

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Regular expression

A regular expression, regex or regexp (sometimes called a rational expression) is, in theoretical computer science and formal language theory, a sequence of characters that define a search pattern.

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Richard Stallman

Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, rms—is an American free software movement activist and programmer.

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RISC-V

RISC-V (pronounced "risk-five") is an open instruction set architecture (ISA) based on established reduced instruction set computing (RISC) principles.

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Rocks Cluster Distribution

Rocks Cluster Distribution (originally called NPACI Rocks) is a Linux distribution intended for high-performance computing clusters.

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Router (computing)

A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.

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Rpm (software)

RPM Package Manager (RPM) (originally Red Hat Package Manager; now a recursive acronym) is a package management system.

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Ruby (programming language)

Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language.

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Runtime system

A runtime system, also called run-time system, primarily implements portions of an execution model.

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Rust (programming language)

Rust is a systems programming language sponsored by Mozilla which describes it as a "safe, concurrent, practical language," supporting functional and imperative-procedural paradigms.

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Sabily

Sabily (سبيلي,, My Way) is a Linux distribution based on the Ubuntu, designed by and for Muslims.

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Sailfish OS

Sailfish OS (also styled as SailfishOS or abbreviated to SFOS) is a general purpose Linux distribution used commonly as a mobile operating system combining the Linux kernel for a particular hardware platform, the open-source Mer core stack of middleware, a proprietary UI contributed by Jolla or an open source UI, and other third-party components.

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Samsung

Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.

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Samsung Gear 2

The Samsung Gear 2 and Gear 2 Neo are smartwatches produced by Samsung Electronics.

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Scheme (programming language)

Scheme is a programming language that supports multiple paradigms, including functional programming and imperative programming, and is one of the two main dialects of Lisp.

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Scripting language

A scripting or script language is a programming language that supports scripts: programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator.

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Sed

sed (stream editor) is a Unix utility that parses and transforms text, using a simple, compact programming language.

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Sendmail

Sendmail is a general purpose internetwork email routing facility that supports many kinds of mail-transfer and delivery methods, including the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) used for email transport over the Internet.

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Server (computing)

In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".

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Shake (software)

Shake is a discontinued image compositing package used in the post-production industry developed by Apple Inc. Shake was widely used in visual effects and digital compositing for film, video and commercials.

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Shell (computing)

In computing, a shell is a user interface for access to an operating system's services.

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Shell script

A shell script is a computer program designed to be run by the Unix shell, a command-line interpreter.

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Shield Portable

The Nvidia Shield Portable is a handheld video game console developed by Nvidia, released on July 31, 2013.

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Simple DirectMedia Layer

Simple DirectMedia Layer (SDL) is a cross-platform software development library designed to provide a hardware abstraction layer for computer multimedia hardware components.

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Single UNIX Specification

The Single UNIX Specification (SUS) is the collective name of a family of standards for computer operating systems, compliance with which is required to qualify for using the "UNIX" trademark.

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Sinhalese language

Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.

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Skolelinux

Skolelinux/Debian-Edu is an operating system intended for educational use and a Debian Pure Blend.

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Skype

Skype is a telecommunications application software product that specializes in providing video chat and voice calls between computers, tablets, mobile devices, the Xbox One console, and smartwatches via the Internet and to regular telephones.

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Slackware

Slackware is a Linux distribution created by Patrick Volkerding in 1993.

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Smart device

A smart device is an electronic device, generally connected to other devices or networks via different wireless protocols such as Bluetooth, NFC, Wi-Fi, LiFi, 3G, etc., that can operate to some extent interactively and autonomously.

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Smart TV

A smart TV, sometimes referred to as connected TV or hybrid TV, is a television set with integrated Internet and interactive "Web 2.0" features.

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Smartphone

A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.

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Smartwatch

A smartwatch is a touchscreen wearable computer in the form of a wristwatch.

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Software

Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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Software license

A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software.

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Software testing

Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the software product or service under test.

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Solution stack

In computing, a solution stack or software stack is a set of software subsystems or components needed to create a complete platform such that no additional software is needed to support applications.

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Source (game engine)

Source is a 3D video game engine developed by Valve Corporation.

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Source code

In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.

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Source lines of code

Source lines of code (SLOC), also known as lines of code (LOC), is a software metric used to measure the size of a computer program by counting the number of lines in the text of the program's source code.

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SpaceX

Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.

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SPARC

SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems.

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Stacking window manager

A stacking window manager (also called floating window manager) is a window manager that draws all windows in a specific order, allowing them to overlap, using a technique called painter's algorithm.

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Stage lighting

Stage lighting is the craft of lighting as it applies to the production of theatre, dance, opera and other performance arts.

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Steam (software)

Steam is a digital distribution platform developed by Valve Corporation, which offers digital rights management (DRM), multiplayer gaming, video streaming and social networking services.

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Steam Machine (hardware platform)

No description.

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SteamOS

SteamOS is a Debian-based Linux operating system by Valve Corporation and is the primary operating system for Valve's Steam Machine video game console.

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Steve Ballmer

Steven Anthony Ballmer (born March 24, 1956) is an American businessman, investor and philanthropist who was the chief executive officer of Microsoft from January 2000 to February 2014, and is the current owner of the Los Angeles Clippers of the National Basketball Association (NBA).

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Sugar (software)

Sugar is a free and open-source desktop environment designed for interactive learning by children.

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Sun Microsystems

Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.

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Supercomputer

A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.

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SuperH

SuperH (or SH) is a 32-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Hitachi and currently produced by Renesas.

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SUSE

SUSE is a German-based, multinational, open-source software company that develops and sells Linux products to business customers.

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SUSE Linux

SUSE Linux is a computer operating system.

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SUSE Linux Enterprise

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) is a Linux-based operating system developed by SUSE.

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Symbiosis

Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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Synaptic (software)

Synaptic is a GTK+-based graphical user interface for APT (Debian)—the Package management system used by Debian and its derivatives.

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Synthesizer

A synthesizer (often abbreviated as synth, also spelled synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones.

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SYSLINUX

The SYSLINUX Project is a suite of lightweight master boot record (MBR) boot loaders for starting up IBM PC compatible computers with the Linux kernel.

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System resource

In computing, a system resource, or simply resource, is any physical or virtual component of limited availability within a computer system.

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System software

System software is computer software designed to provide a platform to other software.

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Systemd

systemd is a suite of software that provides fundamental building blocks for a Linux operating system.

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SystemRescueCD

SystemRescueCd is an operating system for the x86 computer platform, though the primary purpose of SystemRescueCD is to repair unbootable or otherwise damaged computer systems after a system crash.

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Tablet computer

A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a portable personal computer, typically with a mobile operating system and LCD touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package.

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Tails (operating system)

Tails or The Amnesic Incognito Live System is a security-focused Debian-based Linux distribution aimed at preserving privacy and anonymity.

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Tar (computing)

In computing, tar is a computer software utility for collecting many files into one archive file, often referred to as a tarball, for distribution or backup purposes.

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Taskbar

A taskbar is an element of a graphical user interface which has various purposes.

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Team Fortress 2

Team Fortress 2 (TF2) is a team-based multiplayer first-person shooter video game developed and published by Valve Corporation.

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Tensilica

Tensilica was a company based in Silicon Valley in the semiconductor intellectual property core business.

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Terminal emulator

A terminal emulator, terminal application, or term, is a program that emulates a video terminal within some other display architecture.

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Texas Instruments TMS320

Texas Instruments TMS320 is a blanket name for a series of digital signal processors (DSPs) from Texas Instruments.

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Text editor

A text editor is a type of computer program that edits plain text.

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The GNOME Project

The GNOME Project is a community behind the GNOME desktop environment and the software platform upon which it is based.

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The Linux Schools Project

The Linux Schools Project (formerly Karoshi, which can be translated literally as "death from overwork" in Japanese) is an operating system designed for schools.

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Theme (computing)

In computing, a theme is a preset package containing graphical appearance details.

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Thin client

A thin client is a lightweight computer that has been optimized for remoting into a server-based computing environment.

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Thinstation

Thinstation is a free and open source Linux implementation of a thin client operating system.

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Tiling window manager

In computing, a tiling window manager is a window manager with an organization of the screen into mutually non-overlapping frames, as opposed to the more popular approach of coordinate-based stacking of overlapping objects (windows) that tries to fully emulate the desktop metaphor.

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Tin Hat Linux

Tin Hat is a Security-focused Linux distribution derived from Hardened Gentoo Linux.

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Tinfoil Hat Linux

Tinfoil Hat Linux (THL) is a compact security-focused Linux distribution designed for high security developed by The Shmoo Group.

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Titanic (1997 film)

Titanic is a 1997 American epic romance-disaster film directed, written, co-produced and co-edited by James Cameron.

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TiVo

TiVo is a digital video recorder (DVR) developed and marketed by TiVo Corporation and introduced in 1999.

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Tizen

Tizen is a mobile operating system developed by Samsung that runs on a wide range of Samsung devices, including smartphones; tablets; in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) devices; smart televisions; smart cameras; smartwatches; Blu-ray players; smart home appliances (refrigerators, lighting, washing machines, air conditioners, ovens/microwaves); and robotic vacuum cleaners.

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TOP500

The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world.

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Tor (anonymity network)

Tor is free software for enabling anonymous communication.

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Tor-ramdisk

Tor-ramdisk is an i686 uClibc-based micro Linux distribution whose only purpose is to host a Tor server in an environment that maximizes security and privacy.

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Toybox

Toybox is a Free and open source software implementation of some Unix command line utilities for embedded devices.

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Trinity Desktop Environment

The Trinity Desktop Environment (TDE) is a fork of K Desktop Environment 3.5, organized and led by Timothy Pearson, who had coordinated Kubuntu remixes featuring KDE 3.5, after Kubuntu switched to KDE Plasma 4.

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Trisquel

Trisquel (officially Trisquel GNU/Linux) is a computer operating system, a Linux distribution, derived from another distribution, Ubuntu.

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Turing completeness

In computability theory, a system of data-manipulation rules (such as a computer's instruction set, a programming language, or a cellular automaton) is said to be Turing complete or computationally universal if it can be used to simulate any Turing machine.

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Tux (mascot)

Tux is a penguin character and the official brand character of the Linux kernel.

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Type system

In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.

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Ubuntu (operating system)

Ubuntu (stylized as ubuntu) is a free and open source operating system and Linux distribution based on Debian.

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Ubuntu Kylin

Ubuntu Kylin is the official Chinese version of the Ubuntu computer operating system.

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Ubuntu Studio

Ubuntu Studio is a recognized flavor, Canonical Ltd., Retrieved on 1 August 2013 of the Ubuntu Linux distribution, which is geared to general multimedia production.

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Ubuntu Touch

Ubuntu Touch (also known as Ubuntu Phone) is a mobile version of the Ubuntu operating system that was originally developed by Canonical Ltd. and is now being developed by the UBports community.

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UClibc

In computing, uClibc (sometimes written µClibc) is a small C standard library intended for Linux kernel-based operating systems for embedded systems and mobile devices.

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Unicore

Unicore is the name of a computer instruction set architecture designed by Microprocessor Research and Development Center (MPRC) of Peking University in the PRC.

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United States antitrust law

United States antitrust law is a collection of federal and state government laws that regulates the conduct and organization of business corporations, generally to promote fair competition for the benefit of consumers.

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United States Department of Defense

The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.

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Unity (user interface)

Unity is a graphical shell for the GNOME desktop environment originally developed by Canonical Ltd. for its Ubuntu operating system.

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University of Helsinki

The University of Helsinki (Helsingin yliopisto, Helsingfors universitet, Universitas Helsingiensis, abbreviated UH) is a university located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829, but was founded in the city of Turku (in Swedish Åbo) in 1640 as the Royal Academy of Åbo, at that time part of the Swedish Empire.

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Unix

Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.

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Unix philosophy

The Unix philosophy, originated by Ken Thompson, is a set of cultural norms and philosophical approaches to minimalist, modular software development.

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Unix shell

A Unix shell is a command-line interpreter or shell that provides a traditional Unix-like command line user interface.

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Unix-like

A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.

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Upstart

Upstart is an event-based replacement for the traditional init daemon the method by which several Unix-like computer operating systems perform tasks when the computer is started.

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Usage share of operating systems

The usage share of operating systems is an estimate of the percentage of computing devices that run each operating system at any particular time.

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Usenet newsgroup

A Usenet newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users in different locations using Internet.

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User interface

The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.

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User space

A modern computer operating system usually segregates virtual memory into kernel space and user space.

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Vala (programming language)

Vala is an object-oriented programming language with a self-hosting compiler that generates C code and uses the GObject system.

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Valve Corporation

Valve Corporation is an American video game developer and digital distribution company headquartered in Bellevue, Washington.

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Vendor lock-in

In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in or customer lock-in, makes a customer dependent on a vendor for products and services, unable to use another vendor without substantial switching costs.

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Video game console

A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.

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Video4Linux

Video4Linux, V4L for short, is a collection of device drivers and an API for supporting realtime video capture on Linux systems.

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Vim (text editor)

Vim ("Vim is pronounced as one word, like Jim, not vi-ai-em. It's written with a capital, since it's a name, again like Jim." a contraction of Vi IMproved) is a clone, with additions, of Bill Joy's vi text editor program for Unix.

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Virtual console

A virtual console (VC) – also known as a virtual terminal (VT) – is a conceptual combination of the keyboard and display for a computer user interface.

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Visual Basic

Visual Basic is a third-generation event-driven programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its Component Object Model (COM) programming model first released in 1991 and declared legacy during 2008.

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VOGL

VOGL is a debugger for the OpenGL rendering API intended to be used in the development of video games.

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Wayland (display server protocol)

Wayland is a computer protocol that specifies the communication between a display server (called a Wayland compositor) and its clients, as well as a reference implementation of the protocol in the C programming language.

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Wearable technology

Wearable technology, wearables, fashionable technology, wearable devices, tech togs, or fashion electronics are smart electronic devices (electronic device with micro-controllers) that can be worn on the body as implants or accessories.

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Web analytics

Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of web data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage.

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Web browser

A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.

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Web server

Web server refers to server software, or hardware dedicated to running said software, that can serve contents to the World Wide Web.

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Web standards

Web standards are the formal, non-proprietary standards and other technical specifications that define and describe aspects of the World Wide Web.

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Webconverger

Webconverger is a Linux-based operating system designed solely for accessing Web applications privately and securely.

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WebOS

webOS, also known as LG webOS and previously known as Open webOS, HP webOS and Palm webOS, is a Linux kernel-based multitasking operating system for smart devices such as smart TVs and it has been used as a mobile operating system.

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Weta Digital

Weta Digital is a digital visual effects company based in Wellington, New Zealand.

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Widget toolkit

A widget toolkit, widget library, GUI toolkit, or UX library is a library or a collection of libraries containing a set of graphical control elements (called widgets) used to construct the graphical user interface (GUI) of programs.

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Window Maker

Window Maker is a free and open source window manager for the X Window System, allowing graphical applications to be run on Unix-like operating-systems.

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Window manager

A window manager is system software that controls the placement and appearance of windows within a windowing system in a graphical user interface.

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Windowing system

In computing, a windowing system (or window system) is software that manages separately different parts of display screens.

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Windows Registry

The registry is a hierarchical database that stores low-level settings for the Microsoft Windows operating system and for applications that opt to use the registry.

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Windows Server

Windows Server is a brand name for a group of server operating systems released by Microsoft.

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Windows XP

Windows XP (codenamed Whistler) is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.

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Wine (software)

Wine (recursive backronym for Wine Is Not an Emulator) is a free and open-source compatibility layer that aims to allow computer programs (application software and computer games) developed for Microsoft Windows to run on Unix-like operating systems.

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World of Warcraft

World of Warcraft (WoW) is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) released in 2004 by Blizzard Entertainment.

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X window manager

An X window manager is a window manager which runs on top of the X Window System, a windowing system mainly used on Unix-like systems.

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X Window System

The X Window System (X11, or shortened to simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on UNIX-like computer operating systems.

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X.Org Server

X.Org Server is the free and open source implementation of the display server for the X Window System stewarded by the X.Org Foundation.

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X86

x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.

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XBasic

XBasic is a variant of the BASIC programming language that was developed in the late 1980s for the Motorola 88000 CPU and Unix by Max Reason.

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Xfce

Xfce (pronounced as four individual letters) is a free and open-source desktop environment for Unix and Unix-like operating systems, such as Linux, Solaris, and BSD.

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Xlib

Xlib (also known as libX11) is an X Window System protocol client library written in the C programming language.

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Yum (software)

The Yellowdog Updater, Modified (YUM) is a libre and open-source command-line package-management utility for computers running the GNU/Linux operating system using the RPM Package Manager.

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ZYpp

ZYpp (or libzypp) is a package manager engine that powers Linux applications like YaST, Zypper and the implementation of PackageKit for openSUSE and SUSE Linux Enterprise.

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16-bit

16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.

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386BSD

386BSD, sometimes called "Jolix", is a discontinued free Unix-like operating system based on BSD, first released in 1992.

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BlackRhino GNU/Linux, Desktop GNU/Linux, Desktop Linux, Desktop linux, Freax, GNU Linux, GNU+Linux, GNU-Linux, GNU-linux, GNU/Linux, GNU/Linux/X, GNU/Linux/X11, GNULinux, GNU–Linux, Gnu/Linux, Gnu/linux, LINUX, Lienucks, Lineux, Linices, Linix, LinuX, Linuces, Linux (GNU/Linux), Linux (laundry detergent), Linux (operating system), Linux (washing powder), Linux Module List, Linux OS, Linux Powered System, Linux box, Linux desktop, Linux desktop environment, Linux desktop environments, Linux on the desktop, Linux operating system, Linux server, Linux-based GNU system, Linux-based GNU systems, Linux/X, Linux/X11, Linux/gnu, Lynux, The Year of the Linux Desktop, Year of Desktop Linux, Year of the Linux Desktop.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux

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