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Index Lipid

In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents. [1]

241 relations: Abiogenesis, Acetyl group, Acetyl-CoA, Acyl carrier protein, Adenosine triphosphate, Adipocyte, Adipose tissue, Agonist, Algae, Aliphatic compound, Alkane, Alkene, Alpha-Linolenic acid, Amide, Amphiphile, Anandamide, Androgen, Androsterone, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Antiparasitic, Arachidonic acid, Archaea, Avermectin, Bactoprenol, Beta oxidation, Bile acid, Biochemistry, Biological membrane, Biology, Biomarker, Biomolecule, Biophysics, Brassicasterol, Cancer, Cannabinoid, Carbohydrate, Carboxylic acid, Cardiolipin, Cardiovascular disease, Carotenoid, Cell membrane, Cell signaling, Ceramide, Cerebroside, Chemical polarity, Cholesterol, Cis–trans isomerism, Citric acid cycle, Clathrate compound, ..., Coenzyme A, Coenzyme Q10, Corn oil, Cortisol, Critical micelle concentration, De novo synthesis, Dehydration reaction, Dehydrogenation, Diglyceride, Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, Disaccharide, Docosahexaenoic acid, Dolichol, Eicosanoid, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Electron transport chain, Emulsion test, Endoplasmic reticulum, Epothilone, Ergosterol, Erythromycin, Escherichia coli, Essential fatty acid, Ester, Estrogen, Eukaryote, Extracellular, Fat, Fatty acid, Fatty acid desaturase, Fatty acid synthase, Fatty acid synthesis, Fish oil, Functional group, Fungus, G protein–coupled receptor, Gabriel Bertrand, Ganglioside, Glucocorticoid, Glucosamine, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, Glycerol, Glycerophospholipid, Glycosidic bond, Glycosylation, Gram-negative bacteria, Halogen, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Henri Braconnot, Hormone, Hydration reaction, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen bond, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Hydrophobic effect, Hydroquinone, Hydroxylation, Immunity (medical), Industry classification, Inflammation, Intracellular, Isopentenyl pyrophosphate, Isoprene, Johann Ludwig Wilhelm Thudichum, Keto acid, Lamellar phase, Lanosterol, Lecithin, Leukotriene, Linoleic acid, Linolenic acid, Linseed oil, Lipase, Lipid, Lipid A, Lipid bilayer, Lipid microdomain, Lipid polymorphism, Lipid signaling, Lipidomics, Lipogenesis, Lipopolysaccharide, Lipoprotein, Liposome, Liver X receptor, Malonyl-CoA, Mannose, Membrane lipid, Metabolism, Metabolite, Methylation, Methylmalonyl-CoA, Mevalonate pathway, Mevalonic acid, Micelle, Michel Eugène Chevreul, Mineralocorticoid, Mitochondrion, Molecular configuration, Molecule, Monoglyceride, Monosaccharide, N-Acylethanolamine, Nanotechnology, Natural product, Nitrogen, Non-mevalonate pathway, Nuclear receptor, Oleic acid, Oligosaccharide, Omega-6 fatty acid, Organelle, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxygen, Oxysterol, Palmitic acid, Peptidoglycan, Peroxisome, Phenolic lipid, Phosphate, Phosphatidic acid, Phosphatidylcholine, Phosphatidylethanolamine, Phosphatidylinositol, Phosphatidylserine, Phospholipid, Phytomenadione, Phytosterol, Plasmalogen, Plastid, Polyketide, Polyunsaturated fat, Prenol, Progestogen, Propionyl-CoA, Prostaglandin, Protein, Protein kinase C, Protein–lipid interaction, Protocell, Quinone, Rapeseed, Redox, Retinol, Saccharolipid, Safflower, Saturated and unsaturated compounds, Second messenger system, Secondary metabolite, Secosteroid, Serine, Solid lipid nanoparticle, Solubility, Soybean, Spermatozoon, Sphingolipid, Sphingomyelin, Sphingosine, Sphingosine-1-phosphate, Squalene, Stearic acid, Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, Steroid, Sterol, Stigmasterol, Sulfur, Sunflower oil, Terpene, Terpenoid, Testosterone, Tetracycline antibiotics, Theodore Nicolas Gobley, Thiolysis, Thromboxane, Tocopherol, Trans fat, Triglyceride, Unilamellar liposome, Unsaturated fat, Vegetable oil, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Vitamin, Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Walnut, Wax, Wax ester, William Prout. Expand index (191 more) »


Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.

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Acetyl group

In organic chemistry, acetyl is a moiety, the acyl with chemical formula CH3CO.

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Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

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Acyl carrier protein

The acyl carrier protein (ACP) is an important component in both fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis with the growing chain bound during synthesis as a thiol ester at the distal thiol of a 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.

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Adipose tissue

In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

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An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Aliphatic compound

In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds.

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In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.

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In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

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Alpha-Linolenic acid

α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is an n−3 fatty acid.

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An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).

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An amphiphile (from the Greek αμφις, amphis: both and φιλíα, philia: love, friendship) is a chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic (water-loving, polar) and lipophilic (fat-loving) properties.

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Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.

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An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.

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Androsterone, or 5α-androstan-3α-ol-17-one, is an endogenous steroid hormone, neurosteroid, and putative pheromone.

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An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.

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Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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Antiparasitics are a class of medications which are indicated for the treatment of parasitic diseases, such as those caused by helminths, amoeba, ectoparasites, parasitic fungi, and protozoa, among others.

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Arachidonic acid

Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6).

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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The avermectins are a series of drugs and pesticides used to treat parasitic worms and insect pests.

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Bactoprenol is a lipid synthesized by three different species of lactobacilli.

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Beta oxidation

In biochemistry and metabolism, beta-oxidation is the catabolic process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the cytosol in prokaryotes and in the mitochondria in eukaryotes to generate acetyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle, and NADH and FADH2, which are co-enzymes used in the electron transport chain.

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Bile acid

Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biological membrane

A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.

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A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.

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Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.

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Brassicasterol (24-methyl cholest-5,22-dien-3β-ol) is a 28-carbon sterol synthesised by several unicellular algae (phytoplankton) and some terrestrial plants, e.g., oilseed rape.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.

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Cardiolipin (IUPAC name "1,3-bis(sn-3’-phosphatidyl)-sn-glycerol") is an important component of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it constitutes about 20% of the total lipid composition.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Cell signaling

Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.

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Ceramides are a family of waxy lipid molecules.

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Cerebrosides is the common name for a group of glycosphingolipids called monoglycosylceramides which are important components in animal muscle and nerve cell membranes.

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Chemical polarity

In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.

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Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

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Cis–trans isomerism

Cis–trans isomerism, also known as geometric isomerism or configurational isomerism, is a term used in organic chemistry.

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Citric acid cycle

The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Clathrate compound

A clathrate is a chemical substance consisting of a lattice that traps or contains molecules.

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Coenzyme A

Coenzyme A (CoA,SCoA,CoASH) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.

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Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10, CoQ, or Q10 is a coenzyme that is ubiquitous in animals and most bacteria (hence the name ubiquinone).

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Corn oil

Corn oil (maize oil) is oil extracted from the germ of corn (maize).

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Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

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Critical micelle concentration

In colloidal and surface chemistry, the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is defined as the concentration of surfactants above which micelles form and all additional surfactants added to the system go to micelles.

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De novo synthesis

De novo synthesis refers to the synthesis of complex molecules from simple molecules such as sugars or amino acids, as opposed to recycling after partial degradation.

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Dehydration reaction

In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule.

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Dehydrogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the removal of hydrogen from an organic molecule.

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A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.

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Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate

Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP; or alternatively, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP); also isoprenyl pyrophosphate) is an isoprenoid precursor.

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A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.

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Docosahexaenoic acid

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina.

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Dolichol refers to any of a group of long-chain mostly unsaturated organic compounds that are made up of varying numbers of isoprene units terminating in an α-saturated isoprenoid group, containing an alcohol functional group.

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Eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are, similar to arachidonic acid, 20 carbon units in length.

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Eicosapentaenoic acid

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid.

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Electron transport chain

An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.

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Emulsion test

The emulsion test is a method to determine the presence of lipids using wet chemistry.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.

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The epothilones are a class of potential cancer drugs.

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Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol) is a sterol found in cell membranes of fungi and protozoa, serving many of the same functions that cholesterol serves in animal cells.

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Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Essential fatty acid

Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them.

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In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".

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Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Fatty acid desaturase

A fatty acid desaturase is an enzyme that removes two hydrogen atoms from a fatty acid, creating a carbon/carbon double bond.

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Fatty acid synthase

Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FASN gene.

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Fatty acid synthesis

Fatty acid synthesis is the creation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and NADPH through the action of enzymes called fatty acid synthases.

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Fish oil

Fish oil is oil derived from the tissues of oily fish.

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Functional group

In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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G protein–coupled receptor

G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.

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Gabriel Bertrand

Gabriel Bertrand (born 17 May 1867 in Paris, died 20 June 1962 in Paris) was a French pharmacologist, biochemist and bacteriologist.

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A ganglioside is a molecule composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (e.g. n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain.

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Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.

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Glucosamine (C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids.

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Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, also known as triose phosphate or 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and abbreviated as G3P, GA3P, GADP, GAP, TP, GALP or PGAL, is the metabolite that occurs as an intermediate in several central pathways of all organisms.

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Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.

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Glycerophospholipids or phosphoglycerides are glycerol-based phospholipids.

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Glycosidic bond

In chemistry, a glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.

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Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).

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Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.

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The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

The Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (formerly Harvard School of Public Health) is the public health graduate school of Harvard University, located in the Longwood Medical Area of Boston, Massachusetts adjacent Harvard Medical School.

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Henri Braconnot

Henri Braconnot (May 29, 1780, Commercy, Meuse – January 15, 1855, Nancy) was a French chemist and pharmacist.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Hydration reaction

In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water.

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In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.

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In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.

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Hydrophobic effect

The hydrophobic effect is the observed tendency of nonpolar substances to aggregate in an aqueous solution and exclude water molecules.

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Hydroquinone, also benzene-1,4-diol or quinol, is an aromatic organic compound that is a type of phenol, a derivative of benzene, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2.

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Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.

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Immunity (medical)

In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.

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Industry classification

Industry classification or industry taxonomy is a type of economic taxonomy that organizes companies into industrial groupings based on similar production processes, similar products, or similar behavior in financial markets.

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".

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Isopentenyl pyrophosphate

Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP, isopentenyl diphosphate, or IDP) is an isoprenoid precursor.

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Isoprene, or 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, is a common organic compound with the formula CH2.

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Johann Ludwig Wilhelm Thudichum

Johann Ludwig Wilhelm Thudichum, also known as John Louis William Thudichum (August 27, 1829, Büdingen – September 7, 1901) was a German-born physician and biochemist.

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Keto acid

Keto acids or ketoacids (also called oxo acids or oxoacids) are organic compounds that contain a carboxylic acid group and a ketone group.

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Lamellar phase

Lamellar phase refers generally to packing of polar-headed long chain nonpolar-tail molecules in an environment of bulk polar liquid, as sheets of bilayers separated by bulk liquid.

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Lanosterol is a tetracyclic triterpenoid and is the compound from which all animal and fungal steroids are derived.

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Lecithin (from the Greek lekithos, "egg yolk") is a generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues, which are amphiphilic – they attract both water and fatty substances (and so are both hydrophilic and lipophilic), and are used for smoothing food textures, dissolving powders (emulsifying), homogenizing liquid mixtures, and repelling sticking materials.

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Leukotrienes are a family of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) and the essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.

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Linoleic acid

Linoleic acid (LA), a carboxylic acid, is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid, an 18-carbon chain with two double bonds in cis configuration.

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Linolenic acid

Linolenic acid is a type of fatty acid.

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Linseed oil

Linseed oil, also known as flaxseed oil or flax oil, is a colourless to yellowish oil obtained from the dried, ripened seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum).

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A lipase is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids).

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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Lipid A

Lipid A is a lipid component of an endotoxin held responsible for the toxicity of gram-negative bacteria.

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Lipid bilayer

The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

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Lipid microdomain

Lipid microdomains are formed when lipids undergo lateral phase separations yielding stable coexisting lamellar domains.

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Lipid polymorphism

Polymorphism in biophysics is the ability of lipids to aggregate in a variety of ways, giving rise to structures of different shapes, known as "phases".

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Lipid signaling

Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses.

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Lipidomics is the large-scale study of pathways and networks of cellular lipids in biological systems The word "lipidome" is used to describe the complete lipid profile within a cell, tissue, organism, or ecosystem and is a subset of the "metabolome" which also includes the three other major classes of biological molecules: proteins/amino-acids, sugars and nucleic acids.

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Lipogenesis is the process by which acetyl-CoA is converted to fatty acids.

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Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

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A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in water, as in blood or extracellular fluid.

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A liposome is a spherical vesicle having at least one lipid bilayer.

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Liver X receptor

The liver X receptor (LXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors and is closely related to nuclear receptors such as the PPARs, FXR and RXR.

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Malonyl-CoA is a coenzyme A derivative of malonic acid.

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Mannose, packaged as the nutritional supplement "d-mannose", is a sugar monomer of the aldohexose series of carbohydrates.

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Membrane lipid

A membrane lipid is a compound which belongs to a group of (structurally similar to fats and oils) which form the double-layered surface of all cells (lipid bilayer).

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.

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In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.

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Methylmalonyl-CoA is the thioester consisting of coenzyme A linked to methylmalonic acid.

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Mevalonate pathway

The mevalonate pathway, also known as the isoprenoid pathway or HMG-CoA reductase pathway is an essential metabolic pathway present in eukaryotes, archaea, and some bacteria.

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Mevalonic acid

Mevalonic acid (MVA) is a key organic compound in biochemistry; the name is a contraction of dihydroxymethylvalerolactone.

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A micelle or micella (plural micelles or micellae, respectively) is an aggregate (or supramolecular assembly) of surfactant molecules dispersed in a liquid colloid.

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Michel Eugène Chevreul

Michel Eugène Chevreul (31 August 1786 – 9 April 1889) was a French chemist whose work with fatty acids led to early applications in the fields of art and science.

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Mineralocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which in turn are a class of steroid hormones.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Molecular configuration

The molecular configuration of a molecule is the permanent geometry that results from the spatial arrangement of its bonds.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Monoglycerides (also: acylglycerols or monoacylglycerols) are a class of glycerides which are composed of a molecule of glycerol linked to a fatty acid via an ester bond.

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Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.

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An N-acylethanolamine (NAE) is a type of fatty acid amide formed when one of several types of acyl group is linked to the nitrogen atom of ethanolamine.

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Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.

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Natural product

A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Non-mevalonate pathway

The non-mevalonate pathway—also appearing as the mevalonate-independent pathway and the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate/1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (MEP/DOXP) pathway—is an alternative metabolic pathway for the biosynthesis of the isoprenoid precursors isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP).

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Nuclear receptor

In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.

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Oleic acid

Oleic acid is a fatty acid that occurs naturally in various animal and vegetable fats and oils.

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An oligosaccharide (from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten) of monosaccharides (simple sugars).

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Omega-6 fatty acid

Omega-6 fatty acids (also referred to as ω-6 fatty acids or n-6 fatty acids) are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the ''n''-6 position, that is, the sixth bond, counting from the methyl end.

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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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Oxidative phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Oxysterols are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol which may be important in many biological processes, including.

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Palmitic acid

Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and microorganisms.

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Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall.

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A peroxisome is a type of organelle known as a microbody, found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.

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Phenolic lipid

Phenolic lipids are a class of natural products composed of long aliphatic chains and phenolic rings.

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A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Phosphatidic acid

Phosphatidic acids are phospholipids which on hydrolysis give rise to one molecule of glycerol and phosphoric acid and two molecules of fatty acids.

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Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are a class of phospholipids that incorporate choline as a headgroup.

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Phosphatidylethanolamines are a class of phospholipids found in biological membranes.

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Phosphatidylinositol consists of a family of lipids as illustrated on the right, a class of the phosphatidylglycerides.

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Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is a phospholipid and is a component of the cell membrane.

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Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.

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Phytomenadione, also known as vitamin K1 or phylloquinone, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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Phytosterols, which encompass plant sterols and stanols, are phytosteroids, similar to cholesterol, which occur in plants and vary only in carbon side chains and/or presence or absence of a double bond.

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There are two types of ether phospholipids, plasmanyl- and plasmenyl-phospholipids.

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The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.

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Polyketides are a class of secondary metabolites produced by certain living organisms in order to impart to them some survival advantage.

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Polyunsaturated fat

Polyunsaturated fats are fats in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds.

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Prenol, or 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, is a natural alcohol.

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Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).

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Propionyl-CoA is a coenzyme A derivative of propionic acid.

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The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein kinase C

Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC, is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.

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Protein–lipid interaction

Protein–lipid interaction is the influence of membrane proteins on the lipid physical state or vice versa.

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A protocell (or protobiont) is a self-organized, endogenously ordered, spherical collection of lipids proposed as a stepping-stone to the origin of life.

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The quinones are a class of organic compounds that are formally "derived from aromatic compounds by conversion of an even number of –CH.

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Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Retinol, also known as Vitamin A1, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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Saccharolipids describe compounds in which fatty acids are linked directly to a sugar backbone, forming structures that are compatible with membrane bilayers.

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Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant.

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Saturated and unsaturated compounds

In organic chemistry, a saturated compound is a chemical compound that has single bonds.

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Second messenger system

Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.

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Secondary metabolite

Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.

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A secosteroid (sec·o·ster·oid, sek'ō-stēr'oyd) is a type of steroid with a "broken" ring.

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Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Solid lipid nanoparticle

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are a new pharmaceutical delivery system or pharmaceutical formulation.

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Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.

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The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.

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A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.

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Sphingolipids are a class of lipids containing a backbone of sphingoid bases, a set of aliphatic amino alcohols that includes sphingosine.

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Sphingomyelin (SPH, ˌsfɪŋɡoˈmaɪəlɪn) is a type of sphingolipid found in animal cell membranes, especially in the membranous myelin sheath that surrounds some nerve cell axons.

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Sphingosine (2-amino-4-octadecene-1,3-diol) is an 18-carbon amino alcohol with an unsaturated hydrocarbon chain, which forms a primary part of sphingolipids, a class of cell membrane lipids that include sphingomyelin, an important phospholipid.

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Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a signaling sphingolipid, also known as lysosphingolipid.

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Squalene is a natural 30-carbon organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil (hence its name, as Squalus is a genus of sharks), although plant sources (primarily vegetable oils) are now used as well, including amaranth seed, rice bran, wheat germ, and olives.

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Stearic acid

Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid with an 18-carbon chain and has the IUPAC name octadecanoic acid.

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Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Δ-9-desaturase) is an endoplasmic reticulum enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the formation of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), specifically oleate and palmitoleate from stearoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA.

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A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.

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Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules.

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Stigmasterol (also known as Wulzen anti-stiffness factor) is a plant sterol, or phytosterol.

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Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Sunflower oil

Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil pressed from the seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

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Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects.

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The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes.

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Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.

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Tetracycline antibiotics

Tetracyclines are broad-spectrum antibiotics whose general usefulness has been reduced with the onset of antibiotic resistance.

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Theodore Nicolas Gobley

Theodore (Nicolas) Gobley, who first isolated, and ultimately determined the chemical structure of lecithin, the first identified and characterized member of the phospholipids class, and a pioneer researcher in the study and analysis of the chemical components of brain tissues, was born in Paris on 11 May 1811 and died in Bagneres-de-Luchon (a small city in central Pyrenees famous in the second half of the 19th century for its thermal waters) on 1 September 1876.

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Thiolysis is a reaction with a thiol (R-SH) that cleaves one compound into two.

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Thromboxane is a member of the family of lipids known as eicosanoids.

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Tocopherols (TCP) are a class of organic chemical compounds (more precisely, various methylated phenols), many of which have vitamin E activity.

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Trans fat

Trans fat, also called trans-unsaturated fatty acids or trans fatty acids, are a type of unsaturated fat that occur in small amounts in nature but became widely produced industrially from vegetable fats starting in the 1950s for use in margarine, snack food, and packaged baked goods and for frying fast food.

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A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).

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Unilamellar liposome

An unilamellar liposome is a spherical chamber/vesicle, bounded by a single bilayer of an amphiphilic lipid or a mixture of such lipids, containing aqueous solution inside the chamber.

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Unsaturated fat

An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain.

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Vegetable oil

Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.

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Vesicle (biology and chemistry)

In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.

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A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.

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Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.

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Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.

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Vitamin K

Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.

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A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.

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Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.

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Wax ester

A wax ester (WE) is an ester of a fatty acid and a fatty alcohol.

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William Prout

William Prout FRS (15 January 1785 – 9 April 1850) was an English chemist, physician, and natural theologian.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipid

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