98 relations: Absorption refrigerator, Aerosol spray, Air pollution, Alkylation, Aroma compound, ASME, Atmosphere of Earth, Autogas, Basement, Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion, Brazil, Butane, Butene, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chlorodifluoromethane, Chlorofluorocarbon, Cogeneration, Combustibility and flammability, Compressed natural gas, Electric heating, Energy density, Ethanethiol, Explosion, Filling carousel, Fire-resistance rating, Flammability limit, Fossil fuel, Fuel, Fuel efficiency, Fuel oil, Gas cylinder, Gas flare, Gas laws, Gasoline, Gasoline gallon equivalent, Global warming potential, Greenhouse gas, Grilling, Heat of combustion, Heating oil, Hong Kong, HVAC, Hydrocarbon, Hydrofluorocarbon, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Industrial gas, Internal combustion engine, Intumescent, ..., Isobutane, Joule, Kerosene, Kilowatt hour, List of countries by natural gas proven reserves, Load management, Methane, Middle class, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Natural gas, North America, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Octane rating, Off-the-grid, Oil refinery, Ozone depletion potential, Ozone layer, Particulates, Permissible exposure limit, Petroleum, POL valve, Pressure, Pressure vessel, Propane, Propene, Recommended exposure limit, Refrigerant, Relative density, Robert Bosch GmbH, Soot, Steel, Sulfur, Temperature, Tetraethyllead, Tetrahydrothiophene, The Hong Kong and China Gas Company, Thermal expansion, Thiol, United States, United States Environmental Protection Agency, University of New South Wales, Valve, Vapor pressure, Walter O. Snelling, Water pollution, Wobbe index, World LPG Association, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane. Expand index (48 more) » « Shrink index
An absorption refrigerator is a refrigerator that uses a heat source (e.g., solar energy, a fossil-fueled flame, waste heat from factories, or district heating systems) to provide the energy needed to drive the cooling process.
Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mist of liquid particles.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.
An aroma compound, also known as an odorant, aroma, fragrance, or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor.
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is a professional association that, in its own words, "promotes the art, science, and practice of multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences around the globe" via "continuing education, training and professional development, codes and standards, research, conferences and publications, government relations, and other forms of outreach." ASME is thus an engineering society, a standards organization, a research and development organization, a lobbying organization, a provider of training and education, and a nonprofit organization.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Autogas is the common name for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines in vehicles as well as in stationary applications such as generators.
A basement or cellar is one or more floors of a building that are either completely or partially below the ground floor.
A boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) is an explosion caused by the rupture of a vessel containing a pressurized liquid that has reached temperatures above its boiling point.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Butane is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms.
Butene, also known as butylene, is a series of alkenes with the general formula C4H8.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Chlorodifluoromethane or difluoromonochloromethane is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC).
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
Compressed natural gas (CNG) (methane stored at high pressure) is a fuel which can be used in place of gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and propane/LPG.
Electric heating is a process in which electrical energy is converted to heat.
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
Ethanethiol, commonly known as ethyl mercaptan, is a clear liquid with a distinct odor.
An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.
A filling carousel is intended for filling liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cylinders in large groups.
A fire-resistance rating typically means the duration for which a passive fire protection system can withstand a standard fire resistance test.
Mixtures of dispersed combustible materials (such as gaseous or vaporised fuels, and some dusts) and air will burn only if the fuel concentration lies within well-defined lower and upper bounds determined experimentally, referred to as flammability limits or explosive limits.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the ratio from effort to result of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work.
Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.
A gas cylinder or tank is a pressure vessel used to store gases at above atmospheric pressure.
A gas flare, alternatively known as a flare stack, is a gas combustion device used in industrial plants such as petroleum refineries, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants as well as at oil or gas production sites having oil wells, gas wells, offshore oil and gas rigs and landfills.
The gas laws were developed at the end of the 18th century, when scientists began to realize that relationships between pressure, volume and temperature of a sample of gas could be obtained which would hold to approximation for all gases.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) or gasoline-equivalent gallon (GEG) is the amount of alternative fuel it takes to equal the energy content of one liquid gallon of gasoline.
Global warming potential (GWP) is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Grilling is a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food, commonly from above or below.
The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.
Heating oil is a low viscosity, liquid petroleum product used as a fuel oil for furnaces or boilers in buildings.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), organic compounds that contain fluorine and hydrogen atoms, are the most common type of organofluorine compounds.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
Industrial gases are gaseous materials that are manufactured for use in Industry.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
An intumescent is a substance that swells as a result of heat exposure, thus increasing in volume and decreasing in density.
Isobutane, also known as i-butane or methylpropane, is a chemical compound with molecular formula HC(CH3)3.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.
This is a list of countries by natural gas proven reserves based on The World Factbook (when no citation is given).
Load management, also known as demand side management (DSM), is the process of balancing the supply of electricity on the network with the electrical load by adjusting or controlling the load rather than the power station output.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel.
Off-the-grid is a system and lifestyle designed to help people function without the support of remote infrastructure, such as an electrical grid.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of a chemical compound is the relative amount of degradation to the ozone layer it can cause, with trichlorofluoromethane (R-11 or CFC-11) being fixed at an ODP of 1.0.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
A POL valve (originally for Prest-O-Lite) is a gas connection fitting used on LPG cylinders.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
Propene, also known as propylene or methyl ethylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.
Relative density, or specific gravity, is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density of a given reference material.
Robert Bosch GmbH, or Bosch, is a German multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany.
Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Tetraethyllead (commonly styled tetraethyl lead), abbreviated TEL, is an organolead compound with the formula (CH3CH2)4Pb.
Tetrahydrothiophene is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH2)4S.
The Hong Kong and China Gas Company Limited, commonly known as Towngas, is the sole provider of towngas in Hong Kong.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The University of New South Wales (UNSW; branded as UNSW Sydney) is an Australian public research university located in the Sydney suburb of Kensington.
A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
Walter Otheman Snelling (December 13, 1880September 10, 1965) was a chemist who contributed to the development of explosives, ordnance, and liquefied petroleum gas.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
The Wobbe Index (WI) or Wobbe number is an indicator of the interchangeability of fuel gases such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and town gas and is frequently defined in the specifications of gas supply and transport utilities.
The World LPG Association (WLPGA) is the authoritative global voice for the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) industry and the worldwide industry association which represents the interests of the LPG industry globally.
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (also known as norflurane (INN), R-134a, Freon 134a, Forane 134a, Genetron 134a, Florasol 134a, Suva 134a, or HFC-134a) is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) but with insignificant ozone depletion potential and a somewhat lower global warming potential (1,430, compared to R-12's GWP of 10,900).
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