144 relations: Acetone, Acid, Acoustic dispersion, Adhesive, Amalgam (chemistry), Antimicrobial, Atmosphere (unit), Atmospheric pressure, Biological membrane, Bismuth, Bleach, Body fluid, Boiling point, Bragg peak, Bragg's law, Brake, Brillouin scattering, Bromine, Bubble (physics), Bulk modulus, Buoyancy, Caesium, Capillary action, Capillary wave, Carbon dioxide, Cavitation, Chemical element, Colloid, Compressibility, Condensed matter physics, Confined liquid, Crystallization, Density, Detergent, Diffusion, Diol, Dissipation, Drop (liquid), Dye laser, Elasticity (physics), Emulsion, Ethanol, Evaporation, Fluctuation-dissipation theorem, Fluid, Fluid dynamics, Fluid power, Fourier transform, Fractional distillation, Francium, ..., Galinstan, Gallium, Glass transition, Gravitational field, Gravity, Heat exchanger, Heavy equipment, HVAC, Hydraulic cylinder, Hydraulic press, Hydraulic pump, Hydraulics, Hypersonic speed, Incompressible flow, Ink, Inorganic nonaqueous solvent, Intermolecular force, International System of Units, Interstellar cloud, Isotropy, Italian dressing, Kramers–Kronig relations, Level sensor, Linear medium, Linear response function, Liquefaction of gases, Liquid crystal, Liquid helium, Liquid hydrogen, Liquid nitrogen, Liquid oxygen, Lubricant, Machining, Mayonnaise, Melting, Melting point, Mercury (element), Metalworking, Mineral oil, Miscibility, Mixture, Mode coupling, Molecule, Naphtha, Neutron diffraction, Nuclear reactor, Operating temperature, Order and disorder, Paint, Particle displacement, Pascal's law, Perspiration, Plasma (physics), Pressure, Pressure measurement, Propellant, Pump, Radial distribution function, Radiator, Rocket, Room temperature, Rubidium, S-wave, Sealant, Shear modulus, Sodium, Sodium-potassium alloy, Solution, Solvent, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, State of matter, Structure factor, Supercooling, Superheating, Surface tension, Surface wave, Surfactant, Suspension (chemistry), Thermal conductivity, Thermal expansion, Thermometer, Transmission (mechanics), Tribology, Vegetable oil, Vinaigrette, Viscoelasticity, Viscosity, Volume, Water hammer, Water level, Water wheel, Wetting, Work (physics), X-ray crystallography. Expand index (94 more) » « Shrink index
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acoustic dispersion is the phenomenon of a sound wave separating into its component frequencies as it passes through a material.
An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.
An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another metal, which may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
The Bragg peak is a pronounced peak on the Bragg curve which plots the energy loss of ionizing radiation during its travel through matter.
In physics, Bragg's law, or Wulff–Bragg's condition, a special case of Laue diffraction, gives the angles for coherent and incoherent scattering from a crystal lattice.
A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system.
Brillouin scattering, named after Léon Brillouin, refers to the interaction of light and material waves within a medium.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
A bubble is a globule of one substance in another, usually gas in a liquid.
The bulk modulus (K or B) of a substance is a measure of how resistant to compressibility that substance is.
In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Capillary action (sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, capillary effect, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity.
A capillary wave is a wave traveling along the phase boundary of a fluid, whose dynamics and phase velocity are dominated by the effects of surface tension.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Cavitation is the formation of vapour cavities in a liquid, small liquid-free zones ("bubbles" or "voids"), that are the consequence of forces acting upon the liquid.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, compressibility (also known as the coefficient of compressibility or isothermal compressibility) is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change.
Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.
In condensed-matter physics, confined liquid designates a liquid that is subject to geometric constraints on a nanoscopic scale so that most molecules are close enough to an interface to sense some difference from standard bulk conditions.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
A diol or glycol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (−OH groups).
Dissipation is the result of an irreversible process that takes place in homogeneous thermodynamic systems.
A drop or droplet is a small column of liquid, bounded completely or almost completely by free surfaces.
A dye laser is a laser which uses an organic dye as the lasing medium, usually as a liquid solution.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
The fluctuation–dissipation theorem (FDT) or fluctuation–dissipation relation (FDR) is a powerful tool in statistical physics for predicting the behavior of systems that obey detailed balance.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
Fluid power is the use of fluids under pressure to generate, control, and transmit power.
The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
Francium is a chemical element with symbol Fr and atomic number 87.
Galinstan is a brand-name and a common name for a liquid metal alloy whose composition is part of a family of eutectic alloys mainly consisting of gallium, indium, and tin.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
The glass–liquid transition, or glass transition, is the gradual and reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials), from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased.
In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids.
Heavy equipment refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations.
Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort.
A hydraulic cylinder (also called a linear hydraulic motor) is a mechanical actuator that is used to give a unidirectional force through a unidirectional stroke.
A hydraulic press is a device (see machine press) using a hydraulic cylinder to generate a compressive force.
Hydraulic pumps are used in hydraulic drive systems and can be hydrostatic or hydrodynamic.
Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.
In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that is highly supersonic.
In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric flow) refers to a flow in which the material density is constant within a fluid parcel—an infinitesimal volume that moves with the flow velocity.
Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.
An inorganic nonaqueous solvent is a solvent other than water, that is not an organic compound.
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
An interstellar cloud is generally an accumulation of gas, plasma, and dust in our and other galaxies.
Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").
Italian dressing is a vinaigrette-type of salad dressing in United States and Canadian cuisine, consisting of water, vinegar or lemon juice, vegetable oil, chopped bell peppers, usually sugar or corn syrup, and a blend of numerous herbs and spices including oregano, fennel, dill and salt.
The Kramers–Kronig relations are bidirectional mathematical relations, connecting the real and imaginary parts of any complex function that is analytic in the upper half-plane.
Level sensors detect the level of liquids and other fluids and fluidized solids, including slurries, granular materials, and powders that exhibit an upper free surface.
A linear medium is any medium which is intended to be written to or accessed in a linear fashion, literally meaning in a line.
A linear response function describes the input-output relationship of a signal transducer such as a radio turning electromagnetic waves into music or a neuron turning synaptic input into a response.
Liquefaction of gases is physical conversion of a gas into a liquid state (condensation).
Liquid crystals (LCs) are matter in a state which has properties between those of conventional liquids and those of solid crystals.
At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F).
Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen.
Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.
Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries—is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
Machining is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process.
Mayonnaise (also), informally mayo, is a thick cold sauce or dressing usually used in sandwiches and composed salads.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed.
In the term mode coupling, as used in physics and electrical engineering, the word "mode" refers to eigenmodes of an idealized, "unperturbed", linear system.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.
Neutron diffraction or elastic neutron scattering is the application of neutron scattering to the determination of the atomic and/or magnetic structure of a material.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.
In physics, the terms order and disorder designate the presence or absence of some symmetry or correlation in a many-particle system.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
Particle displacement or displacement amplitude is a measurement of distance of the movement of a particle from its equilibrium position in a medium as it transmits a second wave.
Pascal's law (also Pascal's principle or the principle of transmission of fluid-pressure) is a principle in fluid mechanics that states that a pressure change occurring anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid such that the same change occurs everywhere.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Pressure measurement is the analysis of an applied force by a fluid (liquid or gas) on a surface.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action.
In statistical mechanics, the radial distribution function, (or pair correlation function) g(r) in a system of particles (atoms, molecules, colloids, etc.), describes how density varies as a function of distance from a reference particle.
Radiators are heat exchangers used to transfer thermal energy from one medium to another for the purpose of cooling and heating.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.
Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.
In seismology, S-waves, secondary waves, or shear waves (sometimes called an elastic S-wave) are a type of elastic wave, and are one of the two main types of elastic body waves, so named because they move through the body of an object, unlike surface waves.
Sealant is a substance used to block the passage of fluids through the surface or joints or openings in materials, a type of mechanical seal.
In materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain: where The derived SI unit of shear modulus is the pascal (Pa), although it is usually expressed in gigapascals (GPa) or in thousands of pounds per square inch (ksi).
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium-potassium alloy, colloquially called NaK (commonly pronounced), is an alloy of two alkali metals sodium (Na, atomic number 11) and potassium (K, atomic number 19) and which is usually liquid at room temperature.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.
In condensed matter physics and crystallography, the static structure factor (or structure factor for short) is a mathematical description of how a material scatters incident radiation.
Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.
In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, or boiling delay) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling.
Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.
In physics, a surface wave is a mechanical wave that propagates along the interface between differing media.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power.
Tribology is the science and engineering of interacting surfaces in relative motion.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Vinaigrette is made by mixing an oil with something acidic such as vinegar or lemon juice.
Viscoelasticity is the property of materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.
Water hammer (or, more generally, fluid hammer, also called hydraulic shock) is a pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid, usually a liquid but sometimes also a gas, in motion is forced to stop or change direction suddenly, a momentum change.
Water level or gauge height or stage is the elevation of the free surface of a stream, lake or reservoir relative to a specified vertical datum.
A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.
Wetting is the ability of a liquid to maintain contact with a solid surface, resulting from intermolecular interactions when the two are brought together.
In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.